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complete and unsatisfactory,” and pro- their beautiful city in the midst of the fessed himself in the dark as to the most distressing scenes of terror and reasons for their movements. He ac- confusion, and of plunder by the mob.” cordingly suspended them from com- On the 24th of February, the Union mand for the present.

forces reached Nashville, which was The fall of Fort Donelson hastened formally surrendered by the mayor the crisis in rebel affairs in the West. into Gen. Buell's hands. A general The rebel Gen. A. S. Johnston had be order was issued congratulating all who fore this seen that Bowling Green, loved the Union on the success of our Kentucky, was untenable, and orders arms, and promising protection and supwere given to evacuate it. This was port to all peaceable, well disposed citidone on the 14th of February, when zens. Andrew Johnson was soon after Gen. Mitchel took immediate possession. appointed military governor of Tennes. By a forced march of eighty miles, the see, and early in March, arrived at

, rebel force reached Nashville on the Nashville, and entered vigorously upon 16th, and under Johnston's command his new and difficult duties. The passed on to Murfreesboro, thirty-two newspapers were placed under military miles distant, on the Nashville and supervision. The municipal officers Chattanooga Railroad. Commodore were required, on the 26th of March, to Foote with his gun boats ascended the take the oath of allegiance. The city Cumberland, destroying the extensive council refused; the mayor and some iron works, six miles above Dover, and others were arrested, and the city counreaching Clarksville on the 19th of cilmen ejected from office. Numerous February. The enemy had fled, and other arrests were made, and Gov. John. great alarm was manifested respecting son used the strong hand in repressing the purpose of our advancing force. disunion practices in Tennessee.

Of course, Nashville followed the As by the taking of Nashville Columfate of Donelson. Without the latter, bus was seriously endangered, orders it was defenceless; and hence, when were issued by Beauregard and the news came, on Sunday forenoon, Johnston, on the 18th of Februthat the fort was lost, the city was ary, to destroy part of the track and thrown into consternation. Floyd des- bridges of the Memphis and Ohio troyed the bridges over the Cumberland, Railroad, preparatory to a removal of and hastened away.

“An earthquake," the forces at Columbus to Island No. says Pollard, “ could not have shocked 10, about forty-five miles below, on the the city more. The congregations at Mississippi River. This was soon after the churches were broken up in confu- accomplished; and on the 4th of March, sion and dismay ; women and children when an armed reconnaissance was rushed into the streets, wailing with made as far as Columbus by the gun terror; trunks were thrown from three- boats and transports with troops, it story windows in the haste of the fugi. was found to have been abandoned by tives; and thousands hastened to leave the rebels, as wholly untenable.

1861.

C!. IX.)

GENERAL CURTIS IN MISSOURI.

117

1862,

General Halleck, in command of the have spoken of the movements in Misdepartment, issued, Feb. 22d, an order souri, and the general result up to the for the regulation and behavior of the close of 1861. Sharp skirmishing troops. Among other things he said, took place at Mount Zion, Dec. 28th, “it does not belong to the military to and at Fayette, January 8th; but withdecide upon the relation of master and out material result. Our forces under

. slave. Such questions must be settled Gens. Sigel and Asboth, and Cols. J. by civil courts. No fugitive slave will, C. Davis and Carr, combined at the therefore, be admitted within our lines close of the month, under comor camps, except when specially ordered mand of Gen. S. R. Curtis, a by the general commanding."

distinguished officer of the U. S. army. The successful operations of our army Early in February, these divisions produced much excitement in the South, pushed rapidly from Rolla, the termi. and the leaders in the rebellion began nation of railroad communication with to understand better what a gigantic St. Louis, toward Springfield, where the struggle it was in which they had en rebel General Price had taken up his gaged. Every man, young and old, headquarters and secured supplies for was called for. Boards of police in his men. He had raised an army of every county in Mississippi were ap- 4,000 men, built huts, and was in a pointed preparatory to drafting; and rather comfortable position, as he the governor of Arkansas, hy proclama. thought; but the approach of Curtis tion, drafted into immediate service warned him of danger. A sharp skirevery man in the state subject to mili- mish took place near Springfield; and tary duty, requiring him to respond Price, on the 12th of February, during within twenty days. In this way, and the night, decamped, the U. S. troops under such pressure, was begun that entering the town early next morning. system of measures which resulted in Immediately the pursuit after Price was the passing of a conscription act by the begun, and continued a hundred miles Confederate Congress, April 16th, and or more from Springfield into Arkansas. the raising a large force during the en. On the 18th, the state line was crossed; suing summer months.*

on the 19th, Price, having had some reIn a previous chapter (see p. 89) we inforcements, attempted to make a stand

at Sugar Creek; but was speedily de• By this act all over eighteen and under thirty were feated. On the 23d of February, Curtis conscripted for the war, and none were allowed exemption who were at the time in service, whether under

eigh. entered and took possession of Fayetteteen or over thirty-five. All this was irrespective of ville, capturing a number of prisoners, state laws and regulations. In September, 1862, another act of conscription was passed, calling out every

а

stores and baggage. The enemy burnt man between thirty-five and forty-five, and all youths part of the town before leaving on their as soon as they became eighteen years of age. The work was carried on with unrelenting vigor and flight over the Boston Mountains.* energy, and every means resorted to in order to collect and have ready for use a military force sufficient to

* Gen. Halleck, in a dispatch, made mention of a meet the immense army our government was bringing shocking exhibition of the malice of the rebels : “ forty

į two officers and men of the 5th Missouri cavalry wire

into the field.

1862.

On the 1st of March, Gen. Curtis in driving Price out of Missouri, he was issued an address to the people of the well aware that it would require a South-west. It was called forth in severe struggle to maintain the advangreat measure by the studied misrepre- tage he had gained. Price, though sentations and falsehoods which the actively pursued, had escaped without rebels used every where in respect to much loss, and his ranks having been

the object had in view by our considerably recruited and continuing

troops, and it entered into the to increase, he expected soon to be able subject fully, clearly and cogently. to drive the Union army out of Ark- . “ The only legitimate object of the war ansas and regain his lost ground in is

peace, and I adhere to this legitimate Missouri. Curtis estimated the reinobject. Peaceable citizens shall be forcements received by Price to be protected as far as possible. The flight some sixteen regiments, which, with the of our foes from their camps, and the Arkansas volunteers and companies, imitation of their conduct by the citi- placed him in command of at least zens, in fleeing from their homes, leav. 30,000 to 40,000 men, in and near the ing their effects abandoned, as it were, Boston Mountains. for the victors, have much embarrassed On the other hand, Curtis's force in me in my efforts to preserve discip- the face of the enemy in these early line in my command, as these circum. days of March, deducting the troops stances offer extraordinary temptations. required for garrison duty, al ng his The burning of farms and fields of extended line of communications, be grain in Missouri, anii extensive bar- sides a constant moving force to guard racks and valuable mills in Arkansas his train, left him ready for the field,

has induced some resent- surrounding or in the vicinity of Sugar ments on the part of my troops, which Creek, where he had established his I have severely punished. . We headquarters at the time, not more than come to vindicate the Constitution, to 10,500 infantry and cavalry, with fortypreserve and perpetuate civil and reli- nine pieces of artillery, including a gious liberty, under a flag that was mountain howitzer. Early on the embalmed in the blood of our revolu- 15th of March, a cold, wintryish day, tionary fathers. Under that flag we with snow on the ground, Van Dórn, have lived in peace and prosperity until the rebel commander, advanced the flag of rebellion involved us in the to make an attack. The sevehorrors of civil war."

ral divisions of our troops were ordered Although Gen. Curtis had succeeded to take position and meet the enemy

at Sugar Creek as soon as possible. poisoned at Mud Town by eating

poisoned food which Gen. Sigel, in bringing up his force Dolfert died, and Lieutenant-Colonel Van Deutzh and from the vicinity of Bentonville, set Captain Schwan have suffered much, but are now out at two A.M., on the 6th; he advanced

by the enemy,

1862.

1 recovering. The indignation of our soldiers is very slowly, fighting and repelling the enemy great, but they have been restrained from retaliation upon the prisoners of war."

in front, on the flanks and rear, for five

the rebels left behind them.

C. IX.]

THE BATTLE OF PEA RIDGE.

119

and a half hours, when he was reinforc- prisoners. Van Dorn, however, withed by Gen. Curtis. By this movement, out specifying particulars, makes his Sigel's division was brought to the loss less than 1,000 in all. The aggrewest end of Pea Ridge, where he form. gate loss of the killed, wounded and ed a junction with Gen. J. C. Davis missing of all ranks on our side, was and Col. Carr. The men rested on given by Gen. Curtis at 1,351. their arms, on the night of the 6th, in A novel feature in the battle of Pea waiting for the coming day's fight, Ridge, or Elk Horn, as the rebels named which all knew was to be a serious it, was the employment of Indians, and trying one.

some 2,500 being under command of the At daylight, on the 7th of March, rebel General Pike. They proved of the battle was renewed, and with slight little service to those who had seduced exception continued to rage furiously them from their proper allegiance, and the whole day. Van Dorn had moved in their wild fury, they were guilty of round Curtis's flank by the road cross- acts which Gen. Curtis suverely cening Pea Ridge, in order to cut off his sured afterwards in a note to Van Dorn. retreat in case the rebels were success. Many of our soldiers, as he said, were ful. This had necessitated a change of found“ tomahawked, scalped, and their front, so as to face the road on which bodies shamefully mangled," and he the enemy were still moving. The new expressed a hope that the rebels were line was formed under the enemy's fire, not going to carry on their resistauce the troops moving in good order and by means of a savage and barbarous with gallant bearing. In the centre, warfare. Van Dorn made the best he the battle was carried on with great could of the matter, in reply; hoped fury, as also on the left wing; but our it was not true; and retorted, that primen nobly withstood the fierce assaults soners had been murdered in cold blood of the rebels, who lost two of their by the German troops in our army. best generals, McCulloch and McIntosh. Quite probably here, as elsewhere, acts Gen. Curtis having brought all four of of cruelty were committed which could his divisions to face the position which not be justified; but certainly the inhad been held in check, the troops troducing of Indians was calculated to bivouacked another cold and cheerless aggravate war's horrors and abominanight on the field.

tions. Again, at sunrise, on the 8th of Southern writers and chroniclers sofMarch, the battle was begun by our ten this defeat all they can, and claim men. The enemy fought desperately, that the substantial fruits of victory furiously; but they were completely were with the rebels under Van Dorn. routed. Sigel pursued them for several It was rather cold comfort, under the miles towards Keetsville, and the circumstances; but, such as it was, cavalry still further. The rebel loss they were allowed to enjoy it to the was estimated at 3,000 killed and fullest extent, without let or bindwounded, besides more than 1,000 rance.

CHAPTER X.

1862.

BURNSIDE EXPEDITION: OPERATIONS ON THE SOUTHERN COAST.

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Expedition 'inder Burnside and Goldsborough — Size and extent - Sets sail — Rough and dangerous passage

– Tedious delays - Enemy strengthen their position — Attack on Roanoke Island - Surrender of the rebels — Mortification of Davis and secession – Expedition to Elizabeth city- Success - Edenton and Win. ton — Address to the people of North Carolina by Burnside and Goldsborough — Governor Clark's address - Spirit of these Importance of Newbern – Expedition against — Bravery of our troops — Burnside's congratulatory order — Other operations on the southern coast at this date — Exploration of interior passage to the Savannah River – Batteries planted — Fort Pulaski isolated – Reconnaissance of Little Tybee River — Operations of Dupont and Wright on the Florida coast — Fernandina, Jacksonville, St. Augustine, etc. — Union feeling in Florida -- Edisto Island – Washington's birth day – How celebrated in 1862 in the loyal states — Davis and confederate government – Davis inaugurated — His address on the 22d of February — Extracts from, illustrating tone, temper, etc. – Davis's message to Confederate Congress — Admits serious disasters – Estimated size of the rebel army - Financial condition of the confederacy -- A glimpse at the nature and terribleness of the struggle now going on.

1862.

During the latter part of 1861, S. F. Hazard and S. C. Rowan. The active preparations were being made special service the expedition was to at New York for fitting out another accomplish was on the shores of North combined military and naval expedi. Carolina, within the waters of Pamlico tion, to operate against an important and Albemarle Sounds; and point or points on the southern coast. for this purpose all the arrangeEverything was furnished which could ments were made for the most effiin any wise tend to secure success; cient co-operation of the naval and abundant material, a disciplined and military departments; the guns were gallant force, numbering 16,000 men, so equipped as to be used on the water accomplished and well trained officers, or the land; there was a thoroughly etc. The military part of the expedi- organized signal corps; two extensive tion was under command of Gen. Burn. pontoon trains, etc. side, the naval under Commodore Thus prepared for its work, the Goldsborough. The three army bri- Burnside expedition set sail from Annagades composing this force were com- polis on the 9th of January. Owing manded by Gens. J. G. Foster, J. L. to dense fogs in the Chesapeake Bay, Reno, and J. G. Parke. Commodore incident to the season, it did not reach Goldsborough's squadron consisted of Fortress Monroe till midnight of the eighteen light draught steam gun boats, 10th. The next day without detention, with an armament of fifty rifled can- the order was given to sail, and Sun. non; it was divided into two columns day, the 11th, saw the fleet at sea. for active service, led by Commanders' As had been generally supposed, while

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