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CH. X.]





tion of the flotilla ; on the approach you astray, to gratify their waholy pur. of which to the town, a body of flying poses. They impose upon your creduli. artillery ran away with all speed. ty by telling of wicked and even diabol Eight cannon and one schooner on the ical intentions on our part; of stocks were destroyed. Two schooners, our desire to destroy your freewith 4,000 bushels of corn were captur- dom, demolish your property, liberate ed on the Sound, and six bales of cot- your slaves, injure your women, and ton taken from the custom-house such like enormities; all of which, we wbarf. The next day, Lieut. Jeffers, assure you, is not only ridiculous, but proceeded with several vessels to the utterly and wilfully false." mouth of the Chesapeake and Albe- The governor of North Carolina, H. marle Canal, and driving away some T. Clark, also issued a proclamation, rebels there, sunk two schooners to ob- Feb. 22d; but it was couched in the struct navigation, and burned all that usual violent and extravagant language remained above water. A few days of southern officials, and charged after, a reconnaissance was made by rice and ambition upon the govern. Capt. Rowan up the Chowan River as ment and supporters of the Union, as far as Winton, the capital of Hereford well as “a spirit of vengeful wickedness Co. Information had been given that without a parallel in history,” etc. In there were several hundred Union men the present, as in other cases, the conthere who desired protection; but trast is very marked, and every dispas. when the Perry approached Winton, it sionate reader cannot but be struck was greeted with volleys of musketry with it, and the conclusions to which it from the high bank on the shore. The necessarily leads. town was shelled in retaliation, and the In consequence of the favorable rebuildings destroyed.

sults of the expedition thus far, Gen. On the 18th of February, Commo- Burnside turned his attention to andore Goldsborough and Gen. Burnside, other portion of the state. Washingissued a joint proclamation in reference ton, on Pamlico River, and Newbern, to the objects of their mission. It was on the Neuse River, were the chief deaddressed “To the People of North pots in this quarter for lumber, tar, Carolina,” and in earnest terms entreat- turpentine and naval stores of the coun. ed their attention : "The mission of our try. Newbern, in its size and position, joint expedition is not to invade any was one of the chief cities in the state, of your rights, but to assert the author- and its population exceeded that of the ity of the United States, and to close capital, Raleigh, by several hundreds, with you the desolating war brought and was second only to the seaport upon your state by comparatively a Wilmington. It was, moreover, by few bad men in your midst. Influen- the Atlantic and North Carolina Railced infinitely more by the worst pas- road, immediately connected with Beau. sions of human nature than by any show fort on the ocean forty miles below, of elevated reason, they are still urging and with Goldsboro' sixty miles in the


interior, the chief station on the Wil. Parke in front; the latter also was to mington and Weldon Railroad. Situa- act as a support to the other brigades ted at the junction of two rivers, the For details reference must be had to Trent and the Neuse, once gained, it the reports of the commanders; it is might, without difficulty, be held by sufficient here to state that the engagegun boats. On every account, it was ment was severely contested; for four felt that its possession was of the first hours our troops fought bravely and importance to our cause.

steadily; and the rebels, who stoutly Early in March, the troops intended endeavored to repulse their onslaughts, for the expedition against Newbern were at last compelled to yield. The were embarked from Roanoke Island, enemy's line of breastworks was very

and were ordered, with the na-extensive and formidable, and was man

val force, to rendezvous at Hat- ned by about 6,000 men. Of course teras Inlet. Captain Rowan was in the capture of these works decided the command, Goldsborough having been fate of Newbern. recalled to the Chesapeake.* The mili- Gen. Burnside, the next day, issued tary force was, in all, about 8,000, divi- a congratulatory and well deserved ded into three columns; the naval force order, concluding with these words: consisted of six gun boats, with the “The General commanding directs, transport vessels for the troops. On with peculiar pride, that as a well-dethe evening of the 12th of March, the served tribute to valor in this second vessels anchored off the mouth of victory of the expedition, each regiment Slocum's Creek, about eighteen miles engaged shall inscribe on its banner the below Newbern. The next morning memorable name,

NEWBERN." the landing was effected under cover of The enemy, who had fled in coul. U. the gun boats; the roads, full of mud sion, burned and destroyed the bridges and mire, were in a fearful plight; and and the draw of the railroad bridge over only twelve miles were gone over by the Trent, which prevented pursuit by night, when the column halted, a mile our troops. Two hundred prisoners and a half from the rebel stronghold. were taken, beside, several vessels, and The

gun boats shelled the woods and a large quantity of ammunitioa and protected the troops on their march; stores. Gen. Foster was appointed milthe enemy's works on the river were itary governor of Newbern and its generally abandoned without fighting. neighborhood. A week later, a force

At seven o'clock, on the morning of was sent up Pamlico River, as far as the 14th of March, our troops were in Washington, where our men were well motion, Gen. Foster being charged with received, and Union sentiments were the duty of attacking the enemy on the freely expressed. left, Gen. Reno on the right, and Gen. Other operations of a naval and

military character on the southern * For a more full account of the operations against c ast, early in 1862, may here, properNewbern, see Woodbury's Burnside and the Ninth Army Corps," pp. 51–68.

ly be noted. On a previous page we

Ch. X ]




called attention to Captain Rodgers' suc- a similar manner on Bird Island, oppo cess on the Chowan River. The next site Venus Point; so that, to the astonmovement of interest took place in ishment of the rebels, Fort Pulaski was the month of January, and deserves cut off from communication with the honorable mention. The city of Sa- city of Savannah early in February, and vannah is about fifteen miles from the the stronghold in which they so confi. mouth of the river, and situate on the dently trusted was exposed to siege and southern or right bank. The approach assault by the Union forces. by water is defended by Fort Pulaski, on On the 27th of January, Capt. Davis, Cockspur Island, at the mouth of the with eight vessels, and transports carriver, and Fort Jackson, four miles be- rying some 2,400 troops, under General low the city. Along the left bank of Wright, made a reconnaissance the Savannah is a succession of islands, of Little Tybee River and the and large and numerous ones interrupt adjacent waters, for the purpose of car. the channel. Turtle and Jones Islands rying out the object proposed above, are two of these, the latter being bound-viz: the isolation of Fort Pulaski. Tated on two sides by the Mud and Wright vall, with five vessels, made an attack Rivers, and on the other by the Savan- upon the expedition, when, after half nah River. A daring reconnaissance an hour's fight, two of the enemy's boats was made by night, under the guidance were driven back, and the others ran of negro crew and pilots, through the under the guns of the fort. intricate passages between the island At the end of February, an expediand mainland. The depth and bearings tion sailed from Port Royal, under Capt. of the channel were ascertained, and it Dupont and Gen. Wright, with the inwas discovered that gun boats could tention of reoccupying the principal pass by the Wright into the Savannah points on the east coast of Florida. River. By unremitting night labor all Fort Clinch, St. Mary's, and Fernanthe obstructions were removed, and a dina were captured March 2d and 3d; passage way secured.

Fort Clinch on Amelia Island was taken On the 26th of January Capt. Rod. possession of and garrisoned. Fernangers made a reconnaissance in force up dina, which was almost deserted, was the Wright River. The rebel commo- occupied by the Union forces; so also dore, Tatnall, appeared with gun boats was St. Mary's; at both places the preand scows; but was easily driven back. parations for defence were extensivt, Capt. Rodgers not deeming it prudent but the rebel troops were not there. to pass into the Savannah, near Fort Brunswick, in Georgia, was found in a Pulaski, our boats returned by the way similar condition, March 7th; and at which they went. A battery at Venus Jacksonville and St. Augustine, FloPoint, on Jones Island, was erected, rida, no opposition was offered to the quietly but securely, notwithstanding advance of our troops. the severity and tediousness of the Commodore Dupont next visited Mos. work; another battery was planted in quito Inlet, fifty miles further south His object was to establish an inside loyal states, to pay marked attention to blockade and cut off the rebels from it, and in every city, town and village external help. Union sentiments and the day received more than its accusviews were manifested on several occa- tomed honors, and the hearts of the peo sions, and secession despotism was sub-, ple were cheered and encouraged there mitted to because of inability to resist it. by. Both Houses of Congress, with the

The only movement of any conse- principal officers of the government, met quence towards Charleston was that by at noon, in the chamber of the House Gen. T. W. Sherman, on the 11th of Feb- of Representatives, and listened anow ruary, when Edisto Island was occu-to the Farewell Address of Washington, pied. This island is about twelve miles as read by Mr. Forney, the secretary long and nine broad ; it is also some of the Senate. Besides reading the Adten miles from the mainland, twenty dress public orations were delivered in miles froin the Charleston and Savan- the larger cities, and there were military nah Railroad, and forty miles from displays, ringing of bells, illuminations, Charleston. The rebels had deserted the and other festal observances. island entirely, leaving nothing but the It was not in the loyal states alone negroes, and some cotton which was that the 22d of February was observed not burned before they ran away. and made much of. Davis, and his fellow

Turning from the narrative of naval laborers in a bad cause, took occasion and military operations, let us devote a to consummate a part of their plans on few moments to another topic, not less this famous day. The “provisional” arinteresting or important. The name of rangement of the confederate govern. WASHINGTON, the father of his country, ment had been brought to a close, and has always been, and always will be on the 22d of February, Jefferson held in the highest reverence and es- Davis, as head of the “permanent " teem by the American people. He is government, was inaugurated president one of the few, the very few great men over the “Confederacy.An inaugural in the world's history whose name is address was also delivered, in which the pure from aught that is unworthy the chief leader in the Great Rebellion patriot and the Christian ; and it is one spoke of the position of affairs with a of the best signs for good that our calm assurance and a confident certainty countrymen look upon him with affec- of ultimate success, mingling, at the tionate admiration, and uniformly point same time, with his remarks a large into his life and career as the bright and fusion of bitterness and disappointment glorious example to themselves and at the energy and resolution of the their children, in all time to come. The loyal people in the North and West. birthday of Washington has become a A passage or two may not inaptly here national holiday, and is observed as such be quoted : every where and by all. When the “On this, the birthday of the man 22d of February, 1862, arrived, it was most identified with the establishment of felt to be especially appropriate, in the American Independence, and beneath

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