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ciples, or mere considerations of expediency, the substance of the arguments on both sides has been faithfully and impartially given. On subjects of party controversy, the author has withheld the expression of his own opinions, deeming it best to leave the unconfirmed politician to the exercise of his own unbiased judgment in forming his conclusions. By thus presenting the different views of our ablest statesmen, the work will be rendered valuable to the political student as a constitutional expositor, and as a guide to the formation of enlightened opinions on questions of public policy; while to the more advanced politician, the great variety of its matter will make it convenient and useful as a book of reference.
Neither the capacity nor the design of this work, has permitted the introduction of local politics. The selection of matter has been almost exclusively confined to subjects of a national character. Notwithstanding the volume has been swelled far beyond its intended size-embracing most of the principal subjects of our political history—much useful and interesting matter has been necessarily passed over, which may hereafter appear in a supplementary volume. It has been an object of much care to make the work a reli
Its statements are founded principally upon the official records of the government. In the condensation of speeches, reports, and other documents, pains have been taken to present their strongest points, as well as their true meaning. Where recourse to other sources of information has been necessary, reference has been had to approved and standard works, among which are those of Marshall, Pitkin, Bancroft, Hildreth, and others.
That the work, nevertheless, contains some slight inaccuracies, is not improbable. Is is believed, however, that it will be found free from material errors ; and that it will be acknowledged to possess claims to the public favor, and conduce in some good degree, to a higher and a more general appreciation of our political institutions.
THE SETTLEMENT OF THE COLONIES, AND THEIR FORMS OF GOVERNMENT.
Origin of our republican institutions, 21. Charter governments; landing of the
paritans, 22. Government of the New England colonies, 23–26. Royal or
TAXATION OF THE COLONIES, AND OTHER CAUSES OF THE REVOLUTION.-INDE-
The right of colonial taxation by England denied, 33. British navigation acts,
35. Manufactures in colonies suppressed, 36. Stamp act, 37-39. Congress
of deputies' petition for relief, 38. Franklin deputed to England, 39. Parlia-
ment asserts the right to tax in all cases, 39. Glass, paper, &c., taxed, 40.
Enforcement of the laws resisted, 41. Non-importing associations, 41, 42.
General court adjourned to Cambridge, 42. Boston riots, 43. Tea destroyed,
43-44. Boston port bill, 44, 45. Congresses of 1774 and 1775; hostilities
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE CONFEDERATION.-TREATY WITH FRANCE.--- NEGO-
TIATION WITH GREAT BRITAIN.--PEACE.-CALL FOR A CONVENTION.
Nature of the confederation, 48. State governments formed. 49. Alliance with
France ; attempts at conciliation, 50,51. Congress of Vienna, 51. Treaty of
peace, 52. Defects of the confederation, 52. Difficulties with Great Britain
and Spain, 5,5, 56. Shay's insurrection, 56. Movements for a convention, 57.
Cession of the western lands, 58. Anti-slavery ordinance, 58, 59.
PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONVENTION IN FORMING THE CONSTITUTION.
Constitutional convention organized, 60. Plans of government proposed, 61-62.
Slavery and the rdle of apportionment, 61-71. Compromises, 70, 71. Execu-
tive department, plan of, 71, 72. Federalists and anti-federalists 73. Constitu-
MEETING OF THE FIRST CONGRESS.-A SYSTEM OF FINANCE ADOPTED.- THE
FUNDING OF THE PUBLIC DEBT.-THE SEAT OF GOVERNMENT.
Meeting of Congress in New York; election of Washington and Adams; acts for
the encouragenent of manufactures and navigation, 75, 76. Power of removal,
76. Washington's cabinet ; constitutional amendments, 77. Plans of finance ;
funding of the public debt, 78-85. North Carolina ccdes her westeru lands,
PORTIONMENT BILL.-WAR WITH THE WESTERN INDIANS.
Proposed increase of duties, 86. Opposition to the administration, 87. National
bank, 88–91. Kentucky admitted into the union, 92. Apportionment of
representatives, 92. Indian hostilities, 93, 94. Tariff increased, 94.
OPPOSITION TO WASHINGTON'S ADMINISTRATION. — DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
SECRETARIES JEFFERSON AND HAMILTON.-WHISKY INSURRECTION.-FUGI-
TIVE LAW.-CONSTITUTION AMENDED.
Opposition to the administration; Cabinet controversy ; Jefferson and Hamilton,
95–101. Their letters to Washington, 102-104. Whisky insurrection, 105,
106. Re-election of Washington and Adams, 106. Charges against Hamilton,
107. Fugitive slave law, 107, 108. Amendment of the constitution, 108.
DIATION OF NEUTRALITY. — GENET, THE FRENCH MINISTER. - POLICY OF
French revolution, 109. Our relations with France, 110. Proclamation of
neutrality, 111, 112. Difficulties with Genet, the French minister, 112-118.
Democratic societies, 116. Affair of Little Democrat, 117. Genet recalled,
119. Morris recalled from France; Monroe appointed ; Letters of Hamilton
and Madison on the proclamation, 119. British policy, 119, 120.
THE THIRD CONGRESS.—PRESIDENT'S RECOMMENDATIONS.—JEFFERSON'S com-
MERCIAL REPORT; HIS RESIGNATION.-MADISON'S RESOLUTIONS.—PROSPECT
OF WAR WITH GREAT BRITAIN.-JAY'S MISSION TO ENGLAND.
The third congress meets; president's recommendations, 121, 122. Jefferson's
commercial report, 122. Resignation, 124. Madison's resolutions, 124–129.
Naval force against Algiers, 129, 130. Difficulties with Great Britain, 130–134.
Jay's mission to England, 132–134. Charges against Hamilton renewed ; Neu-
DECLINE OF DEMOCRATIC SOCIETIES.-FUNDING SYSTEM CONSUMMATED. -RESIG-
NATION OF HAMILTON AND KNOX.-THE JAY TREATY.-TREATIES WITH SPAIN
Washington against democratic societies, 135. Hamilton's report on the public
debt, 136. Hamilton and Knox resign, 136. The Jay treaty, 137. Public
sentiment respecting it, 139, 140. Randolph resigns ; Bradford dies; Cabinet
appointments, 140. Indian treaty, 140. Treaties with Spain and Algiers, 140.
Presentation of French colors, 141. Debate on the Jay treaty, 142–146. France,
Spain, and Holland dissatisfied with the treaty, 146, 147. Alliance of France
and Spain, 147. Monroe succeeded by Pinckney, 148.
WASHINGTON DECLINES ANOTHER REELECTION.-HIS LAST ANNUAL MESSAGE.-
MR. PINCKNEY EXPELLED FROM FRANCE. ELECTION OF ADAMS AND JEFFER-
Washington declines another re-election, 148. His suspicions of Jefferson, 149, 150.
The Mazzei letter, 150. Forged letters, 151. French minister and the election,
152. Tri-colored cockade, 153. Washington's last message, 153, 154. French
government refuse to receive Pinckney, 155. Election of Adams and Jefferson,
INAUGURATION OF MR. ADAMS. -RELATIONS WITH FRANCE.-SPECIAL SESSION. -
Adams' inauguration and address, 157-160. His cabinet, 160. Ministers abroad,
160. Unlawful decree of France, 160. Defense measures; Stamp act. 161.
Envoys to France, 162. Novel diplomacy, 162–165. Acts of non-intercourse
and defense against France, 165. Navy department established, 166. Wash-
ington again commander-in-chief, 166. Other army appointments, 166. Opposi-
tion to the administration, 167. Jefferson's letters to Madison, 167, 168.
" Black cockade federalist,” 168. Mississippi territory, 169. Alien and sedi-
tion laws ; Virginia and Kentucky resolutions ; Nullification, 172-176. Case
A new mission to France; Dissensions in the administration, 178–180. Another
revolution in France, 181. Treaty negotiated, 182, 183. Ratified, 184.
Newspaper press, 184–186. Resistance to tax law in Pennsylvania, 186–187.
Sixth congress, first session, 187. Indiana territory, 188. Rupture in the
cabinet, 188–189. Presidential election, 189-192. Jefferson and Burr, 191, 192.
New judicial act, 190. Implication and vindication of Bayard and others,
MR. JEFFERSON'S INAUGURATION.--APPOINTMENTS. - NATURALIZATION. -PUR-
Inauguration of Mr. Jefferson, and address, 196–198. His cabinet, 198.
Appointments and removals, 198–202. Acts passed, 1801-1802; 'Use of the
port of New Orleans interrupted, 204. Purchase of Louisiana, 203-209.
Monroe succeeds Rufus King at London, 208. Spain dissatisfied with the
purchase of Louisiana, 209. Division of the territory, 209. Attempt to
introduce slavery into Indiana, 209, 210. Amendment of the constitution, 210.
Spain refuses to ratify a treaty for indemnity, 210. Louisiana boundary, 210-
211. Spain consents to the transfer, 211. Treaty of boundary with Great
MR. JEFFERSON'S RE-ELECTION.-RELATIONS WITH FRANCE AND ENGLAND.---
TREATY WITH THE LATTER REJECTED.-AFFAIR OF THE CHESAPEAKE. —
Re-election of Jefferson, 212, Gunboat system, 212, 213. Indiana and Orleans
territories, 213. Jefferson's inauguration, 214-216. Relations with Spain,
England, and France, 216–218. Madison's statement; Seamen impressed,
218, 219. Two million bill, 219, 220. Randolph's defection, 219, 220. Non-
intercourse with St. Domingo, 220. Retaliatory duties ; Act for defense, 220.
Cumberland Road, 220. Negotiations with Spain, 221. Treaty with England
rejected, 221, 222. Affair of the Chesapeake, 223-225. Slave trade prohibited,
THE COMMERCIAL WARFARE BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND THE
UNITED STATES. -BRITISH ORDERS IN COUNCIL.FRENCH, BERLIN, AND
MILAN DECREES.—THE EMBARGO, &C. —DIPLOMATIC DISCUSSIONS.
British orders in council; Berlin and Milan decrees of France, 226–2:28. Embargo,
&c., 228. Suppressedl documents, 229-231. Effects of embargo, 232. Non-
intercourse law, 232-233. British negotiation, (Erskine and Jackson,) 233-
231. Rambouillet decree, 231. Conditional non-intercourse, 231. Conditional
revocation of French decrees, 235. Non-intercourse with France revoked, 235.
Diplomatic discussion between the United States and Great Britain, (Monroe
and Foster,) 235-240. French restrictions still continue, 211, 212. Supposed
objects of Great Britain and France, 243. Secretary Smith's resignation and
of defense, 2 19. Embargo, 250. Presidential nominations, 250. War message,
251. War report, 252. French doctrine of neutral rights, 252, 253. War de-
clared, 254. Address of minority of congress, 254-258. Bonaparte's decree
of repeal, 258, 259. Orders in council revoked, 259. Departure of British
minister, (Foster); At Halifax; Armistice proposed and declined, 260, 261.
Number of impressments, 261. War measures, 262. Admission of Louisiana ;
Missouri territory, 262.
OF MR. MADISOX.-CONTROVERSY WITH
CONNECTICUT.-RUSSIA OFFERS TO MEDIATE.-DUTIES AND TAXES. —EMBAR-
GO. ITS SUDDEN
REPEAL.-OFFER TO NEGOTIATE.ACCEPTED.-CAPITOL
BURNED.-HARTFORD CONVENTION.-BANK PROJECTS.
Re-election of Madison, 262. Massachusetts and Connecticut disregard war orders,
263. Loan authorized, 263. · Act to relieve importers, 263. Retaliation act,
261. Russian mediation, 261-267. Negotiation for peace; Commissioners,
261–267. Duties and taxes, 261, 265. Embargo, 265. New loan, 266. Em-
bargo and non-intercourse repealed, 266. Restoration of the Bourbons, 267.
Capitol at Washington burned, 268. Further war measures, 289. Hartford
convention, 269-272. State of the finances, 272. National bank proposed, 272.