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His object was to establish an inside loyal states, to pay marked attention to blockade and cut off the rebels from it, and in every city, town and village external help. Union sentiments and the day received more than its accus. views were manifested on several occa- tomed honors, and the hearts of the peo. sions, and secession despotism was sub., ple were cheered and encouraged there mitted to because of inability to resist it. by. Both Houses of Congress, with the The only movement of any conse- principal officers of the government, met

, quence towards Charleston was that by at noon, in the chamber of the House Gen. T. W.Sherman, on the 11th of Feb- of Representatives, and listened anew ruary, when Edisto Island was occu-to the Farewell Address of Washington, pied. This island is about twelve miles as read by Mr. Forney, the secretary long and nine broad ; it is also some of the Senate. Besides reading the Adten miles from the mainland, twenty dress public orations were delivered in miles from the Charleston and Savan- the larger cities, and there were military nah Railroad, and forty miles from displays, ringing of bells, illuminations, Charleston. The rebels had deserted the and other festal observances. island entirely, leaving nothing but the It was not in the loyal states alone negroes, and some cotton which was that the 22d of February was observed not burned before they ran away.

and made much of. Davis, and his fellowTurning from the narrative of naval laborers in a bad cause, took occasion and military operations, let us devote a to consummate a part of their plans on few moments to another topic, not less this famous day. The “provisional” arinteresting or important. The name of rangement of the confederate governWASHINGTON, the father of his country, ment had been brought to a close, and has always been, and always will be, on the 22d of February, Jefferson held in the highest reverence and es- Davis, as head of the “permanent” teem by the American people. He is government, was inaugurated president one of the few, the very few great men over the “Confederacy.” An inaugural

“ in the world's history whose name is address was also delivered, in which the pure from aught that is unworthy the chief leader in the Great Rebellion patriot and the Christian ; and it is one spoke of the position of affairs with a of the best signs for good that our calm assurance and a confident certainty countrymen look upon him with affec- of ultimate success, mingling, at the tionate admiration, and uniformly point same time, with his remarks a large into his life and career as the bright and fusion of bitterness and disappointment glorious example to themselves and at the energy and resolution of the their children, in all time to come. The loyal people in the North and West. birthday of Washington has become a A passage or two may not inaptly here national holiday, and is observed as such be quoted : every where and by all. When the “On this, the birthday of the man 22d of February, 1862, arrived, it was most identified with the establishment of felt to be especially appropriate, in the American Independence, and beneath

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Ch. X.]

DAVIS'S INAUGURAL AND MESSAGE.

127

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the monument erected to commemorate to subjugate us, has already attained his heroic virtues, and those of his com- such fearful dimensions as will subject patriots, we have assembled to usher them to burthens which must continue into existence the permanent govern. to oppress them for generations to ment of the Confederate States. come. Through this instrumentality, under the “Never has a people evinced a more favor of Divine Providence, we hope to determined spirit than that now animatperpetuate the principles of our revo. ing men, women, and children in every lutionary fathers. The day, the me- part of our country. Upon the first mory, and the purpose seem fitly as- call men fly to arms; and wives and sociated.

When a mothers send their husbands and sons long course of class legislation, directed to battle without a murmur of regret. not to the general welfare, but to the “ We are in arms to renew such saaggrandizement of the northern section crifices as our fathers made to the holy of the Union, culminated in a warfare cause of constitutional liberty. At the on the domestic institutions of the darkest hour of our struggle the provissouthern states—when the dogmas of ional gives place to the permanent gov. a sectional party, substituted for the ernment. After a series of successes provisions of the constitutional com- and victories, which covered our arms pact, threatened to destroy the sover. with glory, we have recently met with eign rights of the states, six of those serious disasters. But, in the heart of states, withdrawing from the Union, a people resolved to be free, these dis. confederated together, to exercise the asters tend but to stimulate to increasright and perform the duty of institut- ed resistance." iny a government which would better

In his message to the Confederate secure the liberties for the preservation Congress (see p. 100), Davis admitted of which that Union was established. that “events have demonstrated that Whatever of hope some may have enter the government had attempted more tained, that a returning sense of justice than it had power successfully to would remove the danger with which achieve. Hence, in the effort to protect, our rights were threatened, and render by our arms, the whole territory of the it possible to preserve the Union of the Confederate States, seaboard and inland, Constitution, must have been dispelled we have been so exposed as recently by the malignity and barbarity of the to encounter serious disasters." His northern states in the prosecution of allusion was to the losses of Fort Donthe existing war.

elson, Roanoke Island, etc.; but, not “Although the tide for the moment is deeming it possible “ that anything so against us, the final result in our favor insane as a persistent attempt to subis not doubtful. The period is near at jugate these states could be made,” he hand when our foes must sink under the did not disguise the strong probability, immense load of debt which they have that the war will be continued through incurred; a debt which, in their effort a series of years." Without undertak.

1862.

ing to present "an accurate statement ” activity into the “Confederacy.” It of the confederate military strength, he was now a matter of life or leath. It said that it was some 400 regiments of was evident that the loyal states were infantry, with a proportionate force of resolutely determined to crush the re.

cavalry and artillery, making in bellion at any cost; and that Davis and

all about half a million of men. those who worked with him were In regard to finances, Davis spoke in equally determined not to submit, so highly congratulatory terms, asserting long as they were able to make any rethat the expenditure for the past year sistance whatsoever. Terrible alternawas only $170,000,000, and that the tive! There was no help for it; the enemy had wasted three times as much battle had to be fought out, even to the in vainly striving to conquer the con- bitter end; and the awful responsibili. federacy.

ty for shedding of blood, for carnage, With such sentiments as these, mak- cruelty, suffering, distress, and the thouing such representations as the above, sand evils attendant upon war, must and well understanding that the strug. rest upon the men who, without any gle was no light one in which he was en- just or reasonable cause, began the regaged, Davis tried to sustain his own bellion of 1861, and persevered in it for hopes and to infuse additional life and four weary, desolating years.

CHAPTER XI.

186.

MILITARY OPERATIONS IN VIRGINIA: THE MERRIMAC AND THE MONITOR.

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Genera. McClellan's preparations — Delays — War order for the campaign - McClellan's plan — Army corps

ordered — Jackson's attack on our troops at Hancock, Lander's success Col. Geary's march-Winchester evacuated — Rebels fall back Manassas abandoned - Our troops occupy it - Public feeling - McClellan relieved of command-inc-hief - New departments formed McClellan's address to the troops – Advance by way of Fortress Monroe determined on — Importance of, tho contest between the Merrimac and the Monitor – The arming of the Merrimac - Inactivity of the navy department — Merrimac's attack on our ships Success — Fearful blow of the ram — The Cumberland sunk, colors flying - The Congress surrenders — Set on fire and blown up - The Minnesota not attacked that day - Gloomy Saturday night - The Monitor arrives — Peculiarity of build, etc. — Reappearance of the Merrimac, Sunday morning — The Monitor meets her — The encounter - The victory – Gen. Shields's success over Jackson at Winchester - Troops embarked for the Peninsula – McClellan's expectations as to his force — Disappointment — His plan in general — Movements - McDowell's corps detached – McClellan's views — Question as to number of the troops — Siege of Yorktown — President's letter to McClellan — Gen. W. F. Smith's exploit — Fredericksburg taken - New Market also — Rebels determine to evacuate Yorktown, and retire in safety.

GEN. MOCLELLAN, in following the engaged, as we have seen (page 92–3). plans which he had adopted in regard in making vast and extensive preparato offen -ive operations in Virginia, wastions for a campaign early in 1862.

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