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defended Fort Sumter for thirty-four war this day commenced will end; but hours, until the quarters were entirely I will prophesy, that the flag which burned, the main gates destroyed by now flaunts the breeze here will float fire, the gorge wall seriously injured, over the dome of the old Capitol at the magazine surrounded by flames Washington before the first of May. and its doors closed from the effects of Let them try Southern chivalry and the beat, four barrels and three car- test the extent of Southern resources, tridges of powder only being available, and it may float eventually over Faneuil and no provisions but pork remaining, Hall itself !” I accepted terms of evacuation offered Language cannot portray, in fitting by General Beauregard, being the same manner, the painful anxiety with which offered by him on the 11th inst., prior the news of the bombardment of Sumto the commencement of hostilities, and ter was looked for at the North, during marched out of the fort, Sunday after Saturday and Sunday, the 13th noon, the 14th inst., with colors flying and 14th of April. “The startand dru:ns beating, bringing away ling aud apparently improbable statecompany and private property, and ments received by the telegraph of the saluting my flag with fifty guns.—Ro- danger to the fort, which had been BERT ANDERSON.

pronounced impregnable, and the se Great and loudly expressed in South curity of the besiegers who seemed to Carolina and elsewhere was the exulta- bear a charmed life in the midst of tion over the bombardment and sur fiery perils; the expectation of succor render of Fort Sumter. Governor Pick- from the fleet dashed by the waves of ens, who had for some time professed the storm which prevented its action , himself ready to “strike the blow, let the successive messages of disaster with it lead to what it might, even if it led the strange, almost incredible, announce to blood and ruin,” now dared to say, ment that the fort was in flames, end“Thank God! the day is come; thank ing with the final word of surrender, God! the war is open, and we will con- produced a strange feeling of perplexquer or perish.” Mr. L. P. Walker, the ity in the minds of the people.”* But rebel secretary of war, at Montgomery, now, the deadly stab having been Alabama, burst forth in words like made, there was no longer time for these :—“No man can tell where the hesitation or mere words. Up to this

point, threats, and bravado, and pillage According to rebel accounts, not a life was lost of public property, and such like, bad during the whole progress of the siege and assault. It been endured; but now, when traitorwas also stated that none were killed in the fort by the enemy's fire. If these accounts are correct, of which ous sons dared assail the flag of our there seems no good reason to doubt, the assault and country and its defenders, it was felt defence of Fort Sumter were among the most noteworthy of their kind in the history of modern warfare. instinctively that the life of the nation For the rebels had fourteen batteries in action, mount- was at stake. Action must be taken; ing forty-two heavy guns and mortars ; 2,360 shot and 980 shells were thrown; and in the works were 3,000 men, and between 4,000 and 5,000 in reserve

* Duyckink's “ War for the Union," vol. i., p. 125

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immediate action must be had to assert observed, consistently with the objects and enforce the “supreme law of the aforesaid, to avoid any devastation, any land.”

destruction of, or interference with, proPresident Lincoln was prompt and perty, or any disturbance of peaceful decisive in this great emergency, and citizens of any part of the country; and immediately issued a proclamation in I hereby command the persons compos. the following words :

ing the combinations aforesaid, to dis“ WHEREAS, the laws of the United perse, and retire peaceably to their States have been for some time past, respective abodes, within twenty days and now are opposed, and the exe- from this date. cution thereof obstructed, in the states “Deeming that the present condition of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, of public affairs presents an extraordinFlorida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and ary occasion, I do hereby, in virtue Texas, by combinations too powerful of the power in me vested by the to be suppressed by the ordinary Constitution, convene both houses of course of judicial proceedings, or by the Congress. The Senators and Represen. powers vested in the marshals by law : tatives are, therefore, summoned to asnow, therefore, I, ABRAHAM LINCOLN, semble at their respective chambers at President of the United States, in vir. 12 o'clock, noon, on Thursday, the 4th tue of the power in me vested by the day of July next, then and there to Constitution and the laws, have thought consider and determine such measures fit to call forth, and hereby do call as, in their wisdom, the public safety forth, the militia of the several states and interest may seem to demand. of the Union to the aggregate number “In witness whereof, I have hereunof 75,000, in order to suppress said to set my hand, and caused the seal of combinations and to cause the laws to the United States to be affixed. be duly executed. The details for this “Done at the City of Washington, object will be immediately communi. this 15th day of April, in the year of cated to the state authorities through our Lord, one thousand eight hundred the war department. I appeal to all and sixty-one, and of the independence loyal citizens to favor, facilitate, and of the United States the eighty-fifth. aid this effort to maintain the honor,

“ABRAHAM LINCOLN.” the integrity, and existence of our na- Accompanying the proclamation were tional Union, and the perpetuity of requisitions from the war department popular government, and to redress upon the governors of twenty - four wrongs already long enough endured. I states, the seven seceded states being deem it proper to say, that the first ser. omitted, and California, Oregon and vice assigned to the forces hereby called Kansas being passed over as too distforth, will probably be to repossess the ant. These were called upon to furnish forts, places, and property which have their respective quotas of militia-men been seized from the Union; and in for three months' service.* The replies every event the utmost care will be

* The largest apportionments were, to New York 13,280 ; to Pennsylvania, 12,500 ; to Ohio, 10,153; the *"The proclamation was received at Montgomery least, to eleven of the less populated States, was 780. with derisive laughter; the newspapers were refreshed


of the governors indicated the general stitutional, and revolutionary in its ob

sentiment of the people on the jects, inhuman and diabolical, and can

momentous issues at stake. not be complied with. Not one man From the northern and western states will the state of Missouri furnish to the answers came promptly, and evinc carry on such an unholy crusade.” Goved the loyalty and determined spirit ernor Magoffin, of Kentucky, replied: existing in the bosoms of those who lov. “Your dispatch is received. In aned and were determined to sustain the swer, I say, emphatically, Kentucky Union. The governors of Maryland will furnish no troops for the wicked and Delaware endeavored to hold a purpose of subduing her sister southmiddle ground, and were not prepared ern states.” Governor Ellis, of North to act very decidedly; but in the other Carolina, expressed himself in no mod. border states, there was no attempt to erate terms: “I can be no party to disguise their sentiments and their de. this wicked violation of the laws of termination not to aid the government the country, and to this war upon the in any way whatsoever. Governor liberties of a free people. You can Letcher, of Virginia, wrote:– “The get no troops from North Carolina." militia of Virginia will not be furnish Governor Rector, of Arkansas, was ed to the powers at Washington for equally violent and peremptory: “In any such use or purpose as they have answer to your requisition for troops in view. Your object is to subjugate from Arkansas, to subjugate the souththe southern states, and a requisition crn states, I have to say, that none made upon me for such an objectman will be furnished. The demand is object, in my judgment, not within the only adding insult to injury.” Govpurview of the Constitution or the act of ernor Harris, of Tennessee, replied : 1795—will not be complied with. You“ Tennessee will not furnish a single have chosen to inaugurate civil war; man for coercion, but 50,000, if necesand having done so, we will meet it in sary, for the defence of our rights or a spirit as determined as the Admin- those of our southern brethern." * istration has exhibited toward the Immediately following upon PresiSouth."* Governor Jackson, of Missouri, dent Lincoln's proclamation, Jefferson spoke even more strongly: “No doubt Davis, at Montgomery, Alabama, on these men are intended to make war the 17th of April, professing himself upon the seceded states.

seceded states. Your requisi- convinced that the United States were tion, in my judgment is illegal, uncon- about to invade “this confederacy with

* W. H. Russell, the London Times' correspondent, with the Lincolniana of styling sovereign states 'un. writing in his “ Diary,” Charleston, April 20th, 1861 lawful combinations' and warning a people standing (p. 123), says: “The secessionists are in great delight on their own soil to return within twenty days to their with Governor Letcher's proclamation, calling out 'homes ;' and, in Virginia, the secessionists were hightroops and volunteers; and it is hinted that Washing- ly delighted at the strength Mr. Lincoln had unwitton will be attacked, and the nest of Black Republican tingly or perversely contributed to their cause "-"Hirst vermin, which haunt the capital, be driven out.” Year of the Wur,” p. 59.

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an armed force, for the purpose of cap- passage—the last of all—as a memoraturing its fortresses, and thereby sub- ble specimen of mingled assurance and verting its independence, and subjecting audacity: “We feel that our cause is the free people thereof to the dominion just and holy. We protest solemnly, of a foreign power,” issued a proclama in the face of mankind, that we desire tion, marking out the deadly plan he peace at any sacrifice, save that of honor. had in view, and “inviting all those in independence we seek no conquest, who may desire, by service in private no aggrandizement, no cession of any armed vessels on the high seas, to aid kind from the states with which we this government in resisting so wanton have lately confederated. All we ask and wicked an oppression, to make ap- is to be let alonethat those who never plications for commissions or letters of held power over us shall not marque and reprisal, to be issued under now attempt our subjugation by the seal of these Confederate States." arms. This we will, we must resist, to

This insolent proposition was met the direst extremity. The moment that by another proclamation from President this pretension is abandoned, the sword Lincoln, April 19th, declaring a block. will drop from our grasp and we shall ade of the ports of the seceded states, be ready to enter into treaties of amity and subjecting the privateers in the and commerce that cannot but be murebel service to the laws for the preventually beneficial. So long as this pretion and punishment of piracy. Some tension is maintained, with a firm reliten days afterwards, Davis addressed ance on that Divine power which covers the Confederate Congress, and affected with its protection the just cause, we to doubt whether the proclamation will continue to struggle for our inherwere authentic or not. He stigmatized ent right to freedom, independence, and Mr. Lincoln's course in no measured self-government.” terms, and could not bring himself to Up to this point, the government had believe that President Lincoln was pre- decided, in part at least, upon its course pared to “inaugurate a war of extermin. of action, and had begun to make some ation on both sides, by treating as pi. preparation for the inevitable issues at rates open enemies acting under commis- stake. How imperfect this preparation sions issued by an organized govern. was, how inadequate the appreciation ment.” He also stated, that there were of what was before our country to do 19,000 men in the various places seized and to endure, how insufficient the sense upon by the rebels, and 16,000 more entertained of what the rebels meant, on their way to Virginia, and that in and were able to accomplish, the rapid view of the present exigencies 100,000 progress of events ere long demonstratmen were to be organized and held in ed. We may reverently thank God, readiness for instant action. It was in that, in this hour of bitter trial, neither this address that Davis's desire “to be government nor people were found let alone" occurs, and we quote the wanting.




Position of Virginia at this date - Efforts and success of secessionists — Virginia lost to the Union – Harper's

Ferry — Attack on by rebels, and burning of arsenal by order of the government - The Navy Yard at Gosport — Its value and importance — Great loss of property, etc., to the United States - Exultations of the rebels — Eagerness to attack Washington — Preparation on part of the government Baltimore - Riot, and attack on the troops — The New York Seventh — Gen. Butler and Annapolis -- His energetic course in Maryland — Conduct of Gov. Hicks - Gen. Cadwalader in Maryland - Habeas corpus suspension — Chiefjustice Taney's course — Gen. Banks in command — His action – Gen. Dis succeeds – Immense gathering in New York — Speeches by Prof. Mitchel and others — Patriotism of our countrywomen — Affairs during month of May- Proclamation of the President calling for more troops — Activity of secessionists - Movement of troops into Virginia — Ellsworth’s death at Alexandria — Rebels alarmed at attitude of the North - Davis and his schemes and efforts — His Address to Confederate Congress — Intended uses of it Action of Confederate Congress — Davis goes to Richmond — His speech - Beauregard in Virginia - His insolent and abusive words — Efforts to prepare for advance of Union troops – Skirmishes, etc., — Lieut Tompkins at Fairfax Court House - Rebels routed at Philippi and Romney – Harper's Ferry abandoned by rebels — Gen. Butler and Big Bethel — Failure of the expedition — Negroes contraband of war — Gen. Schenck at Vienna in Virginia - Forces on the Potomac at close of the month of June - Spirit and expectations of the people at the time — Closing scenes in the life of Senator Douglas.


The position of Virginia, as one of expressed their sentiments and wishes the largest and most important of the freely and deliberately, they would border states, rendered it especially de- have cast their lot with the supporters sirable for the rebel conspirators to se of the Constitution and laws. But cure control over it, and to gain all the Davis, and his fellow laborers in a had prestige arising out of connecting her cause, were determined at all hazards

destinies with those of the new to prevent any such result. By auda

confederation. This was by no cious falsehoods, by intimidation and means easy of accomplishment. Vir- hlustering, by getting control over leginians, as a body, were proud of the gislative action, they aimed at forcing Union, and anxious to preserve it. the state into the ranks of secession; They had always frowned upon dis- and unhappily they succeeded in accomunion and the political demagogues who plishing their ends. had at various times broached so vile a The convention of Virginia had been heresy. Their true interests, as they elected by Union votes, and the legiswell knew, consisted in keeping close lature had taken care, in authorizing the bonds which united them to the loy. its consideration of this matter, to proal states; and it is almost beyond doubt, vide that no ordinance of secession that, could the people of Virginia have should have any effect without being

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