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Ch. XX.]




The advance of McDowell's corps oc- ed by Jackson's movement, determined, cupied Warrenton on the night of the on the 26th of August, to retire from 23d of August, and on the moruing of Warrenton, abandon the line of the the 24th, Sigel, supported by Reno and Rappahannock, and throw his whole Banks, crossed Great Run, and oc- force in the direction of Gainesville and cupied Sulphur Springs, under a heavy Manassas Junction, in order to crush the fire from the enemy's batteries on the enemy who had passed Thoroughfare

south side of the Rappahannock. Gap, and place his army between Lee

The bridge was rebuilt as soon and Jackson. Pope had received addi as possible, and Sigel pushed forward, tional troops from the Army of the Poto with the force sustaining him, in the mac, and was in a condition to strike a direction of Waterloo Bridge.

decisive blow. On the morning of the Jackson having been directed by 27th, he ordered McDowell to move Lee to get between Washington and rapidly forward on Gainesville by the Pope's army, and to break up his rail- Warrenton turnpike, with the troops road communications with the capital, under Sigel and Reynolds, some 40,000 made a détour, on the 25th, for that pur. in all. Reno and Kearney were ordered pose; he crossed the upper Rappahan- to move on Greenwich to support Mcnock at Hinson's Ford, and after a forced Dowell; and Pope himself took the march of thirty-five miles, bivouacked line of railroad towards Manassas, with at Salem, on the Manassas Gap Rail. Hooker's division. Porter's corps was road. The next day, passing through also to follow from Warrenton, as soon Thoroughfare Gap, he crossed Bull Run as he was relieved by Banks, and to Mountain, and before night of the same march on Gainesville. day, reached Bristow Station, on the On the afternoon of the 27th of Orange and Alexandria Railroad. Hav. August, a severe engagement occurred ing broken up the track as extensively between Hooker's force and Ewell's as possible, he sent Stuart with a body division of Jackson's troops. of cavalry and infantry to Manassas fought near Kettle Run, a few miles Junction, seven miles nearer to Wash- west of Bristow Station. Ewell was ington. Besides several hundred pri driven back along the railroad, with a soners and eight guns, Stuart obtained loss of 300 men in killed and wounded. possession of a very large amount of During the night he moved off entirely, commissary and quartermaster's stores, to rejoin Jackson at Manassas Junction. there being at the Junction supplies

McDowell's column reached Gainesvalued at not less than $1,000,000. ville that night, the 27th; Reno and The rebels set fire to the buildings, and Kearney also arrived at Greenwich the the next day our men found only smok- same night. Apparently, there was now ing ruins in place of the abundant sup. no escape for Jackson ; Lee was two plies gathered there for the support of days' march distant; his position was

critical and perilous; and Pope exulted Pope, finding that his right was turn in the prospect of being able to catch

It was

the army.

and destroy that shrewd commander that if they had followed his directions, who had done so much injury to the Jackson would have been utterly deUnion cause. “If," Pope said to Mc- feated. Dowell, in his order of the 27th, “ you On finding that Jackson had retreated will march promptly and rapidly at the from Manassas Junction, Pope, on the earliest dawn upon Manassas Junction, 28th of August, tried to correct his mis. we shall bag the whole crowd.” Jack take, by calling back McDowell and son, fully alive to his danger, had his directing him to march on Centreville. choice to retire by the same way by But, unhappily, much time had been which he came, through Thoroughfare lost, and it was not till late in the afterGap and Gainesville, or northwardly noon that King, of McDowell's division, by Centreville. He preferred the latter regained the Warrenton turnpike, and on every account, and during the night advanced toward Centreville. Jackson of the 27th, and morning of the 28th attacked King on the flank with great of August, he moved by Sudley impetuosity. The contest was sharp, Springs road across the Warrenton severe and bloody, attended with heavy turnpike, and took position on the high loss on both sides. During the night timber land north and west of Grove King withdrew his troops, by which ton, in the neighborhood of the battle course he left the Warrenton turnpike ground so famous at the opening of the open for Jackson to retire, or Longstreet rebellion.

to advance. Ricketts's division also, Pope's order to McDowell, just spok- which had been detached to watch en of, to move eastward upon Manassas Thoroughfare Gap, withdrew to Man: Junction, was a positive blunder; for assas. he ought to have held the line of the Sigel, who was in the neighborhood Warrenton turnpike at every hazard, of Groveton, was ordered to attack Jack. and not by retiring from it to allow son at daylight on the 29th. Jackson Jackson, by a move from Manassas was strongly posted, but Sigel began Junction to the north of the turnpike, the attack with spirit and determinathe opportunity of forming a junction tion, and in the course of the with Lee's advance. Consequently, forenoon he was joined by when Pope felt sure of catching Jack. Reno's, Hooker's and Kearney's troops. son, he found that the rebel chief had These latter arrived just in time, given him the slip; and Longstreet, on when both wings of our army were the evening of the 28th of August, about to be turned, and Sigel's force reached Thoroughfare Gap, and the next had suffered very severely. The day effected a junction with Jackson. fight raged furiously, and continued Pope, in his report, lays the blame through the day. At eight P.M., upon his officers, and accuses a number larger portion of the field was occupied of them not only of negligence and by our army, and night put an end to want of activity and spirit, but of dis- the battle. obedience of orders, and he is confident Pope is unqualified in his condemna


the li

Ch. XX.]



tion of Porter's course. He states, in Pope, supposing that the rebels were his report, that he ordered Porter to retreating, determined, not very wisely, advance upon Gainesville, early on the to try another day's struggle with Lee's 29th of August, and turn Jackson's forces, under the notion, as he phrases right, which was of the utmost import- it, that “ at least he would lay on such ance in the plans of Pope. But, as it blows as would cripple the enemy as turned out, before this could be done, much as possible, and delay, as long as Longstreet's corps had come up, and as practicable, any further advance toward early as ten o'clock in the morning he the capital.” Estimating his available had so arranged his troops as to stop force at this time at 40,000 men, Pope Porter's march upon Gainesville. Por undertook, on the afternoon of the 30th ter, as he affirms, acting under McDow. of August, to fight the second battle of ell's order, remained for the rest of the Bull Run or Manassas. We need not day in the position he had taken, Mor- enter into details. The rebels were ell's division being deployed against superior in numbers and in the general the foe, the other divisions being massed. effectiveness of their force; and the At half past four P.M., Pope states, that day's struggles and contendings resulthe sent express orders to Porter to ased in fearful slaughter and vain efforts sail the right flank and rear of the to drive back the foe. Hour after hour enemy. The order reached Porter the battle raged. The rebels attacked about dusk; but it was then too late Pope's left flank with tremendous force to attack, and, more than this, there and effect,* intending to seize the War. was now no chance for a turning move

questions in dispute between Pope and Porter. Our ment, since Longstreet had, as early as aim is to give the narrative truthfully and accurately, noon, taken position directly in Porter's and we believe that we have done so, irrespective of front. The attack under such circum. (see p. 186), quotes freely from rebel documents, pnb

persons or parties. Mr. Swinton, in a valuable note stances would have been futile, and was lished since the rebellion was put down, and establishes not attempted.

the fact that, by noon, Longstreet had his forces in

position so as completely to bar Porter's advance, as Pope, in his official report, made ordered by Pope. To obey such an order, at the time Jan. 27th, 1863, asserts, in the most it was received, was virtually impossible. Gen. Porter,

however, a number of months subsequent to this campositive manner, that there was no rea- paign, (in Jan. 1863), after having been in command son why Porter should not have turned of the defences of Washington, and sharing with his

corps in the battle at Antietam, was tried by a court Jackson's right flank, and thus secured martial at Washington for alleged disobedience of the victory. On the other hand, it is Pope's orders while under his command. The court only fair to remind the reader that, the brought in a verdict of guilty, and Porter was dismissstatements made above being correct, cord of this trial, and Porter's defence read to the Pope labored under grave error, and has court.

* Owing to a movement of Lee in making this at done great injustice to an officer who tack, Pope got the notion that the rebels were retreat had always heretofore, as the record ing from the field. He accordingly sent a telegram to

Washington, announcing that Lee and his army were shows, been found active, diligent and retreating to the mountains ;” this at once became faithful in the discharge of his duties.* public property, by means of the wires, throughout the renton Turnpike and cut off our army's Reno, Hooker and Kearney. The fight line of retreat. Towards the close of was not long, but while it lasted it the afternoon, our troops began to give was very sharp and fierce; the rebels way, and only by the firmness and were finally driven back with severe spirit of some battalions of regulars loss. In this engagement Ger. Stevens were they enabled to escape from rout was killed. Gen. Kearney also, by acand entire defeat. Night came

loyal states; but the brief gratification was speedily * We have neither time nor space to enter into the followed by mortification and disappointment.

Night came on, cident in the dark, when reconnoitring welcome now more than ever, and under at a critical moment, came near the cover of the darkness the dispirited, enemy's pickets and was shot. Both half-starved troops made their way were brave and excellent officers; the across Bull Run, by the Stone Bridge, latter especially was noted as one of and took up position on the high ground the most chivalrous and effective in the at Centreville. Lee did not attempt whole army. any pursuit that night.

Fredericksburg was evacuated by As no official record was ever made Burnside on the 1st of September; of the killed, wounded and prisoners Aquia Creek was also evacuated; on the part of Gen. Pope in this cam. and the day following, by Halleck's paign, or on that of the rebel command orders, the army fell back within the er, the severe losses on both sides can defences at Washington. Pope's career be estimated only approximately. Our in Virginia was ended, and Lee, giving loss was probably not short of 20,000 up the direct pursuit, made preparations men, and it may be doubted whether for an invasion of Maryland. the rebels did not suffer an equally Pope, unhappily, began his campaign heavy loss;—a sad commentary on the by foolish boasting; he thought himagonizing trial which rebellion had self competent to meet and orercome brought upon our native land.

the ablest generals of the rebels; and The next day, Sunday, Aug. 31st, in his self-confidence, he imagined that Pope asked for a truce to gather the he could sweep the whole field before wounded, which Lee refused. He was him. But he failed to sustain his preeager and anxious to follow up his tensions by the expected success; his present advantage, and accordingly sent campaign ended ingloriously, in loss Jackson forward toward Little River and confusion. It would be unfair to turnpike, to turn Pope's right and cut lay the entire blame upon Pope himoff his retreat. Pope, aware of this self. His officers, many of them at movement, fell back; and Jackson, de- least, did not entertain that respect for layed by a heavy storm, did not reach him personally, or for his abilities, which Pope's right till late in the afternoon of was requisite to anything like zealous September 1st, at which time he made

* McClellan, in a telegram to Halleck, on the night his appearance at Oxhill, near German. of the 31st of August, uses very sharplanguage respecttown. Jackson immediately began an ing Pope and his movements: “ To speak frankly, and

the occasion requires it, there appears to be a total ab attack, despite the storm and approach

sence of brains; and I fear the total destruction of the ing night; it was met by the troops under army."

Ch. XXI.)



and hearty co-operation with him; and least, he showed good sense, for at the 30 far as the army generally was con- earliest moment, Sept. 3d, he asked to cerned, he was not the man to inspire be relieved of his command; and, in a them with enthusiasm or spirit needful few days, he left Washington, and re. to give a commanding general full con- tired to the more congenial regions of trol over his troops. In one thing at the North-west.





Position of our forces in department of the Mississippi — Guerrilla warfare — Murfreesborough captured by

Forrest—Morgan's raid into Kentucky—Taking of Cynthiana–Pursuit of Morgan by G. C. Smith-Other places attacked-Kirby Smith enters Kentucky-Union defeat at Richmond-Legislature hastens to leave Frankfort—Gov. Robinson's proclamation-Kirby Smith's also-Excitement at Louisville and CincinnatiGen. Wallace and citizens of Cincinnati—Bragg's projected invasion of the North-west-Gen. Buell's movements and plans–McCook murdered by guerrillas-Clarksville and Gallatin—Morgan's victory—Guerrillas very bold—Instances — Bragg enters Kentucky-Affair at Munfordsville—Bragg's proclamation and address to the people of the North-west-Tone and effect of it-Gen. Morgan's retreat from Cumberland Gap-Gen. Buell at Louisville — Troops there — Buell sets out after Bragg — Battle at Perryville—McCook's corps— Bragg retreats—Efforts to secure his large spoils—Fruitless pursuit of him-Invasion a failure-Gen. Grant and Western Tennessee-Attempts of the rebels—Plans of Price against Grant and Buell—Iuka takenPlan of attack by Grant and Rosecrans-How carried out - Battle of luka-Rebels defeated_Van Dorn's and Price's attack on Corinth — Bloody battle — Our victory—Washburn's cavalry expedition—Dickey's march and success-Rebel raids-Grant's position and public expectations.


In a preceding chapter (see p. 179), was in command of the main body of we gave an account of the evacuation the army, to the east of Corinth, mov. of Corinth by Beauregard and his ing towards Chattanooga; Gen. Grant

forces, the capture of Memphis, held the line from Memphis to Iuka;

and other operations in the Gen. Curtis commanded the forces in South and West. The narrative was Arkansas, and Gen. Schofield in Southbrought down to the close of the month western Missouri. The rebels having of June and early part of July, when largely increased their forces by conGen. Pope was called to the East to scription, were resolved not only to reoctake command of the “ Army of Vir- cupy Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee and ginia," and Halleck was elevated to Kentucky, but to invade Ohio, Indiana the position of general-in-chief of the and Illinois, as their co-workers, under armies of the United States. Follow. Lee, were doing in Maryland and Penning upon these changes, military affairs sylvania. in the department of the Mississippi In carrying out their plans they purwere so arranged as that Gen. Buell posed employing extensively the guer

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