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ciples, or mere considerations of expediency, the substance of the arguments on both sides has been faithfully and impartially given. On subjects of party controversy, the author has withheld the expression of his own opinions, deeming it best to leave the unconfirmed politician to the exercise of his own unbiased judgment in forming his conclusions. By thus presenting the different views of our ablest statesmen, the work will be rendered valuable to the political student as a constitutional expositor, and as a guide to the formation of enlightened opinions on questions of public policy; while to the more advanced politician, the great variety of its matter will make it convenient and useful as a book of reference.

Neither the capacity nor the design of this work, has permitted the introduction of local politics. The selection of matter has been almost exclusively confined to subjects of a national character. Notwithstanding the volume has been swelled far beyond its intended size-embracing most of the principal subjects of our political history—much useful and interesting matter has been necessarily passed over, which may hereafter appear in a supplementary volume. It has been an object of much care to make the work a reli

Its statements are founded principally upon the official records of the government. In the condensation of speeches, reports, and other documents, pains have been taken to present their strongest points, as well as their true meaning. Where recourse to other sources of information has been necessary, reference has been had to approved and standard works, among which are those of Marshall, Pitkin, Bancroft, Hildreth, and others.

That the work, nevertheless, contains some slight inaccuracies, is not improbable. Is is believed, however, that it will be found free from material errors ; and that it will be acknowledged to possess claims to the public favor, and conduce in some good degree, to a higher and a more general appreciation of our political institutions.

able one.


debt, 136. Hamilton and Knox resign, 136. The Jay treaty, 137. Public

sentiment respecting it, 139, 140. Randolph resigns ; Bradford dies; Cabinet

appointments, 140. Indian treaty, 140. Treaties with Spain and Algiers, 140.

Presentation of French colors, 141. Debate on the Jay treaty, 142–146. France,

Spain, and Holland dissatisfied with the treaty, 146, 147. Alliance of France

and Spain, 147. Monroe succeeded by Pinckney, 148.


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of defense, 2 19. Embargo, 250. Presidential nominations, 250. War message,

251. War report, 252. French doctrine of neutral rights, 252, 253. War de-

clared, 254. Address of minority of congress, 254-258. Bonaparte's decree

of repeal, 258, 259. Orders in council revoked, 259. Departure of British

minister, (Foster); At Halifax; Armistice proposed and declined, 260, 261.

Number of impressments, 261. War measures, 262. Admission of Louisiana ;

Missouri territory, 262.










Re-election of Madison, 262. Massachusetts and Connecticut disregard war orders,

263. Loan authorized, 263. · Act to relieve importers, 263. Retaliation act,

261. Russian mediation, 261-267. Negotiation for peace; Commissioners,

261–267. Duties and taxes, 261, 265. Embargo, 265. New loan, 266. Em-

bargo and non-intercourse repealed, 266. Restoration of the Bourbons, 267.

Capitol at Washington burned, 268. Further war measures, 289. Hartford

convention, 269-272. State of the finances, 272. National bank proposed, 272.

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