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the junction of the Memphis and next day, proceeded some forty miles Charleston, and the Mobile and Ohio up the river to recoproitre, going as far Railroads, the conquest of Memphis as Eastport, and finding the rebels enwould be greatly facilitated, and gaged in erecting fortifications wherever another valuable point on the Mis- they could. sissippi River secured. A bold step it The enemy's line of defence had for was, indeed, from Bowling Green, in its base the Memphis and Charleston Kentucky, to the northern boundaries Railroad, the preservation of which of Mississippi and Alabama. Yet it was absolutely necessary to enable the was accomplished, and in the course of rebels to hold Northern Mississippi, a month, Tennessee being firmly held by Alabama, and Georgia. East of Corinth the Union army, our energetic com. were several important points on this manders in the West were advancing road, as Chattanooga, Huntsville, Tusagainst the new lines of the enemy's decumbia, Florence, etc.; westwardly, the fence in the states bordering on the road runs in a direct line to Memphis, Gulf.
ninety-three miles distant. The Union Beauregard, aware of the momentous line was the Tennessee River, extending issue at stake, concentrated all his from Paducah in Kentucky, to Eastport available forces at and around Corinth, in Mississippi. The gun boats were with Gens. A. S. Johnston, Polk, Bragg kept moving up and down the river to and Hardee to aid and support his prevent the erection of batteries by the plans, and with an army more than rebels, and were of special service to 40,000 in number, in the highest state Grant's plans. of efficiency, to resist the progress of By the middle of March, all of the our advancing host. It was not un troops under Grant had arrived at natural that he should expect to be able Savannah, when an advance was made to rout the Union army at Pittsburg seven miles to Pittsburg Landing. Landing before it could be reinforced Wallace's division landed on the left by Buell. Grant, who had in charge bank of the river, marched to Purdy, the important movement now on foot, about fifteen miles to the west, and had also a number of distinguished of- destroyed the railroad bridge and part ficers in his command, as W. T. Sher- of the railroad from Humboldt to Corman, McClernand, C. F. Smith, Wal- inth, cutting off a train laden with lace, etc.; his army, too, numbering rebel troops. On the night of the 16th, about 30,000, was as brave a body of an expedition started for the purpose troops as could be desired, when work of intercepting communication on the was to be done which required steadiness, Memphis and Charleston Railroad. and the higher soldierly qualities. On They met the enemy's cavalry in the the 11th of March, the transport steam-woods, and a sharp skirmish ensued; ers began to arrive at Savannah on the after which our mer. returned to PittsTennessee River, with the advance divi- burg Landing. sion of the army. The gun boats, thel Buell
, not being able to advance into
Northern Alabama, in columns, as he and it was not till the next morning, proposed, was ordered to join Grant Sunday, April*6th, that the rebel army and co-operate with him in attacking began the assault. The five divisions and driving Beauregard out of Corintb. of Grant's forces, numbering between Buell left Nashville on the 28th of 30 and 40,000 men, were posted on the March, and his army took the road left bank of the Tennessee, in a semioverland from Columbia to Savannah, circular outline around Pittsburg Landsome eighty miles distant. By the ing, waiting, with some anxiety, for junction of his forces with those of Buell's arrival. Grant there would be an army of about Before daylight, the pickets were 100,000 men, ready to crush any resist. driven in, and the rebel columns pressance the rebel leaders might be able to ed forward upon our men. Sherman, offer.
with his widely extended brigade in Beauregard, as we have intimated, the front, bore the brunt of the attack. felt the necessity of striking a blow be- Advised of the enemy's approach by fore Buell's arrival. He did every their assault upon his advanced guard, thing he could to rouse the spirit of his he ordered under arms all his division, troops; as did also Johnston, who took and sent word to McClernand, asking command of the entire force at Corinth, him to support the left; to Prentiss, numbering between 40,000 and 45,000 giving him notice that the enemy was
Some delays occurred; in force on the front, and to Hurlbut but, early in April, hearing, as he asking him to support Prentiss. The phrases it, “from a reliable quarter," that four brigades of Sherman's division Buell was near at hand, it was resolved were stationed to the right and left of to hurry forward the movement against Shiloh Church, which he regarded Grant. Johnston issued an animated the centre of his position. Two batteraddress to the troops, filled with the ies of artillery were posted, one at usual incentives to action, and urging Shiloh, the other on a bridge to the left, them to “march to a decisive victory and some cavalry and infantry were over agrarian mercenaries, sent to sub placed in a large open field to the left jugate and despoil them of their liber- and rear of the church. ties, property and honor.” The troops Hour after hour the raging contest were arranged in three corps, under went forward. The rebels pressed Polk, Bragg and Hardee, Beauregard heavily upon the Union left, and pushbeing second in command.
ed it back. Soon the same result hapPittsburg Landing is about eighteen pened to the front and right. In some miles from Corinth, and it was expect- cases
, our troops became panic-stricken, ed by Johnston and Beauregard that and brought discredit upon their name they would be able to reach the Union and position; but, as a whole, they lines and make an attack early on April fought stubbornly, and resisted the 5th; but the badness of the roads enemy's assaults with all their might. bindered their advance considerably, Yet, they were not able to withstand
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the force of the rebel attack. Prentiss, Beauregard says, “not in condition to and 2,000 of his men, were made pris- cope with an equal force of fresh troops,
division ex. armed and equipped like our adversary'; cept Smith's, commanded by Wallace, in the immediate possession of his de were occupied by the rebels; nearly pots, and sheltered by such an auxiliary half the field artillery was lost; and as the enemy's gun boats,” still our whole force was pressed back upon made a determined resistance. the ravine near the Landing, where, by They fought bravels and steadily oue final rush, the enemy hoped to push throughout the earlier part of the day. them into the river and compel them to The victory, however, could not long surrender.*
remain in doubt; most of the camps This was in the latter part of the were recovered; the artillery again fell afternoon, and had it not been for the into our hands; and the insurgent opportune aid afforded by the gun leaders gave up the contest. Early in boats, which brought their fire to bear the afternoon, they began to retire, and upon the rebel batteries, and also for by four o'clock, they were driven from the arrival of the advance of Buell's the field. The pursuit was kept up army, late in the day, it is almost cer- until night came on, when our men retain that Grant would have been utter turned to camp. ly routed. As it was, however, night In this hotly contested battle of came on; the battle ceased; the rebels Shiloh, or Pittsburg Landing, the were worn down with fatigue; and slaughter on both sides was fearful. Grant and Buell, with new and fresh The rebel General Johnston, with a forces, prepared for the morrow. Hav. number of other officers, were killed ; ing the ability now, they determined to Beauregard gave as their total loss, reverse the order of the day previous, 1,728 killed, 8,012 wounded, 959 missand become the attacking instead of the ing; total, 10,699. On our part, the
losses were: Gen. Wallace mortally Very early on the morning of the wounded, besides a number of other 7th of April, our forces were in motion. officers killed and wounded, 1,614 killThe men, reinspirited by new troops ed, 7,721 wounded, 3,963 missing; total, being brought into the fic!d, resolved 13,508. The rebels left between 2,000 to redeem, on Monday, the losses of the and 3,000 dead on the field when they day before. The rebels, though, as retreated; the bodies were buried, by
order of Grant, at the same time that * Beauregard, in his report, sharply censures a por- our own dead were consigned to their tion of his army for their unworthy conduct, when the Union camps fell into their hands : "some officers, non graves. commissioned officers, and men, abandoned their colors The war department issued a bulletin, early in the first day; to pillage the captured encampments ; others retired shamefully from the field, on April 9th, highly praising " Generals both days, while the thunder of cannon, and the roar Grant and Buell and their forces, for and rattle of musketry told them that their brothers the glorious repulse of Beauregard at were being slaughtered by the fresh legions of the enemy."
Pittsburg, in Tennessee;" and the pre