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BY M. L. R.
I see a beautiful river,
Like a silver ribbon unrolled : On its banks is a shining harvest
Ripened and yellow as gold.
And voyagers float on the current,
Striving each to be first in the race, And they heed not the rich abundance
Left thus on the banks to waste.
They stop their ears to the voices
Calling clear from the burdened land : Shouting, "Come to the fields and labour,
There is work for every hand."
he had ever loved the darling of his age, now on the eve of a first separation, broke out into extravagant joy at the prospect, and testified no anxiety at the separation but to take with him his playthings and his dumb favourites, the sudden revulsion of feelings came upon Andrew, like an ice-bolt, and there he stood motionless, looking sternly and fixedly on the poor child, who was soon awed and 'silenced by his father's unwonted aspect, and stood trembling before him, fearing he knew not what. At last he softly wbispered, sidling closely up, and looking earnestly and fearfully in his father's face:
“Shall I not go to school, then ? Old Jenny said I should.”
The second quiet interrogatory restored to Andrew the use of speech, and the mastery over all his softer feelings.
“Yes," he replied, taking the boy's hand and grasping it within his own as he led him homeward. “Yes, Josiah, you shall go to school, you have been kept too long at home ; to-morrow is Sunday, but on Monday you shall go. On Monday, my child, you shall leave your father.”
That last sentence and a something he perceived but did not comprehend in his father's manner and voice, painfully affected the boy; and be burst into tears, and clinging to his father's arms, sobbed out :
“But you will go with me, father, and you will come and see me every day, will you not? and I shall soon come home again ?”
That artless burst of natural affection fell like balm on Andrew's irritable feelings, and he caught up the child and blessed and kissed him; and then they “reasoned together," and the father told his boy how he should fetch him home every Saturday with Dobbin, and how they should still go hand-in-hand to church on Sunday, and how his lamb and the gray colt should be taken care of in his absence; and his hoop and other toys might be carried with him to school. Then the child began again his joyous prattle with now and then a sob between, and the father kissed his wet glowing cheek, carrying him all the way home in his arms; and thus lovelingly they entered the little garden and the pretty cottage, and sat down side-by-side to the neat homely ineal old Jenny had provided.
(To be continued.)
But onward, with joy and laughter,
In their happiness float along, While the rippling waters answer
To the music of their song.
They say: "We were made for the sunshine,
And to follow in pleasure's train : We scorn the toil of the harvest,
We hunger not for the grain.”
But God has raised up reapers
To bind up the golden sheaves, And God has appointed gleaners
For all that the binder leaves.
With prayer and an upward looking,
With a sickle keen and bright, They reap the glorious harvest
Of purity, wisdom, and light.
And the precious seed they gather
In the season of hope and youth, Shall live in its sweetest fullness
In the blessed bread of truth.
A TRUE COMPLIMENT.
“ Longfellow,” says a popular writer, “is the healthiest, the heartiest, and the most harmonious of all the American poets. True to nature, he is truest to himself. The most barren legend is made fruitful by the warmth and fervour of his intellect; but when, as in the song of Hiawatha, he adopts a tradition intrinsically charged with the elements of social progress, his genious, bearing its broad pinions to the sky, shows us only the more unmistakably how yearningly it leads to man and to man's happiness."
The bread for the perishing body,
For the heart that is fainting and chilled, The food for the soul of the mourner,
Of which all can eat and be filled.
WOMAN'S WORK IN THE MIDDLE AGES.
King Arthur's sword, Excalibur,
Sir Bedivere's heart misgave him twice ere ters of the Middle Ages were perforce domeshe could obey the dying commands of King tic; no wonder they excelled in needlework. Arthur, and fling away 80 precious a relic. The To women of any culture it was almost the only lonely maiden's industry has been equalled by tangible form of creative art they could commany of her mortal sisters, sitting, not indeed mand, and the love of the beautiful implanted “ upon the hidden bases of the hills,” but in all in their souls must find some expression. The the varied human habitations built above them great pattern-book of nature, filled with graceful since the days of King Arthur.
forms, in ever-varied arrangement, and illumiThe richness, beauty, and skill displayed in nated by delicate tints or gorgeous hues, sugthe needlework of the Middle Ages demonstrate gested the beauty they endeavoured to reprethe perfection that art had attained; while sent. Whether religious devotion, human af. church inventories, wills, and costumes repre- fection, or a taste for dress prompted them, the sented in the miniatures of illuminated manu- needle was the instrument to effect their purscripts and elsewhere, amaze us by the quan- pose. The monogram of the ssed Mary's tity as well as the quality of this department name, intertwined with pure white lilies on the of woman's work. Though regal robes and deep blue ground, was designed and embroi. heavy church vestments were sometimes wrought dered with holy reverence, and laid on the altar by monks, yet to woman's taste and skill the of the Lady-chapel by the trembling hand of greater share of the result must be attributed, one whose sorrows had there found "solace, or the professional bands being those of nuns and by another in token of gratitude for joys which their pupils in convents. The life of woman in were heightened by a conviction of celestial those days was extremely monotonous. For sympathy. The pennon of the knight-a silken the mass of the people there hardly existed any streamer affixed to the top of the lance-bore means of locomotion, the swampy state of the his crest, or an emblematic allusion to some land in England and on the continent allowing event in his career, embroidered, it was supfew roads to be made, except such as were tra- posed, by the hand of his lady-love. A yet versed by pack-horses. Ladies of rank who more sacred gift was the scarf worn across the wisbed to journey were borne on litters carried shoulder-an indispensable appendage to upon men's shoulders ; and, until the fourteenth knight fully equipped. and fifteenth centuries, few representations of Not only were the appointment of the warcarriages appear. Such a conveyance is de- riors adorned by needlework, but the ladies picted in an illustration of the Romance of the must have found ample scope for industry and Rose, where Venus, attired in the fashionable taste in their own toilets. The Anglo-Saxon costume of the fifteenth century, is seated in a women as far back as the eighth century exchare, by courtesy a chariot, but in fact acelled in needlework, although judging from the clumsy covered waggon without springs. Six representations which have come down to us, doves are perched upon the shafts, and fastened their dress was much less ornamented than that by mediæval harness. The goddess of course of the gentlemen. During the eighth, ninth, possessed superbuman powers for guiding this and tenth centuries there were few changes in extraordinary equipage, but to mere mortals it fashion. A purple gown or robe, with long must have been a slow coach, and a horribly | yellow sleeves, and coverchief wrapt round the uncomfortable conveyance even when horses head and neck, frequently appears, the edges were substituted for doves. An ordinance of of the long gown and sleeves being slightly orPhilip le Bel, in 1294, forbids any wheel- namented by the needle. How the ladies carriages to be used by the wives of citizens, as dressed their bair in those days is more diffitoo great a luxury. As the date of the coach cult to decide, as the coverchief conceals it. which Venus guides is two hundred years later, Crisping needles to curl and plait the hair, and it is difficult to imagine what style of equipage golden hair-cauls, are mentioned in Saxon belonged to those ladies over whom Philip le writings, and give us reason to suppose that Bel tyrannized.
the locks of the fair damsels were not neglected. With so little means of going about, our sis. In the eleventh century the embroidery upon
the long gowns becomes more elaborate, and neither train nor jewels, but her dress is likeother changes of the mode appear.
Wise formed of different material, divided like From the report of an ancient Spanish bal- that of the Dauphine. Six little parrots are lad, the art of needlework and taste in dress emblazoned on the right side, one on her must have attained great perfection in that sleeve, two on her corsage, and three on her country while our Anglo-Saxon sisters were skirt. The fashion of embroidering armorial wearing their plain long gowns. The fair bearings on ladies' dresses must liave given Sybilla is described as changing her dress seven needlewomen a vast deal of work. It died out times in one evening, on the arrival of that suc- in the fifteenth century. cessful and victorious knight, Prince Baldwin. It was the custom in feudal times for knightly First, she dazzles him in blue and silver, with a families to send their daughters to the castles rich turban; then appears in purple satin, of their suzerain lords, to be trained to weave fringed and looped with gold, with white sea- and embroider. The young ladies on their rethers in her hair; next, in green silk and eme- turn home instructed the more intelligent of ralds; anon, in pale straw colour, with a tuft their female servants in these arts. Ladies of of flowers ; next, in pink and silver, with va- rank in all countries prided themselves upon ried plumes, white, carnation, and blue; then the number of these attendants, and were in the in brown, with a splendid crescent. As the habit of passing the inorning surrounded by fortunate Prince beholds each transformation, their work women, singing the chansons à toile, he is bewildered (as well he may be) to choose as ballads composed for these hours were which array becomes her best; but when
Estienne Jodelle, a French poet, 1573, ad"Lastly in white she comes, and loosely dressed a fair lady whose cunning fingers plied Down in ringlets floats her hair,
the needle in words thus translated : -0,' exclaimed the Prince, “what beauty! Ne'er was princess half so fair.""
“I saw thee weave a web with care,
Where at thy touch fresh roses grew, Simplicity and natural grace carried the day And marvelled they were formed so fair, after all, as they generally do with men of true And that thy heart such nature knew. taste. “ Woman is fine for her own satisfac- Alas! how idle my surprise, tion alone,” says that nice observer of human Since naught so plain can be : nature, Jane Austen. “Man only knows
Thy chcek their richest hue supplies, man's insensibility to a new gown.”. We hope,
And in thy breath their perfume lies; however, that the dressmakers and tirewomen
Their grace and beauty all are drawn from thee. of the sair Sybilla, who had expended so much time and invention, were handsomely rewarded If needlework had its poetry it had also its by the Prince, since they must have been inost reckonings. Old account-books bear many accomplished needlewomen and handmaids to entries of heavy payments for working materials have got up their young lady in so many cos- used by industrious queens and indefatigable tumes and in such rapid succession.
ladies of rank. Good' authorities state that, A very odd fashion appears in the thirteenth before the sixth century, all silk materials were and fourteenth centuries, of embroidering brought to Europe by the Seres, ancestors of heraldic devices on the long gowns of the la- the ancient Bokharians, whence it derived its dies of rank. In one of the illuminations of a name of Serica. In 551 silk-worms were introfamous psalter, executed for Sir Geoffery duced by two monks into Constantinople, but Loutterell, who died in 1345, that nobleman is the Greeks monopolized the manufacture until represented armed at all points, receiving from 1130, when Roger King of Sicily, returning from the ladies of his family his tilting helmet, shield, a crusade, collected some Greek manufacturers, and
paron. His coai of arms is repeated on and established thein at Palermo, whence the every part of his own dress, and is embroidered trade was disseminated over Italy. on that of his wife, who wears also the crest of In the thirteenth century Bruges was the her own family.
great mart for silk. The stuff's then known Marie de Hainault, wife of the first Duke of were velvet, satin (called samite), and taffetaBourbon, 1354, appears in a corsage and train all of which were stitched with gold or silver of ermine, with a very fierce-looking lion ram- thread. The expense of working materials was pant embroidered twice on her long gown. therefore very great, and royal ladies condeHer jewels are magnificent. Anne, Dauphine scended to superintend sewing-schools. d'Auvergne, wife of Louis, second Duke of Editha, consort of Edward the Confessor, Bourbon, married in 1371, displays an heraldic was a highly accomplished lady, who sometimes dolphin of very sinister aspect upon one side of intercepted the master of Westminster School her corsage, and on the skirt of her long and his scholars in their walke, questioning gown, which, divided in the centre, seems to be them in Latin. She was also skilled in all composed of two different stuffs, that opposite feminine works, embroidering the robes of her to the dolphin being powdered with fleur de lis. royal husband with her own hands. Her circlet of jewels is very elegant, and is worn Of all the fair ones, however, who have just above her brow, while the hair is braided wrought for the service of a king, since the maclose to the face. An attendant lady wears | nufacture of Excalibur, let the name of Matilda
of Flanders, wife of William the Conqueror, “A border fantasy of branch and flower, stand at the head of the record, in spite of his- And yellow-throated nestling in the nest." torians' doubts. Matilda, born about the year 1031, was carefully educated. She had beauty, When he went to the tourney she gave him a learning, industry; and the Bayeux tapistry red sleeve "broidered with great pearls,” which connected with her namc still exists, a monu- he bound upon his helmet. It is recorded that ment of her achievements in the art of needle- in a tournament at the court of Burgundy in work. It is, as everybody knows, a pictured | 1445, one of the knights received from his lady chronicle of the conquest of England—a wife's
a sleeve of delicate dove-colour, which he tribute to the glory of her husband.
fastened on his left arm. These sleeves were As a specimen of ancient stitchery and femi- made of a different material from the dress, and nine industry, this work is extremely curious. generally of a richer fabric elaborately ornaThe tapestry is two hundred and twenty-two mented; so they were considered valuable feet in length and twenty in width. It is enough to form a separate legacy in wills of worked in different-coloured worsteds on white those centuries. Maddalena Doni in her cloth, now brown with age. The attempts to portrait, painted by Raphael, which bangs in the represent the human figure are very rude, and Pitti Palace at Florence, wears a pair of these it is merely given in outline. Matilda evidently rich, heavy sleeves fastened slightly at the had very few colours at her disposal, as the shoulder, and worn over a shorter sleeve belonghorses are depicted of any hue, blue, green, or ing to her dress. Thus we see how it was that yellow; the arabesque patterns introduced are a lady could disengage her sleeve at the right rich and varied.
moment and give it to the fortunate knight. During the French Revolution this tapestry The art of adorning linen was practised from was demanded by the insurgents to cover their
the earliest times. Threads were drawn and guns; but a priest succeeded in concealing it fashioned with the needle, or the ends of the until the storm bad passed. Bonaparte knew
cloth unravelled and plaited into geometrical its value. He caused it to be brought to Paris patterns. St. Cuthbert's curious grave-clothes, and displayed, after which he restored the as described by an eyewitnes3 to his disinterprecious relic to Bayeux.
ment in the twelth century, were ornamented We have many records of royal ladies who with cut-work, which was used principally for practised and patronized needlework. Anne ecclesiastical purposes, and was looked upon in of Brittany, first wife of Louis XII. of France, England till the dissolution of the monasteries as caused three hundred girls, daughters of the
a church secret. The open-work embroidery, nobility, to be instructed in that art under her which went under the general name of cut-work, personal supervision. Her daughter Claude is the origin of lace. pursued the same Jaudable plan. Jeanne
The history of lace by Mrs. Bury Palliser, d'Albret, queen of Navarre, and mother of published a few years since, is worthy of the Henry IV. of France, a woman of vigorous exquisite fabric of which it treats. The author mind, was skilled also in the handicraft of the has woven valuable facts, historical associations, needle, and wrought a set of hangings called
and curious anecdotes into the web of her "The Prison Opened," meaning that she had varrative, with an industry and skill rivalling broken the bonds of the pope.
the work of her mediæval sisters. The illustraThe practice of teaching needlework continued
tions of this beautiful volume are taken from rare long at the French court, and it was there that specimens of ancient and modern lace, so perfectly Mary of Scotland learned the art in which she cxecuted as quite to deceive the eye and almost so much excelled. When cast into prison she
the touch. beguiled the time and soothed the repentant
Italy and Flanders dispute the invention of anxieties of her mind with the companionship point or needle-made lace. The Italians probably of ber needle. The specimens of her work yet derived the art of needlework from the Greeks existing are principally bed-trimmings, hangings, who took refuge in Italy during the troubles of and coverlets, composed of dark satin, upon the Lower Empire. Its origin was undoubtedly which flowers separately embroidered are Byzantine, as the places which were in constant transferred.
intercoursc with the Greek empire were the The romances and lays of chivalry contain
cities where point-lace was earliest made. The many dsscriptions of the ornamental needle.
traditions of the Low Countries also ascribe it to
an Eastern origin, assiguing the introduction of work of those early days. In one of the ancient lace-making to the Crusaders on their return from ballads a knight, after describing a fair damsel the Holy Land. A modern writer, Francis whom he had rescued and carried to his castle, North, asserts that the Italians learned embroidery adds that she “knewe how to sewe and marke from the Saracens, as Spaniards learned the all manner of silken worke," and no doubt he
same art from the Moors, and in proof of this made her repair mary of his mantles and scarfs theory, states that the word embroider is derived frayed and torn by time and tourney.
from the Arabic, and does not belong to any The beautiful Elaine covered the shield of Sir European language. In the opinion of some Launcelot with a case of silk, upon which devices authorities the English word lace comes from were braided by her fair hands, and added, the Latin word licina, signifying the hem or from her own design,
fringe of a garment; others suppose it derived
from the word laces, which appears in Anglo- , ventual work—parchment patterns with lace in Norman statutes, meaning braids which were progress-have been found. They belonged to used to unite different parts of the dress. In Spanish nuns, who long ago taught the art of England the earliest lace was called passament, lace-making to novices. Like all point-lace, from the fact that the threads were passed over this appears to be executed in separate pieces, each other in its formation; and it not until given out by the nuns, and then joined together the reign of Richard III. that the word lace by a skilful hand. We see the pattern traced, appears in royal accounts. The French term the work partly finished, and the very thread dentelle is also of modern date, and was not used left, as when “Sister Felice Vittoria” laid down until fashion caused passament to be made with her work, centuries ago. Mrs. Palliser received a toothed edge, when the designation passament from Rome photographs of these valuable dentelé appears.
relics, engravings from wbich she has inserted But whatever the origin of the name, lace. in her history of lace. Aloe-thread was then making and embroidery have employed many used for lace-making, as it is now in Florence fingers and worn out many eyes, and even created for sewing straw-plait. Spanish point has been revolutions. In England, until the time of as celebrated as that of Flanders or Italy. Henry VIII., shirts, handkerchiefs, sheets, and some traditions aver that Spain taught the art pillow-cases were embroidered in silks of to Flanders. Spain had no cause to import different colours, until the fashion gave way to laces: they were extensively made at home, and cut-work and lace. Italy produced lace fabrics were less known than the manufacture of other early in the fifteenth century; and the Florentine countries, because very little was exported. poet Firenzuola, who flourished about 1520, The numberless images of the Madonna and composed an elegy upon a collar of raised point-patron saints dressed and undressed daily, lace made by the band of his mistress. together with the albs of the priests and decoraPortraits of Venetian ladies dated as early as tions of the altars, caused an immense con1500 reveal white lace trimmings ; but at that sumption for ecclesiastical uses. Thread-lace period lace was professedly only made by nuns was manufactured in Spain in 1492, and in the for the service the church, and the term Cathedral of Granada is a lace alb presented to nuns' work has been the designation of lace in the church by Ferdinand and Isabella-one of many places to a very modern date. Venice was the few relics of ecclesiastical grandeur prefamed for point, Genoa for pillow laces. English served in the country. Cardinal Wiseman, in a Parliamentary records have statutes on the letter to Mrs. Palliser, states that he had himself subject of Venice laces; at the coronation of officiated in this vestment, which was valued at Richard III. fringes of Venice and mantle laces ten thousand crowns. The fine church lace of of gold and white silk appear.
Spain was little known in Europe until the
revolution of 1830, when splendid specimens “To know the age and pedigrees
were suddenly thrown into the market-not Of points of Flanders and Venise," merely the heavy lace known as Spanish point,
I but pieces of the most exquisite description, depends much upon the ancient pattern-books which could only bave been made (says Mrs. yet in existence. Parchment patterns drawn Palliser) by those whose time was not money, and pricked for pillow lace, bearing the date of Among the Saxon Hartz Mountains is the 1577, were lately, found covering old law old town of Annaburg, and beneath a lime-tree books published in Albisola, a town near in its ancient burial-ground stands a simple Savona, which
place celebrated monument with this inscription : for its laces,
infer from the fact that it was long the custom of the “Here lies Barbara Uttman, died on the 14th of daughters of the nobles to select these laces for January, 1576, whose invention of lace in the year 1561 their wedding shawls and veils. There is a made her the benefactress of the Hartz Mountains. pretty tradition at Venice, handed down among An active mind, a skilful hand, the inhabitants of the Lagoons, which says that
Bring blessings down on Fatherland.'" a sailor brought home to his betrothed a branch of the delicate coralline known as “mermaids' Barbara was born in 1514. Her parents, lace.” The girl, a worker in points, attracted by burghers of Nuremberg, removed to the Hartz the grace of the coral imitated it with her Mountains for the purpose of working a mine needle, and after much toil produced the in that neighbourhood. It is said that Barbara exquisite fabric which as Venice point soon be- learned the art of lace-making from a native of came the mode in all Europe. Lace-making in Brabant, a Protestant, wbom the cruelties of Italy formed the occupation of many women of the Duke of Alva bad driven from her country. the higher classes, who wished to add to their Barbara, observing the mountain girls making incomes. Each lady bad a number of workers, nets for the miners to wear over their hair, took to whom she supplied patterns pricked by ber- great interest in the improvement of their self, paying her work women at the end of every work, and succeeded in teaching them a fine week, each day being notched on a tally. knitted tricot, and afterwards a lace ground. In In the convent of Gesù Bambino
at 1561, having procured aid from Flanders, she Rome, curious specimens of old Spanish con- set up a workshop in Annaburg for lace-making.
was а as we