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“ Between the two stools, then, she fell to opened the windows of heaven, and poured the ground?” said I, musingly.

down upon palace and dome, temple and altar “Yes, sir,” added the guide; "and I believe a deluge. I look down into the flood, and I see there is something in the proverb, which says in imagination festive scenes within those beauthat 'one had better have the devil for his tiful but desolate palaces. At the window sits friend than have none.'

my lost love, she who was faithless to me; an] Upon this we issued from the church and re- now she sits there as if she were looking for me sumed our carriage, to set out for the capitol with a beseeching look, spreading out her arms on the Capitoline Hill. Before leaving the imploringly, and entreating me to take her Piazza del Popolo, however, I should not omit again. No: it is only the pictured form of my to give it credit for a fine Egyptian obelisk of own sorrow, which will never again find its brown stone, of great antiquity, brought from other self, for which it has all its life been longthe temple of the sun at Heliopolis, but now ing. The water still runs, unconscious of the consecrated at its summit by a Christian cross. past, and in the very bed which it pursued when Neither should I forget to mention my guide's it was the line that divided ancient Latium and warning that the Piazza del Popolo is generally Etruria. A few villas ventured out a little dissubject to malaria during the summer months, tance from the city here and there; and now and and is by no means a place to promenade in then a village, with its clump of trees, might after nightfall, when the pestiferous miasma de- be seen to diversify the prospect furtber on; scends upon the earth. We retraversed the whole but everything seemed faded, and the sapless Corso, and the entire length of the city, to get earth looked as if nothing could redeem it into to the Capitoline Hill, that celebrated spot which verdure. Nearer, where we stood, clustered performed so important a part in the history the habitable quarters; and we saw, distinctly of ancient Rome. The carriage ascent is made marked upon the seven hills, the bones of the by two rather steep and crescent-shaped old metropolis, mixed in great part among the avenues, which skirt the main steps and meet living structures and veins and muscles of the in a platform above, the sides of which are lined new. Prominent in the latter division swelled by two palaces of art, and the background oc- the proud cathedral of St. Peter, and superior cupied by the palace of the senator, containing above all the remains of the dead city, loomed offices justice, and surmounted by a tower. the great mastodon of edifices, the fractured, The ascent to the platform is rendered imposing roofless, and empty carcass of the coliseum, by two gigantic statues of Castor and Pollux woeful, but not voiceless; desolate, but not standing by their horses; and the platform or undignified; mightiest of its day, but mightier square itself is ornamented by. å mounted because its day is past, and containing more, bronze figure of Marcus Durelius, which is in the ivyless circle of its walls, of the history said to be the finest equestrian statue in exist- of departed times, than the tongues of a thouence. The tower of this capitol itself was what sand living lecturers can teach. I wished to see, for from this point is opened Having studied Rome from this height for out as in a map all the divisions of the old and an hour or more, I descended and entered the new city; we therefore mounted without delay, palace to the right of the platform, wbich is and after a tedious circuit round many a flight called the museum of the Capitol. I found it of stairs, as if we were on a treadmill, we filled with marbles of the rarest merit, which found ourselves in the open belfry of the had been gathered from time to time from the tower, with a grand panorama lying wide excavated Roman palaces they once adorned. round us, and narrowing in a city which There lay,resting on his elbow, the blood flowing nestled at feet. That which spread from his side, the Dying Gladiator, the Faun out in the distance was the blank campagna, of Praxiteles, Hebe, and the famous Antoninus, sere and burnt: and further on, over its brown which for a time contended for the palm of exwaste, appeared the reliefs of the Sabine quisite manly beauty with the Apollo Belvidere. hills next the mountains, whence of old the A lovely Venus stands, with all that bewitching Volai issued; and further still, the Appennines charm which holds you to the spot; and here a to the south, lay the pestilential Pontine winged figure appears in a listening attitude, marshes. Near was a portion of the plain leaning forward as if he were one of the where once was pitched the camp of Hanibal, banished gods, imprisoned in marble, expecting and there I saw the Tiber, with its silvery some deliverer who would grant life and liberty waters still so clear that, when on its shores, from those stone walls where he is made a you could see the stones and the fish at the bot. show, and who would give him, with all the tom

other poor afflicted deities, power and dominion “ The hills that seemed a world on high, again. The lake that seemed a downward sky." Look at the majesty and power of that

Minerva, with that terrible Medusa's head upon For in that water ruined column and pillar, her breast: you turn your head away as if you trees and hills were pictured; so that it seemed feared to be turned into stone. See those two as if you were looking upon some city below the lovely figures, one all nobility and majesty, the water, struck by the malediction of heaven for other all sweetness, loveliness, and grace. The the wickedness of its inhabitants, which had, form of their sandals is also different, their while they were feasting and rejoicing, suddenly I robes are gathered up with a proud dignity~ja




the former, a Roman lady, with a negli. 1 in Rome, and often reproduced in Mosaics. gence and careless grace, as if all her move- Then I proceeded to the house of the celebrated ments were set to some bidden music in the senator Rienzi, the last of the Tribunes. It is Grecian figure. Look at those sphynxes, with now used as a stable, and after seeing it we retheir lovely woman's bead and bust; do they turned to the Hotel d'Angleterre, and I retired not seem inviting you, like Fleine's sphynx, to to dream over again of all I had seen during the come and throw your arms round them? They day. seem to breathe, and the sun shining through I was awakened at an early hour of my second the stained window brings the delicate flush of day in the holy city by the sound of the detachthe maiden rose upon their face. You turn ment of soldiers under my windows. Shortly away, for you feel as if you attempted it they after followed the carol of a trumpet and the would fix their cruel claws in you, which you clatter of hoofs; and somewhat later came the would be utterly unable to shake off, and which, grand swell of a full band, and the precise like the sharp arrows of retributive justice, you tramp of a heavy column of infantry. All these

, would bear with you all your life. Then you signs reminded me that the Gauls were once seo scattered about mutilated forms of loveli- more masters of Rome; and I could not help ness, and it would be quite possible here to play reflecting on this parody of ancient history. with the heads and crowns of kings as the old The grandeur of the Coliseum the day before Romans did in the time of their prosperity and bad made a profound impression on my mind, power. The museum opposite, called the Pa- and early as it was I set out to renew my aclace of the Conservatori, consists of a collec. quaintance with its remains. I had the visit țion of marble busts, many of them by the cele- quite to myself, and walked for a time about its brated sculptor Canova. Lovely frescoes look vast arena where once had thronged the myriads down, and appear to beckon you. In the large of the imperial city, quite alone. No sound dishall upstairs is another splendid collection turbed the solitude of the place but the dull of paintings, and there, in bronze, is the famous echo of my own footfall; no object moved exnurse which reared Romulus and Remus, al- cept some gliding lizard startled by my step. luded to by Cicero ; also the two bronze geese, Presently there entered, by one of the gaps tothe originals of which, by their cackling, spared wards the open country, an old woman leading the city from being sacked by the Goths. Who- a little girl' by the hand, who, advancing to a ever has lived near a farm-yard can credit the rude cross planted in the centre of the arena, story, by the painful experience of having your knelt piously before it, and devoted themselres rest continually broken by the descendants of to prayer. Their last act was to rise and kiss the old Roman geese; for nothing stirs but they the cross, whereupon they went their way. I lift up their sharp cackle-though their little found that this cross, and a plain pulpit near it, ones' safety, and not yours, is their aim. were established in commemoration of the mas

Leaving the museum, and taking a turn to sacres of the early Christians who had perished the left, through a dirty street, which seemed to within these valls, and the kissing of the cross bring up ducks as if they were an honour to conferred an indulgence to the pilgrims of two the place, we came to a rude garden-gate, and, hundred days. The form of the Coliseum is ringing á bell

, a stout, good-natured looking oval, or elliptical, and its extent may be conwoman came forth, who let us in, and we found veyed by the fact that its structure covers nearly our way to a corner of the garden six acres of ground, and that its four storeys guide assured me was the veritable spot whence were originally 157 feet in height. Eightythe great criminals from the capitoline dun- seven thousand people were provided with seats geons, and the traitors to the state, were cast around its arena, wbile, if the arena itself were headlong down the rock in the times of old. filled, as in case of a popular assemblage, it Most travellers have not been impressed with might have held the population of all Rome. the Tarpeian height, which history has repre- Underneath the platform or floor of the amphisented so awful; but I confess it seemed quite theatre, which was supposed to have been laid sufficient for all purposes of state, and sure to with wood, were situated a row of dungeons break any one's neck who was cast headlong and dens, one containing malefactors or hereforth. The precipice is much reduced by the tics, who were to be torn to pieces, and the accumulation of soil, which has gathered at its other tigers, and other wild beasts, who were to base more freely than in any other place, and tear them. The gladiators, who contended, its height is now sixty or seventy feet. In the hand-to-hand for victory and life, were brought cool of the evening 1 drove first along the in from better quarters, to pay the spectators for Corso and then to the Coliseum, passing in my their good food and training by vigorous way the ruins of the palace of the Cæsars, and strokes at their opponents. These combatants the arch of Constantine. Pursuing my way

were either brawny malefactors, or Goths, or I reached the superb arch of Titus, the model of Gauls captured in the way of war. the gigantic one in Paris at the Barrier de

The scene is changed now, and French l'Etoile

, in commemoration of the victories of drums roll saucily about these humbled ruins, Napoleon. Then I came upon the beautiful though still the vastest recollection of old Rome. little temple of Vesta, a model of which many The Coliseum has been

much reduced, and has of my readers must have seen in the Bodleian suffered more from the hands of domestic library. This is one of the best preservations spoilers than from the tooth of Time, or the spite



I was

of the barbarians, who at various times became conflagration; it has escaped the ferocity of masters of the city. Two-thirds of its material are Attilla, the wantonness of Genseric Guiscard said to have been carried away by the Ro- | Vitiges, and, what is even more to be dreaded, man magnates of the middle ages, for the modern ravages of art; time even, and its construction of their lordly dwellings, and storms, have been unable to conquer it: it has three or four extensive palaces were built yielded but in one way. The faith to which it entirely with stones taken from it. For more was sanctified is no more practised witbin its than two hundred years it lay open to the walls : in turn it has lent its altars to pagans plunder of all who wished to avail them- and idolaters. One by one their doctrines have selves of hewn stone for building, and yet so faded out, and it is now occupied by the min. enormous is its size that you can scarcely dis- isters of the Christian church. tinguish at a casual glance where it has lost any “What revolution for its altars yet ?" was the stone. The spoliation of the mammoth was question that rose in my mind as I looked at stopped, however, in the fifteenth century, and the stately edifice, and peopled it again with Pope Paul VII., solicitous for its continued pre- sacrifices, priests, and pagan deities. servation, nerved it with iron clamps, and From the Pantheon I drove to St. Peter's, propped its southern side with a strong wall of the grandest monument of Modern Rome, and masonry. The building is so immense that the doubtless the most wondrous pile that ever was wall looks only like a piece of cord encircling constructed, whether old or new. The site of

Then I visited the Mamertine prisons- the Coliseum is not much more vast, and its those awful stone dungeons underground where purposes condenned its grandeur mainly to the Jujurtha was starved to death, and where St. magnificence of its size; while St. Peter's unites Peter is said to have been confined.

size and dignity, beauty, harmony, proportion, shown the pillar to which they said he was and everything that can render architecture atchained, and was refreshed by the mark of his tractive and imposing. The Coliseum spans feet on the spot where he stood and performed six acres, St. Peter's covers nearly five, and St. certain miracles. There were no fragments left Paul's, London, only occupies two. The foun. of the chain which fell to pieces when he was dation of St. Peter's was laid by Pope Julius II., miraculously released at the summons of the in 1506, on the site of an old church built by angel; but I had seen one of the links of that the Emperor Constantine, to mark St. Peter's chain at the church of the eleven thousand grave. For a time it proceeded slowly, but in virgins at Cologne, so my curiosity was satisfied the middle of the century it was committed to upon that point.

the charge of Michael Angeloma man who from After breakfast I drove to the Roman Forum, the boldness of his genius was best fitted to be and thence to visit several pagan temples now entrusted with this work. When he sat down to converted into Christian churches, and I suspect, his task, the size of the Coliseum was doubtless in some instances, the very pagan gods are there first in bis mind; then came to him the chaste sanctified and christened by the names of the and surpassing beauty of the Pantheon. He Apostles. I finished my researches among an- was troubled; for no calculation of means tiquities for the day by a visit to the Pantheon, would enable him to lay out his foundation to the best preserved and most famous in the way the enormous platform of the first, and even his of architectural excellence of any of the remains genius must have felt dubious of executing the of Rome. It is the portico, however, which has second-the architectural gem of 1800 years. gained for the Pantheon its great reputation. He could not attempt to make the cathedral The Pantheon simply consists of a portico of excel the Coliseum in bulk. “But as for the sixteen Corinthian columns supporting a plain Pantheon,” said Angelo, " I will take that and pediment, eight columns being ranged in front, put it into the dome of St. Peter's.” And and the rest in rows behind, so as to make a there it stands, with the exception of its portico, vestibule of columns. The body of this build poised 150 feet above the ground-floor in the ing before which this is placed is a plain ro- air. The task of laying out a plan for the tunda, supporting a dome of exquisite proporcathedral was not confided to Micbael Angelo tions, the centre of which is open to the air by till he was 75; but it may be named as the a circular aperture in the roof bound with a rim greatest achievement of his life. On the day of brass. There are no windows at all; through after visiting it I was asked by a friend, of what the open circle in the dome alone comes all the material it was made; and so strongly did the light and air for the space within, and through triumph of the architect dwell upon me that I that opening for nearly 12,000 years have the involuntarily answered that it was built out of elements beaten without damage to the structure. the

genius of Michael Angelo, and that every The effect, both within and without, is very fine, arch and pillar was a portion of the majestic and still more so as you look at it. That is the structure of his mind. law with all true excellence. Anything that is On entering the church I did not find myself really good disdains to triumph, except through as suddenly impressed with its vastness as I er. the most deliberate operations of the judgment. pected, and it was not till I had been there some The Pantheon has too a more teeming history time that I began to comprehend the extent. I than any of the monuments of ancient Rome. was brought into contact with marble statues It has weathered all the vicissitudes of Govern- which seemed to be of the size of life, but ment; it has stood unscathed amid barbarian proved of gigantic size. The figures on the dome, worked in mosaic, shared in this illusion, that it seems to be gently drifting into air. In and yet they were 16 feet high; while a pen in this you behold the last refinement of art, and I the hand of St. Mark, which appeared in a curve felt that in the Apollo I had witnessed the of the ceiling like an ordinary goose-quill, I was highest triumph of the chisel. This Apollo was told measured six feet. Everything inside this found among the ruins of Antium, and brought grand cathedral was on the same scale as the to Rome in the sixteenth century. The Laocoon exterior, and every figure is consistent with its was taken from the ruins of the palace of the size; the floor is laid with coloured marbles, Emperor Titus. It was discovered in 1506 by the niches filled with statues of the saints, and a poor man, and so highly was this wonder of the side-chapels and walls decorated with su- art esteemed that the Pope conferred upon him perb mosaic copies of the great paintings of the a large share of the revenues of one of the city old masters. The high altar stands in the cen- gates as his reward. All, or nearly all, of the tre of the church, under the dome and directly marbles in this museum were recovered in this over the sepulchre of St. Peter, and round the way, and most of them exhibit the highest steps which lead to the shrine 112 lamps are evidences of genius. Excavations are concontinually burning, night and day. I thought, tinually going on-sometimes by private persons as I looked at this pious display, of the masses and sometimes on Government account, and which Henry V. of England had vainly decreed hardly a day passes but some new and long-lost should be annually said over his body in West- gem of art is brought to light. Old Rome lies minster Abbey, and of the lights which Queen buried under the modern surface of the earth Eleanor had ineffectually ordered should burn some sixteen or eighteen feet, and in many for ever round her tomb in the same place, and places parts of the city are built above the surI wondered how many centuries these lights face of the old. This proceeds from the drift would live against some new reformation, or and accumulation of the soil that has been going new revolution in the church. Around the altar on for nearly ten centuries, and it very often and against the shafts of the dome are the happens that in excavating for a foundation of statues of four saints who, in balconies above a house, some antique boudoir of lady fair, with their heads, have the custody of the most even her gems, rings, and armlets preserved, or choice relics of the church. One of these library of learned senator, is broken suddenly contains the bandkerchief with which Jesus into and the graceful marbles extracted. The wiped his face when bearing the cross, and French have unburied many gems of art since which is said to bear a veritable repre- they have been here : among their worthiest sentation of His features; another holds efforts are unearthing the beautiful columns in portion of the true cross. St. Andrew guards the Forum Trajan, and clearing the floor of the the relics of his own head, and St. Longinus Coliseum of its immense deposits of earth and (the soldier who pierced the side of Christ) still rubbish. The statues and busts are always keeps the custody of his own lance. Another found embedded in the earth, lying in various relic in the same circle are two columns brought positions as they fell--some broken and some from the original temple at Jerusalem. At one unimpaired. They are always swathed with a time I saw 60,000 soldiers stand up and hear rather compact coating of clay, which windingmass in the aisles, which will give some faint sheet is formed of the dampness of the stone, idea of the immense extent of the place. making the earth plastic in its curves. When

From St. Peter's I turned into the adjoining marbles are thus discovered they belong (as do palace of the Vatican, which contains a famous all hidden treasures) to the Government, and museum of marbles and paintings. Here I saw deportation is forbidden by heavy penalties. the celebrated School of Athens, by Raphael, and This is a wise arrangement on the part of Rome. the Last Judgment, by Michael Angelo. The Her stock-in-trade is religion and treasures in most beautiful specimens of art were lavished the arts, and if either were reduced, the pilgrims on wall and ceiling. There are more than three who now support her would decrease, and she thousand specimens of sculpture among the would, in a few years, be little better than the finest of which is the Laocoon and Apollo Bel- waste which now spreads over the grave of videre. It is difficult to describe the effect pro- Athens. duced by the Apollo. The figure is so delicately Rome has one plague-its dirt, and teeming beautiful, yet so vigorous ; so calmly dignified, liliputian population which give you no rest, yet so full of action, that life is infused into it, day nor night. My guide pointed out the site and you can fancy that you hear it breathe. It of the column on which Nero fiddled after he is full of majesty, without being theatrical, as if had set the city on fire; but I rejected the Apollo had sought refuge in the marble bimself fable. The real history of the affair must be till the predicted time should come when the that Nero burned the city as a sanitary measure old gods and goddesses themselves should re- to destroy the dirt and minute scourges of the sume their sway, and, breaking away from city, and the story of his fiddling is a mere their several prisons, once more ride in position myth. as that of an archer who has just let fly a shaft ; From St. Peter's I paid a visit to several and by looking at the noble sportsman's face other churches, the most renowned of which is you can fairly travel with the arrow, and rest the basilisk of St. John of Lateran, celebrated with his eye upon the stricken game. The for its Lateran councils, and also for its scalamantle that falls from his right arm is so airy | santa, or holy stairs : these are twenty-eight marble steps, said to be the identical ones that these may be classed the villas Albani aod belonged to the staircase in Pilate's house, down Buyese, which are suburban palaces beyood the which Christ descended after He had been ad-walls. All these sumptuous palaces are filled judged to death. At the top of thein is a with the most rare and costly works of art, chapel containing a picture of our Saviour, as shown willingly; for it tempts the world to He appeared at the age of twelve-said to be visit Rome. The exhibition of wealth in any painted by St. Luke, and to be a faithsul likeness shape wields the same description of control in lineament and expression.* Crowds of de- over the mass of minds, and in tame countries votees visit here, and always ascend the stair- like this, when skilfully managed and amicably case on their knees; and so devoutly has this represented, often becomes a substitute for å duty been performed that the marble is pro- large standing-army. The possession of these tected from further wear by an outer covering | palaces and grand collections of pictures does of boards, which has been several times re- not always argue wealth, for the owners of some newed. The other relics of this church are a of them which would be in themselves worth a slab of porphyry, on which the soldiers cast large fortune in many parts of Europe, are really Jots for the raiment of our Saviour; a column in narrow circumstances; and, were it not for of the temple at Jerusalem, said to have been their pride, would be glad themselves to receive split when the vail of the temple was rent the gratuities given to their attendants. This is in twain ; and a miraculous altar-table. The owing to the craving which at one part of their quality of the latter is that if the priest who lives leads them into vast purcbases of paintings, administers the Sacrament should be sceptical and to the disability which in another prevents of the real presence of the body of the Saviour, their selliog them again except in Rome. It is the consecrated wafer would drop from his astonishing to see the enormous wealth con. hands and sink through the marble-slab of the sumed here in the shape of mosaic tables, altar, leaving a hole through which it passed. pictures, statuary, and carving. The owner of

The magnificence of St. John's will bear one of these palaces might say, with truth: description either with that of Santa Maria “There in that corner, in the shape of a mosaic Maggiore San Paulo, or any other basiliscas of table, is the best portion of the life of one great the same stamp. The church of the Capuchins genius, which I purchased for 2,000 scudi. contains Guido's celebrated picture of the arch- Upon that canvas is six years' occupation angel, and the church is likewise interesting for of one of the most renowned painters of the age; its vaulted cemetery beneath, in which lie ranged and in that chamber, ranged round, is a series the skulls and skeletons of the brotherhood, of tableaux that represent the entire existence labelled and named according to the order of of one of the best colourists who ever lived." their death.

These are boasts — proud ones; but they “This was the skull of my companion," said mark a condition of affairs which is not the the stout father who showed us through, picking proudest boast of a state. The Quirinal palace a skull from the heap and tapping it on the of his Holiness is a very superb residence. It forehead. There was an inscription on the is well ornamented with large paintings of scripcrown, to say that its owner had died in 1839. ture subjects, and the general tint of the apart

There are four apartments in the cemetery, ments is crimson, the Papal colour prevailing on and the centre of each is devoted to a plot of the walls as well as in the hangings. I entered earth brought from the sacred city of Jerusalem, one grand apartment, however, the centrepiece and divided into graves. As the old padre who of which was a fine fresco of Jupiter, and some was with us pointed with his key to the spot of his heathen satellites. Another room, lined which he said would be his when he died, I also with crimson, and leading out into the thought I could discover a gleam of calm con. garden, was occupied with a billiard-table. In tentment in his eye. The spot to which he the Palace Rospigliosi, I saw the original of pointed is the oldest grave in the cemetery, and Guido's celebrated picture of Aurora, and in it is the custom, when a brother dies, to inter the Spada gallery I was shown the colossal him here and place the remains of the previous statue of Pompey, before which Brutus and occupants on the shelves. If, however, the one Cassius struck Cæsar, and at the base of which who is thus unearthed be a friar of distinction, he fell. his skeleton may perhaps be riveted together I had a delightful drive through the ghetto, and stand up gripning, with a malicious ex- or Jews' quarter of the town, near the bill where pression at the stranger, looking more hideous St. Peter was crucified, then to the famous tomb from having a cowl and hood about it, along of Cæcilia Metella, and finally to the great rewith other grim and awful forms which at in- mains of the baths of Caracalla. The Jer's tervals keep guard over the heaps of bones. quarter is inconceivably dirty, and the persons

I was delighted with the palaces of the Vati- of the Hebrews who inbabit it are in keeping can and Quiriual belonging to his Holiness with it. Unhappy as is their condition, living the Pope, and the palaces Barbarini, Colonna, amid a population and government who detest Corsini, Farnese, Rospigliosi, and Spada; with them, there are 8,000 of them in the city

proving their title to be considered a remarkable * On the altar at the head of the sacred stairs is people, by flourishing in the bonds of oppresinscribed : “There is no place in the whole worla sion. The baths of Caracalla are next to the Colimore sacred than this.”

seum, the most stupendous remains of ancient



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