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against Butler's action, as a violation stances, the well dressed young girls, of treaty rights, etc. The reply was the women of old wealthy families, somewhat sharp and decisive in tone, these manifested such spitefulness of and gave these gentlemen to understand temper, and behaved themselves tothat they must mind their own proper wards our officers and men in such business, and not undertake to give aid wise as that it speedily became altoin any way to the rebel cause. M. gether intolerable. No indignity that Couturié wrote to Washington, and the could be thought of by these Nicor Or. Netherlands minister made loud com- leans “ladies” was left untried; such plaint as to the indignity to which the as insulting gestures, upturned noses, consul had been subjected; whereupon minute rebel flags on their persons, even Mr. Seward sent the Hon. Reverdy at last spitting in the faces of the Union Johnson to New Orleans, as a special soldiers and upon their uniforms. Of commissioner, to investigate the whole course, such a state of things could not matter. On his report the money was be allowed to continue; it must be given up to those who claimed it as stopped at once, and that effectively. foreign property, and Gen. Butler had a But how to do it, was not so easy to great deal of trouble with very little determine. The women could not be satisfaction. The consuls generally in subjected to the same or similar punishNew Orleans made themselves tho ments with the men; and Butler, after roughly disagreeable; but they soon considerable study, prepared bis genefound that Butler was a man who ral order, No. 28, which, as it became would put up with no nonsense or pro- somewhat famous afterwards, we give clivities towards rebellion.*

to the leader in full : _“As the The intensified bitterness of feeling officers and soldiers of the United on the part of the New Orleans rebels, States have been subject to repeated inand the daily mortification which came sults from the women (calling themselupon their pride and haughty boast. ves ladies) of New Orleans, in return ings, we bave before alluded to. This for the most scrupulous non-interference feeling cannot, in fact, be described; it and courtesy on our part, it is ordered, can hardly be imagined. Open acts of that hereafter, when any female shall, violence, as they occurred, were prompt by word, gesture, or movement, insult, ly punished; and the men for the most or show contempt for any officer or sol. part, abusive as they might show them- dier of the United States, she shall be selves, had to satisfy their hatred by regarded, and held liable to be treated, mutterings and a sort of sullen black- as a woman of the town plying her guardism. The women, however, es- avocation.” That is, every woman of pecial the women in good circum- the town, behaving as every such miser

able being does, was liable, according * Mr. Parton gives a long and interesting chapter, to the laws of New Orleans, to be arwith documents, respecting the foreign consuls and their conduct in New Orleans. See Parton's " Gen. rested, imprisoned for the night in the Butler in New Orleans," pp. 354–406.

calaboose, and next morning to be fined

CH. XVII.)

BUTLER'S FAMOUS ORDER No. 28.

187

1862.

$5 by the magistrate. No decent wo- others like him, to Fort Jackson, and man would for a moment expose herself placing the city under martial rule. to such degradation. Whatever may Beauregard seized upon the opportunity, be thought of Butler's choice of phra- and almost surpassed himself in the seology, the effect of the order was proclamation which he issued; ihe immediate; and its success complete. governor of Louisiana discoursed upon Thenceforward, the “ladies” of New so stirring a theme as guarding “the Orleans found it best to confine the evi-chastity of our women,” and “recoil. dences of their feelings of enmity withing in horror from the panderer to lust in bounds, and to behave themselves in and desecrator of virtue;" in various the streets and in public with tolerable parts of the North, Butler was sharply propriety.*

and bitterly criticized ; and even our Unfortunately, as it turned out, there very neutral friends in England felt was a bad, vile sense which could be bound to call the order“ infamous," and put upon the language of the latter to sneer expressively at “ the model part of the order, by such as wished to Republic."* do so, as if Butler had deliberately or- On a previous page (see p. 157), we dered his officers and troops to commit mentioned the execution of Mumford the grossest outrage which can be con- for an act of daring outrage upon the ceived of. The order became famous United States flag, on the 27th all over the country; Mayor Monroe of April. The execution took was immediately horrified, and wrote place on the 7th of June, and it is notoin the greatest haste to Gen. Butler ;t worthy as the first instance in the hisothers joined with him, for the purpose tory of the government, of a military of getting the order rescinded; which re-trial and conviction for such an offence. sulted in the sending his Honor, and This severe meting out of justice was

followed, a few days afterward, by the * It deserves to be stated, in this connection, that in no instance was the order misunderstood on the part of execution of four persons, named Clary, the troops, and not one arrest under Order No. 28 was Roy, Crage and Newton. Clary had ever made. + Butler's note addressed to the mayor requires, as a

been second officer of a United States matter of justice, to be quoted :—“Sir–There can be, transport, Crage had been first officer there has been, no room for misunderstanding of gene of the ship City of New York, Newton strange gentleman, and a fortiori of a stranger, in such had been a private in the army, and form as to attract attention. Therefore, whatever woman, lady or mistreen, gende Roy belonged to New Orleans. These or simple, who, by gesture, look or word, insults, shows men, with several others, formed an orcontempt for, thus attracting to herself the notice of ganized gang of thieves, who, under my officers and soldiers, will be deemed to act as becomes

pretended forged authority of Gen. Buther vocation of common woman, and will be liable to be treated accordingly. This was most fully explained to you at my office. I shall not, as I have not, abated a * Pollard's language is unusually violent about "the single word of that order ; it was well considered. If Beast,” the "vulgar and drunken Butler,” the “order obeyed, it will protect the true and modest woman from which stigmatized as prostitutes the ladies of New Or. all possible insult. The others will take care of theni- leans,” the infamous plundering, lying, harlotry and selves. You can publish your letter if you publish the like, by our officers and soldiers, etc., eực.—“ Second this note, and your apology."

Year of the War," pp. 17-21.

1862.

This was

ler, and disguising themselves in uni. New Orleans, the national flag was forms of United States soldiers, entered raised, with expressions of Union feel. and searched various houses, and stole ings on the part of a portion of the inall the money, jewelry and everything habitants, and the arsenal and other else they could lay hands upon. On public property were taken possession being arrested, they were tried and of by Capt. Palmer of the Iroquois, on convicted, and Butler sentenced them be the 8th of May. On the 12th, Natchez hung. The sentence was carried into ex. was visited, but as it was a position of ecution on the 16th of June. The effect no military importance no steps were was salutary upon the minds of both re- taken to occupy it. About a week bels and Union men in New Orleans. later, Commander Lee, with the advance

Abating none of his zeal, Butler was of the squadron, arrived near Vicksdiligent in enforcing the confiscation burg, and under orders from Commoact of Congress, July 17th ; he seized dore Farragut and Gen. Butler, demand. upon 6,000 arms of various descriptions cd the surrender of the place in private hands; and he made numer and its defences. ous efforts to benefit the blacks—res- peremptorily refused by the city authopecting whom the government had not rities. Farragut arrived shortly after, yet adopted a definite line of policy with a body of troops under General -by enlisting many of them into the Williams, and was followed by an ad. United States service, etc. Outside of ditional naval and military force, includ. the city, and in other parts of the de. ing Porter's mortar flotilla, which bad partment of the Gulf, he strove to been withdrawn from its proposed accomplish something; but the lack of theatre of operations on the Gulf. The reinforcements, and the reverses to our fortifications at Vicksburg, consisting arms in Virginia during the summer, pre- of an extensive range of batteries ou vented his doing all that he purposed.

the heights, the town being built on a It will be remembered that Commo- bluff rising to a considerable elevation dore Farragut, immediately after the above the river, were not very readily capture of New Orleans and its occu- to be assailed by the guns of the squad. pation by Butler (see p. 158), availed ron. In fact, the reduction of the place, himself of the desired opportunity to which was capable of easy reinforce

the Mississippi. He sent ment from its railroad connections with detachinents of his squadron to take the interior, was speedily ascertainpossession of the principal places, and ed to be an undertaking of no slight to clear the way for the opening of the difficulty.* river throughout its entire course. This * Butler's scheme, by which the Mississippi was to was to be accomplished by co-operation be turned from its course and Vicksburg made an inwith Commodore Davis, who was ad- membered, is situato opposite a peninsula

, on the other

land town, was a failure. Vicksburg, it will be re vancing from above Memphis towards side of the river, some three miles long by a mile wide, Farragut's fleet below.

formed by the Mississippi doubling on its own course.

Butler's plan was to cut a canal across this peninsula At Baton Rouge, 140 miles above and persuade the river into a new channel; but the

advance up

CH. XVII]

DESTRUCTION OF THE KAM ARKANSAS.

189

Farragut determined to pass the bat. than 2,000 effective men, Gen. William's teries at Vicksburg. Accordingly, on being in command. the 28th of June, he did so, early in Aware of the approach of the enemy, the morning, and eight out of the ten on the 4th of August, Gen. Williams vessels under orders reached a part of placed his troops in position outside the Davis's fleet above, at the mouth of the town, and the next morning the rebels Yazoo River. Davis joined Farragut appeared. The ram Arkansas, having at once above Vicksburg. The rebel repaired damages, was a short distance ram Arkansas had been carried up the above, expecting to take part in the Yazoo River in May, and Col. Ellet encounter. The attacking force was went to look after and if possible de- estimated at 6,000 wen; Williams had stroy her; but he was unsuccessful. only about one-third that number in On the 15th of July, the Arkansas, good condition, but many of those on completely iron-clad, and with ten guns, the sick list joined their comrades on steamed down the Yazoo, dashed in the field, and fought with their accusamong our gun boats and other vessels, tomed bravery. Our limits do not and finally arrived in safety under the admit of giving details; suffice it to fortifications of Vicksburg.

say, that for five hours, under a blazing Annoyed at this, Farragut the same sun, the battle raged, and with the aid evening, repassed the batteries, intend of the

gun

boats the rebels were defeating to bombard the Arkansas in passed. Exhaustion and the intense heat ing; but the darkness prevented his rendered it impossible to pursue the carying out his plan. As the water in enemy to any purpose. Gen. Williams the Mississippi was falling, Farragut was killed in the thickest of the fight, dropped down the river and reached and our entire loss was reported to be New Orleans, July 28th. Davis sailed nearly 300. up the river, and in conjunction with The ram Arkansas, part of her maGen. Curtis, made a successful expedi- chinery being out of order, did not tion up the Yazoo River.

engage in the fight; but the next mornFor the present, at least, nothing fur-ing, Commander W. D. Porter, in the ther could be done with Vicksburg, and Essex, determined to make another the rebels determined to regain posses- effort for her destruction. Accordingly, sion of Baton Rouge. The ram Arkan- as he writes in an off hand way to Farsas was to attack our few gun boats at ragut :-“This morning (August 5th) the place, while Breckenridge from I steamed up the river; and at ten A.M. Camp Moore was to assault it by land. attacked the rebel ram Arkansas, and Our force at Baton Rouge, at the be blew her up. There is not a fragment ginning of August, was weak, not more of her left. Her engines having given

way, the ram was backed on shore and soil of tough clay and the low state of the water show. set on fire, and the crew, to the number ed that the plan was impracticable. Vicksburg there of about 200, escaped.” fore remained as it was, a formidable rebel post, requiring immense effort and labor to subdue.

The district of Lafourche, southwest

1862.

of New Orleans, which has been termed portant combats, Weitzel obtained, in the garden of Louisiana, for its richness, some four days, complete possession of was occupied by staunch secessionists, the entire district. Butler, with his usual who hated the United States heartily, promptitude, applied the confiscaand utterly detested the commanding tion act of July, 1862, to the general of the Gulf department and his Lafourche district, and by this, as well doings. In the month of May, Col. as other measures, caused the United Kinsman visited Lafourche district, and States authority to be felt and respected gave the people significant warning of by the inhabitants. what was in store for them if they re- For some reasons never made public, sisted the authority of the United but not difficult to imagine, the governStates. Col. Keith, at a later date, was ment had determined, early in Novem. in the same region, hunting after those ber, to recall Gen. Butler, and place wretches known as guerrillas, and by Gen. Banks in command, adding Texas his promptitude in administering justice, to the department of the Gulf. Butler, repeated the warnings previously given. unaware of this, was as busy as ever, In the latter part of October, it was hoping and praying for reinforcements; determined by Gen. Butler to send an but on the evening of December 14th, expedition into this region and bring it Gen. Banks arrived at New Orleans, directly under his control. General and made known to Butler that his Weitzel was placed in command of the services were no longer required in the forces, a brigade of infantry and the re- department. On the 24th, Butler left quisite artillery and cavalry. By rapid New Orleans and returned to the North; movements, a spirited and successful Banks having entered upon his duties action at Labadieville, and some less im. on the 16th of December.

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