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on the 4th of August; but he was not having left Harrison's Landing, crossed allowed to proceed further. The policy the Chickahominy, marched to Wilof Halleck was adopted. On the 3d of liamsburg and Yorktown, and on the August, McClellan received a telegram, 20th of August, embarked for Aquia stating that the decision had been Creek, some forty miles from Washingmade; the army was ordered to with ton. In his report, McClellan speaks of draw from the Peninsula to Aquia the various services he was called on to Creek, and to unite with Pope.* render afterwards, in connection with

McClellan strore to have this order Pope's movements, and claims that all rescinded, He wrote to Halleck, the way through, “ he left nothing in August 4th : “to withdraw this army his power undone to forward supplies to Aquia Creek will prove disastrous and reinforcements to Gen. Pope."* to our cause. I fear it will be a fatal It will be remembered by the reader blow. Here, directly in front of that, in various operations in the West this

army, is the heart of this rebellion ; (see p. 142), Major-Gen. John Pope bad it is here that all our resources should shown himself possessed of zeal, energy be collected to strike the blow which and perseverance to a high degree, and will determine the fate of the nation. while acting under Halleck's command,

... I do now, what I never did in had been very successful in his attacks my life before, I entreat that this order upon the enemy. The qualities which may be rescinded.”

Halleck sent a he displayed seem to have struck the long reply, giving his views quite at attention and won the applause of the large, and stating his determination to directors of military affairs at Washingunite the divided portions of the army ton. The president, it is true, was a

Of course there was no alter. warm personal friend and admirer of native, and McClellan proceeded at once McClellan, and would probably have to obey the orders he so thoroughly been both willing and glad to have let disliked. The needful steps were taken him have control of warlike movements directly; the sick and wounded were against the rebels; but there was a sent off as rapidly as the means of trans- strong opposition to McClellan from portation allowed; and the entire army the beginning, and his policy was

sharply criticised, subjected to ridicule, * It is interesting as well as instructive to note the and condemned in no measured terms fact, that Lee was watching with great anxiety the probable course which McClellan would pursue, and he by those who had the management of took every available means to lead him to withdraw the army operations. When, then, his army and free Richmond from any danger of attack by way of the James River. So long as it was probable McClellan failed in the peninsular cam that McClellan would be reinforced and enter on a new paign, it was determined to put him campaign, Lee dared not move, he could not undertake elsewhere operations of any account. It is curious to see, in this instance of forcing the Army of the Potomac * On the other hand, Pope, in his report, affirms, away from its present position threatening Richmond, that a “small fraction of 20,500 men was all of the how fully Halleck was in accord with Lee ; how- 91,000 veteran troops from Harrison's Landing which most strangely-thes were both eager for the same ever drew trigger under his command, or in any way thing.

took part in that campaign " which he conducted

into one.

CH. XX.]




one side, and to try some other com- his troops together into such a position mander; it was determined to seek out as that, if the enemy descended the a general who should show a more Valley of the Shenandoah, he thought active, aggressive, “go-a-head” spirit he could interpose between their adthan McClellan had ever manifested, vance and main army and cut off the and who should not fail to march retreat. straight into the rebel capital. Pope McClellan's plan of operations on the seemed to be the very man, and Pope's line of the James River having been bold style of talking, his open censur- condemned, it was resolved to strengthing of McClellan's course, and his avow. en the Army of Virginia as much as ing a purpose of conducting the war in possible, by reinforcements drawn from Virginia in a way quite different from the Army of the Potomac and else that heretofore employed, gave rise to where. There was also now an oppor. great expectations as to what it was tunity afforded to Pope not only to cope that he said he was about to do. with the astute rebel chief, Lee, and to

Pope had been sent for in June, and drive him before him, but also to test was directed to assume command of the the worth of his bold words and assur “ Army of Virginia." The force thus ances. named was made up of the corps of On the 14th of July, Pope issued

Fremont, Banks and McDowell, an address to the army, which was noted

numbering in all about 38,000. for its inflated style, its bad taste, and The cavalry, an arm of the service, as its boastfulness of tone, and which, as the country was effectually taught, too a matter of course, on the close of his much neglected in these operations in brief campaign, brought down upon its Virginia, did not exceed 5,000, and was author a full measure of ridicule and for the most part badly mounted and scorn. “ I have come to you from the armed, and in poor condition for service. West, where we have always seen the Pope was enjoined by the government backs of our enemies—from an army to have special regard to covering the whose business it has been to seek the city of Washington from any attack adversary, and to beat him when found from the direction of Richmond, to —whose policy has been attack and secure the safety of the Shenandoah not defence. I presume that I have Valley, and to operate against the been called here to pursue the same enemy's lines of communication in the system, and to lead you against the direction of Gordonsville and Charlottes- enemy. It is my purpose to do so, and ville. The rebel commander being just that speedily. . Meantime, I desire now, at the close of June, fully occupied you to dismiss from your minds certain in the defence of Richmond, where Mc- phrases which I am sorry to find much Clellan was operating, Pope was at in vogue amongst you. I hear constantly liberty to place his troops in position of taking strong positions and holding such as he might think best for the them—of lines of retreat, and of bases next campaign. He accordingly brought of supplies. Let us discard such ideas. The strongest position a soldier should When the rebels became satisfied desire to occupy is one from which he that McClellan and his armiy would can most easily advance against the give them no further trouble by way enemy. Let us study the probable of the Peninsula, they were much elat. lines of retreat of our opponents, and ed, and resolved, by a rapid and enerleave our own to take care of themselves. getic movement, to march upon Pope, Let us look before, and not bebind. crush him and his force by sudden and Success and glory are in the advance. overwhelming blows, and then invade Disaster and shame lurk in the rear." Maryland, preparatory to a general in

Several orders, dated July 18th, in- vasion of the loyal states. Never be dicated the manner in which Pope pro. fore had so advantageous an opening posed to conduct the campaign. He been presented, and Gen. Lee was not announced, that henceforth the troops the man to let it slip away without should subsist on the country in which using it to the fullest extent.* Steps they were operating, compelling the were taken directly for the advance, people to furnish supplies. In order to and as the entire rebel force in and put a stop to the guerrilla mode of war. about Richmond was now probably not fare, he declared that the people in the less than 150,000 men, it is evident vicinity should be held responsible for how fiercely and confidently the assault any damage done to railroads or trains; would be made upon Pope and his that they should be compelled to repair army, the only obstacle in the way of all such damage; that if a soldier were removing the battle-ground from the fired upon from a house, such house soil of Virginia, and of carrying fire and should be rased to the ground; and sword into the loyal states. that any person detected in these out- In this condition of affairs, it was rages should be shot without waiting all-important to strengthen Pope iinme civil process. By another order, dated diately and as greatly as possible.

July 23d, he directed com- Burnside, on the 1st of August, left 1862,

manders to arrest all disloyal Newport News with his troops, and male persons, and if they refused to reached Aquia Creek on the 3d. Gen. take the oath of allegiance, to conduct Cox was also ordered from Western them south beyond our lines, and to warn them that if found within them if any person or persons suffered under Pope's orders


being made prisoners, and further it was declared, that at any time, they would be subjected one or more of our imprisoned officers was to be hung CH. XX.]

instanter. to the severest punishments.*

* Mr. Swinton quotes a passage from Lee's report, * These orders were supposed to allow, and were cer. which is worth noting :-" The corps of Gen. Burneid. tainly followed by, extensive pillaging and various dis-had reached Fredericksburg, and a part of Gen. Me graceful outrages. The ire of the rebel authorities Clellan's army was believed to have left Westover was greatly roused, and on the 1st of August, they not (Harrison's Landing) to unite with Pope. It therefore only used the stereotyped language about “the unjust seemed that active operations on the James were no and aggressive warfare hitherto waged with savage longer contemplated, and that the most effectual way cruelty against an unoffending people," but they threat to relieve Richmond from any danger of attack from ened the fullest retaliation. Pope and his officers that quarter would be to reinforce Gen. Jackson and were not to have any benefit of exchange, in case of l advance upon Gen. Pope."-See note on p. 206.




Virginia for the same purpose, leaving, pushed forward five miles south of for the time being, the line of the Culpepper, with Ricketts's division of Kanawha open to invasion by the McDowell's Corps three miles enemy. McClellan also was urged and in his rear. The corps of Sigel, pressed by Halleck to hasten forward which had marched all night, was halted reinforcements from the Army of the in Culpepper to rest for a few hours.

Potomac, and to afford every assistance On Saturday, Aug. 9th, the enemy ad. ! in his power to the general in com- vanced rapidly to Cedar Mountain, the

mand of the Army of Virginia.* With sides of which they occupied in heavy his army thus strengthened, and num- force. Banks was instructed to take bering between 50,000 and 60,000, Pope up his position on the ground occupied took the field in person, at the close the previous day, and also to defend it of July. The forces of Banks and Mc- against the enemy's assaults. Dowell were pushed forward beyond About five o'clock, P.m., the rebels the Rappahannock, and on the 7th of pushed forward a strong force in the August, numbering about 28,000, were rear of their own skirmishers, and assembled along the turnpike from Banks advanced to the attack. By Sperryville to Culpepper. Gen. Bu- six o'clock, the engagement became ford's cavalry, five regiments, covering general, and for an hour and a-half was the front, was advanced to Madison furious and unceasing; but Banks, Court House, with his pickets along though at great sacrifice, was able to the Rapidan on the right; and Gen. hold his position. Darkness put an Bayard's cavalry, four regiments, was end to the contest, although the artil. extended on the same river on the left. lery fire was continued at short range,

Jackson, who was at Gordonsville, without intermission, until midnight. having been reinforced by Lee on the Our troops rested on their arms dur2d of August, crossed the Rapidan on ing the night in line of battle; but Thursday the 7th, at Barnett's Ford, the action was not resumed. For, at and advanced towards Culpepper and daylight the next morning, the rebels Madison Court House. Bayard, who fell back two miles, and retired further was guarding the fords, fell back slow. up the mountain. Owing to fatigue ly, delaying the enemy's advance as and excessive heat, the men were allowmuch as possible. The forces of Banks ed to rest and recruit on Sunday, Aug. and Sigel, and one of the divisions of 10th, and the next day was spent prinMcDowell's corps, were rapidly concen- cipally in burying the dead. On Montrated at Culpepper during Friday and day night, Jackson retreated from the Friday night, Banks's corps being field, not being strong enough to reing. Our loss in killed, wounded and force with which Pope proposed this missing was about 1,800, besides a 1,000 operation had been increased by the or more stragglers; the rebel loss was addition of Reno's command, he did not reported, but was probably fully not attempt to carry it out, finding Lee equal to that on the Union side.

main where he was; whereupon BuOn the 4th of August, by direction of the presi. ford was sent with a cavalry and artildent, it was ordered, that a draft of 300,000 militia be immediately called into the service of the United States, lery force in pursuit; he followed the to serve for nine months, unless sooner discharged. The call was responded to with the usual readiness enemy to the Rapidan, over which they

passed about ten o'clock the next morn

and zeal of the loyal states.

VOL. IV.-27

less impressed than he should have A few days after Jackson's retreat to been with the apparition of Pope 'ly. Gordonsville, he was joined by the van ing off on his flanks.?” * of Lee's army, under Longstreet, with Lee, having advanced his forces to Stuart's cavalry. Pope, having receiv- the Rappahannock, attempted to cross cd considerable reinforcements, held the the river, but Pope covered the fords line of the Rapidan, with Sigel on the effectually, and prevented this moveright, McDowell in the centre, at Cedar ment. An artillery fire was kept up Mountain, and Reno on the left. for two days, the 21st and 22d, across Banks's shattered corps was at Cul- the river, but to no material purpose. pepper. It being presently ascertained Lee then left Longstreet opposite the that the enemy were advancing in fords, in order to make a turning movegreatly superior numbers, Pope retired ment by Jackson on Pope's right by with his forces, on the 19th of August, way of Warrenton.t Pope thereupon to the north bank of the Rappahan- determined to recross the Rappahannock, in the vicinity of Kelly's Ford nock, and “fall furiously, with his and Rappahannock station, on the rail- whole army," upon the flank and rear road. “This,” says Mr. Swinton, “was of the enemy's long column which was a judicious measure on the part of Gen. passing up the river. A severe storm, Pope; but it was not carrying out his however, on the night of the 22d, preown principles. In expounding before vented this projected attack; and the the war committee, a month before this head of Jackson's column, which had time, what he proposed doing, be held crossed at Sulphur or Warrenton the following language: ‘By lying off Springs, on the 22d of August, was on their flanks, if they should have only compelled to recross the Rappahannock, forty or fifty thousand men, I could which was done the following night, whip them.

If they should have the bridges being at the same time seventy thousand or eighty thousand destroyed. men, I would attack their flanks, and

* " Army of the Potomac," p. 176. force them, in order to get rid of me,

+ On the night of the 22d of August, Stuart, with a to follow me out into the mountains; body of 1,500 horsemen, managed to cross the river which would be what you want, 1 above, and to reach Catlett's Station on the railroad,

despite the storm which was raging, and the interse should suppose. They would not darkness

. Here he surprised the gnard, who appear march on Washington with me lying

to have been shamefully negligent of their duty, cut

the railroad communication, captured 300 prisoners, to with such a force as that on their flanks.' gether with Pope's official papers and effects. Having Now, though the force which Lee had effected his object, and proved the truth of Pope's at this time did not exceed the smallest Stuart and his band, soon after daylight on the 23d, re

words, that “ disaster and shame lurk in the rear," of these hypothetical numbers, and the turned to Warrenton.

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