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we conceive were founded in groundless jealousies and misapprehensions that can no longer be supposed to exist: and therefore, whatever may be the effect of independency on this country, in other respects, we presume it will be allowed to open a door for renewing an application to the spiritual governors of the Church on this head; an application which we consider as not only seasonable, but more than ever necessary at this time; because if it be now any longer neglected, there is reason to apprehend that a plan of a very extraordinary nature, lately formed and published in Philadelphia,* may be carried into execution. This plan is, in brief, to constitute a nominal Episcopate by the united suffrages of presbyters and laymen. The peculiar situation of the Episcopal Churches in America, and the necessity of adopting some speedy remedy for the want of a regular Episcopate, are offered, in the publication here alluded to, as reasons fully sufficient to justify the scheme. Whatever influence this project may have on the minds of the ignorant or unprincipled part of the laity, or however it may, possibly, be countenanced by some of the clergy in other parts of the country; we think it our duty to reject such a spurious substitute for Episcopacy, and, as far as may be in our power, to prevent its taking effect.

selves bound by the oath of allegiance to the King, brethren in other parts of this continent. The attainwhich they were obliged to take before their ordination, ment of this object appears to have been hitherto obby their relation to their Diocesan, the Bishop of Lon-structed by considerations of a political nature, which don, and by their duty to the Society of which they were missionaries, to espouse the cause of the King and the mother country. And they were still further stimulated to this course by the violent opposition made to the Consecration of Bishops for this country, and by the unmitigated hostility manifested towards Episcopacy itself. But there is no pretence that they ever did any acts inconsistent with their character as ministers of the gospel of peace. They were content to remain silent spectators of the conflict, faithfully discharging their duties to GoD and the Church, and when the final issue declared America triumphant, those who had not been removed by the Society in whose employ they were, cheerfully came forward and acknowledged their allegiance to the new government.* Immediately after the declaration of peace, and before the British troops had left the city of New York, and only two days after a formal proclamation of the cessation of hostilities throughout the army had been made, the Episcopal Clergy still remaining in Connecticut, held a private meeting in the city of New York, and in concurrence with the clergy of that city, made choice of the Rev. JEREMIAH LEAMING, D. D., as Bishof the diocese of Connecticut. Debility and many bodily infirmities caused him to decline, and Rev. SAMUEL SEABURY, D. D., was unanimously chosen, April 21, 1783. The Archiepiscopate of Canterbury being then vacant, by the death of the Rt. Rev. Frederick Cornwallis, a letter was written by Rev. Abraham [afterwards Bishop] Jarvis, the Secretary of the Convention, and testimonials were signed, addressed to the Archbishop of York, to whom belongs the right of Consecration, when any vacancy occurs in the Sec of Canterbury. The reasons for this apparent haste, are thus described, in the letter addressed to the Archbishop of York, from which we make an extract:


"This part of America is at length dismembered from the British Empire; but notwithstanding the dissolution of our civil connection with the parent state, we still hope to retain the religious polity-the primitive and evangelical doctrine and discipline, which at the reformation were restored and established in the Church of England. To render that polity complete, and to provide for its perpetuity in this country, by the establishment of an American Episcopate, has long been an object of anxious concern to us, and to many of our

* See "Minutes of the Convention of Delegates from the Synod of New York and Philadelphia, and from the Associations of Connecticut, held annually from Jan. 1766 to 1775, in

clusive," for some evidence of the state of public feeling among non-Episcopalians at that time.

† Dr. L. was born at Middletown, 1717, graduated at Yale College in 1745, ordained in 1748, stationed at Newport, R. I. about eight years, when he removed to Norwalk, Conn., and remained there twenty-one years. He subsequently removed to Stratford, and died at New Haven in 1804.

"To lay the foundation, therefore, for a valid and regular Episcopate in America, we earnestly entreat your Grace, that, in your Archi-Episcopal character, you {will espouse the cause of our sinking Church: and, at this important crisis, afford her that relief on which her very existence depends, by Consecrating a Bishop for Connecticut. The person whom we have prevailed upon to offer himself to your Grace for that purpose, is the Reverend Doctor Samuel Seabury, who has been the society's worthy Missionary for many years. He was born and educated in Connecticut-he is personally known to us-and we believe him to be every way qualified for the Episcopal Office, and for the discharge of those duties peculiar to it, in the present trying and dangerous times."

The Bishop elect sailed immediately after, and arrived in London June 7th. On his arrival he found the See of Canterbury filled by the translation of the Rt. Rev. JOHN MOORE, from the Diocese of Bangor, and the Archbishop of York had been gone from London a fortnight. Dr. S. immediately waited on the Bishop of London, under whose jurisdiction the colonies had always been, who entered heartily into the scheme, and declared his readiness to coöperate with the two Archbishops, but was unwilling to take the lead in

The author of this plan was the Rev. William [afterwards Bishop] White. It is described in his Memoirs Prot. Epis. Ch. 22, 23, 86-93. It was published in 1782, before any prospects of peace had appeared, and a considerable portion of it was republished in the Episcopal Recorder, Philadelphia, Dec. 1842.

the matter. He found, however, upon conferring with {jutor of Bishop Kilgour. He arrived at New London the Archbishop of Canterbury, that the oaths of alle-in June, 1785, after an absence of near two years, giance to the King, and of obedience to the Archbishop of Canterbury required by Act of Parliament, were likely to be very great obstacles in the way of the accomplishment of the object of his journey. Beside this, it was objected, that the Bishops of England had no right to Consecrate a Bishop for Connecticut without the consent of the State, and there was no evidence that, if one were Consecrated, he would be received and obeyed, and that no adequate provision had been made for his support.

most of which had been a period of painful trial and solicitude. A Special Convention of the Clergy of Connecticut was held at Middletown, August 3, 1785, at which he was voluntarily accepted, received and recognized as the Bishop of the Diocese, as supreme in the government of the Church and in the administration of ecclesiastical affairs; and solemn engagements were entered into, to render him the respect, duty, and submission due to that office. The Bishop returned the Convention his warmest thanks, accepted the responsible office, and immediately entered upon its duties, by admitting Mr. Colin Furgeson, M. A., Mr. Henry Van Dyke, M. A., Mr. Ashbel Baldwin, M. A., and Mr. Philo Shelton, M. A., to the holy order of deacons, this being the first ordination in this country.

In addition to all these obstacles, there was one which gave more uneasiness than any other. Hitherto the whole proceedings seem to have been conducted silently, fearing that, if they were known, the dissent- { ers would interpose and prevent the Consecration entirely. Nor was this fear as groundless as at first may seem. The Episcopate proposed was precisely of After Bishop Seabury's return to this country he the same character as that which had called forth so was elected to the rectorship of St. James' Church, much opposition before the Revolution, and the feel-New London, which he held until his death, Feb. 26, ings manifested towards the Church during the Revo-1796, discharging faithfully the office of Rector, as lution, were calculated to strengthen their apprehen-well as that of Bishop, as the following inscription on sions. The expectation was, that the dissenters in his tombstone bears true witness:

England would prevail on the government of Connecticut to remonstrate against the Consecration of a Bishop, which would, of course, prevent it. These obstacles would have disheartened a less persevering man than Bishop Seabury, but firmly believing that the integrity of the Episcopal Church in this country depended on the early Consecration of a Bishop, he determined not to give over the pursuit, so long as any hope of success remained.

"Ingenious without pride,

Learned without pedantry,
Good without severity,

He was duly qualified to discharge
The duties of the Christian and the Bishop.
In the pulpit he enforced religion,
In his conduct he exemplified it.
The poor he assisted with his charity,
The ignorant he blessed with his instruction:
The friend of men, he ever designed their good,
The enemy of vice, he ever opposed it.
Christian! dost thou aspire to happiness?
SEABURY has shown the way that leads to it."

The organization of the Church in Connecticut, du

was modeled after the plan proposed for an American Episcopate before the Revolution, the laity having no

To obviate the objections made in England, a special convention of the clergy was called at Wallingford, and a committee appointed to confer with the Legislature, then in session in New Haven, to procure permission for an Episcopal Bishop to reside in Connecticut, and to allow him to exercise the functions of his office over his own congregations. The opinion of the leading members being that such permission had al-ring the first years of Bishop Seabury's administration, ready been granted, no new act was proposed, and certified copies of the laws on the subject were made and transmitted to England. These succeeded in re-voice in the election of a Bishop, nor in the enactment moving the objections, only in part. After having of ecclesiastical canons, and the Bishop having no aubeen in England a year, without any prospect of suc- thority over the laity. Nor does it appear that any cess, a correspondence was opened with the nonjuring Constitution was adopted, until 1790, when one was Bishops of Scotland, who declared themselves willing recommended by the Convocation to the several Parishto Consecrate a Bishop for this country. The Bishops es, and adopted by them-the first Convention under of England felt that they could not Consecrate without it being held June 6th, 1792. This was the first apa special act of Parliament, authorizing them to do it,pearance of the laity in any Convention in Connectiand Parliament having refused to pass such an act, cut, as members of that body. the clergy of Connecticut directed Dr. Seabury to proPrevious to that time the ecclesiastical affairs of the ceed to Scotland, and apply for Consecration there. Diocese had been regulated by the Bishop and Clergy, Accordingly he proceeded to Scotland, and was Con- who met in Convocation, as frequently as any business secrated at Aberdeen, Nov. 14, 1784, by Robert Kil-required, but always once a year. Similar meetings gour, Bishop of Aberdeen, Primus, assisted by Arthur of the Clergy, for similar purposes, had been common Petrie, of Ross and Moray, and John Skinner, coad- in the Northern States for many years before the Rev

In his intercourse with his clergy, the Bishop's man

olution, and Bishop Seabury did not see fit to change ( pressed by a Congregational minister who knew him, the mode of transacting the ecclesiastical affairs of the who said, that "Bishop Seabury looked as he always Diocese. At these Convocations, candidates for or- thought a Bishop ought to look." ders were examined, recommended, and approved, and Ordinations were usually held, at, or immediately afterners were easy and affable, kind and courteous, but a Convocation. All difficulties between Clergymen, or in Parishes, were also considered, and, if possible, adjusted at these meetings. They were, indeed, in place of all Constitutions and Canons.

always dignified; sustaining, at the same time, the character of father and brother, of companion and friend. In his consultations with his brethren, he had a happy faculty of so drawing out their opinions upon points of difference, as to reconcile them with each other, and accommodate them to his own, until he impressed his own mind upon that of all his clergy. To the laity, also, he was equally courteous and easy of access, for which he was rewarded by a correspond

revered and admired him, and he was always sure of a warm reception and a hearty welcome, wherever he went.

Of the amount of his labors it is impossible to form any just estimate, as the early Records of the Diocese are lost. The list of Ordinations, recorded in the Episcopal Register, show that he visited the various parts of his Diocese every year, that he was frequently in Rhode Island, and that he occasionally vis-ent affection. It may indeed be truly said that they ited Massachusetts and New Hampshire. During his Episcopate, he ordained forty-eight Deacons and forty-three Priests, five for Rhode Island, four for Vermont, five for Maryland, three for New Hampshire, one for New Jersey, one for North Carolina, and the remainder for Connecticut. He assisted in the Consecration of only one Bishop, the Rt. Rev. THOMAS JOHN CLAGGETT, of Maryland, the first Bishop Conse-chaste and pertinent; his ideas following in the most crated in this country. And it is worthy of remark, that there is not now, and never has been, a Bishop in our Church, who could not trace his succession to Bishop Seabury.

The influence of Bishop Seabury in the revision of the Liturgy, was very considerable, in some important points. The Invocation and the prayer of Oblation in the communion service, and which are not in the present English service, and even the words of oblation omitted in King Edward's time, were restored at the urgent desire of Bishop Seabury. The descent of CHRIST into hell, mentioned in the Apostles' Creed, seems to have been retained at his instance. Other changes were made, to which he was opposed. He wished to retain the Athanasian Creed, was opposed to the discretionary power given to use selections of Psalms, instead of the Psalter for the day.

As a writer, he had no superiors, and few equals. His style was simple and unadorned, concise and comprehensive, and at the same time perspicuous and easy of comprehension. His language was always

natural and obvious method, were easily understood and retained. Theological niceties, metaphysical subtleties, and conjectural divinity, found no favor with him, though his writings evince the scholar thoroughly armed, and his language was always well weighed. His one great object, as a sermonizer, seems to have been, so to explain the important doctrines of the gospel,-the great articles of faith, and the practical duties of life,-so to show what we must believe and do, as to persuade men to embrace and follow those things which are necessary to salvation. His own sense of the importance of vital religion was deep and fervent, and breathes through all his discourses, animating them with the same holy fervor that burned in his own bosom.

As a preacher, he was deservedly popular, and was always sure of a full audience, wherever he went. Plain and simple in his language, fervent and engaging in his manner, even those who differed from him in opinion could listen to him with pleasure, and all went away benefitted and instructed. He foresaw the lamentable defection which has since taken plac→ among the orthodox of Massachusetts, and warned them of their approaching danger. The two volumes of sermons which he published, were designed to guard his own people against those errors, and may be read with great profit at the present time, for the same purpose.

The Bishop's personal appearance is said to have been remarkably good. He was rather above the middling height, well proportioned and portly. His eye was dark and brilliant, especially when animated. His gait moderate, but easy and courtly, indicating the dignified gentleman. His voice was rather harsh, but deep-toned, heavy, and effective. He was a man of ready wit, and many anecdotes are told of him, showing that he knew how to enjoy and enliven the social circle. His manner of expressing himself was firm and decided, but never dogmatical or overbearing. He was a careful observer of men and things, a scholar Towards those who differed from him, he was courof general information in most departments of Litera-teous and charitable; never yielding any truth, but ture. His strong good sense made him an interesting companion for the learner and the unlearned. Indeed, few men possessed conversational powers of a higher order than Bishop Seabury. The impression made by the Bishop on all who saw him, was well ex

defending it in those terms which would give the least offence. Confident of the solid grounds on which his own religion was based, he was not disturbed by the assaults that were made upon it, and believing that they generally originated in ignorance or prejudice, he

sought to overcome and root them out by kind words and solid arguments. In all his discussions the fairminded man is clearly seen. Too honest to misrepresent, too honorable to urge a weak point, or to attempt to mislead by sophistry, always calm, considerate, and courteous, he triumphed over the most determined opponents.

Of Bishop Seabury, as a theologian, it is hardly necessary for us to speak, nor could justice be done him, in the space that could be allotted to the subject. It is no small praise that he was looked upon by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Hobart, of New York, as one of the soundest divines, and that an eminent British periodical has pronounced him worthy of the best days of English theology.

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For the Evergreen.



"One gone to Sea!"

After this account of Bishop Seabury, no eulogy of ours is necessary. His memory is embalmed in the hearts of all who knew him, many of whom remain to the present time, and the influence of his example and theology can still be seen in all the older parishes, and in all the native clergy of the Diocese. His were the principles of Johnson, and Beach, and Leaming, and Chandler, they ever have been, and still continue to be, and may they ever remain, the principles of the Churchmen of Connecticut. The publications of Bishop Seabury, so far as known, To lure him, and a might to do his will,— are as follows:

1785. His first Charge to the Clergy of his Diocese, on recommending Candidates for Orders, and on Confirmation, delivered Aug. 4, 1785, together with a list of the succession of Scotch Bishops, from the Revolution, in 1688, to that time. Reprinted Conn. Jour. 147-152.

1786. His Second Charge to the Clergy of his Diocese, on the proper deportment of the clergy, the religious errors of the times, and on the Holy Eucharist, delivered Sept. 22, 1786.

The Communion Office, or order for the administration of the Holy Eucharist, or Supper of our Lord, with Private Devotions, recommended to the Episcopal Congregations in Connecticut. An account is given of this Liturgy in the Chronicle of the Church, V. 47.

It hath a solemn sound,-
Gone, with the wealth of all his hoarded hopes
Out on that terrible element, which keeps
No fellowship with man. It hath a smile

Yet, when he least suspects, or with fond trust
Holds dalliance with it, as our Mother gazed
Upon her Eden-tempter, pleased to mark,
His waving coils, uprears a sudden crest,
And sweeps him shuddering, to its depths profound.
"One gone to Sea!"

Perchance, the flush of youth
Upon his cheek. Yet shall he learn
To muse, and to be sad, of thee, Oh Deep!
Full many a lesson hast thou, to subdue
Joy's effervescence, to unstring the nerve,
And stretch the strong man, like the powerless babe,
And make the pleasure-hunters wonder why
They rashly trusted health and life to thee.

"One gone to Sea!"

Perchance, he was the head And glory of a household. Now, each blast And howling storm shall turn her forehead pale, Who liveth but in him. Oft shall she start

1789. The Duty of Considering our Ways; a discourse preached at New London, Dec. 13, 1789, at the ordination of R. Fowle to the holy order of Deacons. 1790. Anonymously. An Address to the Ministers and Congregations of the Presbyterian and Independ-On her lone couch, oppress'd with fearful dreams ent Persuasions in the United States of America. By Of deadly iceberg, or of wrecking bark. a member of the Episcopal Church,-reprinted in the And when the blackening tempest swells the main, Churchman of New York, during the months of April When round the quivering masts red lightnings wind and May, 1841. Their forked spires, and reeling on its way Groans the lash'd vessel like a wounded man,Then thinks the mournful voyager of her, And of his gentle babes, and in the pang That voiceless, grapples, to the Eternal Throne Wrestling once more, those blessed forms to see,— Learns, what the agony of prayer doth mean.

1791. Discourses on several subjects, dedicated to the Episcopal Clergy of Connecticut and Rhode Island, in two volumes. These have been reprinted two or three times.

A Discourse delivered in St. John's Church, N. H., June 29, 1791, at the ordination of Rev. Robert Fowle,

"One gone to Sea!"

Aye, whosoe'er thou art,
We'll pray for thee. The mighty God, who saved
His servant from the lions, seal the mouths
Of the wild surges, that they harm thee not.
God speed thee on thy way, and safely bring
Unto the haven, where thou fain would'st be,
And let thee see thy home, in peace again.

And when with joy, that ne'er was link'd to words,
The first dim outline of thy native hills

Shall meet thine eye, and thine own waving trees,
And at thine threshhold, love, and in thine arms
Those little ones, whom thou in deep despair
Perchance hadst said, thou ne'er should see again,
Make a thank offering of thy heart to God,
And if thou e'er from his dear Cross hast shrank,
Embrace it now, and be the life he spared
From the dark billows, consecrate to Him.

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not," and to reflect upon the shady valley through which all must soon pass, and especially to meditate upon my own uncertain sojourn here below. I then seem to hear in monitory tones, "all flesh is grass, and the glory of man is as the flower of the field." Fresh, blooming, and gay in the morning, it is among the brightest of earth's beauties, scattering its sweet fragrance all around; "in the evening it is cut down and withered;" its glory is no more; its grateful perfume is no longer shed forth. And as my eye rests on the sacred mementos of all the dead, and I read the silent yet speaking inscriptions, I am forcibly taught, in this land of vanishing shadows, "Prepare to meet thy God."

Having dismounted and secured my horse to a branch of the nearest tree, I entered the consecrated enclosure. All nature seemed hushed into a religious silence, save the gentle breathing of the wind, in low and mournful sighs amid the drooping limbs of clustering willows. The monuments of the dead were around me; their ashes beneath my feet; and I truly felt that "this place is holy ground."

A monument near the church, and much less impaired by age than the others, arrested my attention. It was a plain marble slab, supported by four urn-like pillars, and contained the simple epitaph,


I gazed around me to see if the inscription over some adjacent tomb might not afford more satisfactory information concerning " My Louisa ;" but I sought in vain for the least explanation of this brief record, for no other grave was within some yards of the spot where I was standing. I had again begun to meditate on the transitory nature of earthly things, and was contrasting them in my mind with the everlasting glories and blissful life of Heaven, when I saw a middle-aged gentleman clothed in black, come out of the vencrable church. I approached him, and bowing, told him that I was a stranger in this neighborhood, and would be glad to receive any information respecting the tenant of that lonely tomb, about which my curiosity

Ar the close of a beautiful summer afternoon, I was riding leisurely along a road new and strange to me, in one of the southern counties of Maryland, when I found myself approaching one of those old churches which the traveller occasionally passes, in his journey-had been excited. He informed me that he was the ings, through this and the neighboring State, Virginia. clergyman of the parish, and invited me to accompany The many grass-covered graves told that not a few of him to the parsonage, pointing to a neat little house, the slumbering dead reposed beneath the green surface not many rods distant. I thankfully accepted his of the church-yard; and the numerous neat monu- { kindly-offered invitation, and was soon in the midst ments, though many of them were much defaced by the ravages of time, gave evidence that these departed ones had not been forgotten by the surviving friends of former days.

of his happy family, by whom I received a most cordial welcome. After having partaken of a grateful repast, I was favored with the following brief recital from the lips of my new friend, the clergyman.

I love to roam, in pensive thoughtfulness, through Louisa P- was a native of South Carolina. the quiet and consecrated abodes of the dead,-or Her father was a wealthy planter, who justly possessed rather, the resting-place of the earthly remains of the the reputation of being a scholar and a Christian. departed. I delight, at the sober twilight hour, to Her mother died while Louisa was yet an infant, leavwalk with reverential tread amid the grassy tombs, toing to her daughter the inheritance of an untarnishhold silent converse with those who "were, but are ed name, a character of true piety, and an example of

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