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Material decline of the South in the Union.-Shifting of the numbers and enterprise of

the country from the Southern to the Northern States.-Virginia's rank among the

States at the time of the Revolution.-Commercial distress of the States after the

Revolution.-How New England suffered.-The South then reckoned the seat of

future empire. The people and strength of America bearing Southwardly.-

Emigration to the South.-Kentucky and the vales of Frankland.-Virginia's pros-

perity. Her early land system.-The Chesapeake.-Alexandria.-George Wash-

ington's great commercial project.-Two pictures of Virginia: 1789 and 1829.-

An example of the decline of the South in material prosperity. This decline not

to be attributed to Slavery.-Its true causes.-Effect of the Louisiana purchase on

the tides of emigration.-Unequal Federal legislation, as a cause of the sectional

lapse of the South in the Union.-The key to, the political history of America.-A

great defect of the American Constitution.-Population as an element of pros-

perity and power.-How this was thrown into the Northern scale.-Two sectional

measures. Comparisons of Southern representation in Congress at the date of the

Constitution and in the year 1860.-Sectional domination of the North.-A pro-

tective Tariff." The Bill of abominations."-Senator Benton on the Tariff of 1828.

-His retrospect of the prosperity of the South.-Ilistory of the American Tariffs.

-Tariff of 1833, a deceitful Compromise.-Other measures of Northern aggrandize-

ment.-Ingenuity of Northern avarice.-Why the South could not use her Demo-

cratic alliance in the South to protect her interests.-This alliance one only for

party purposes.-Its value.-Analysis of the Democratic Party in the North.-The

South under the rule of a numerical majority.-Array of that majority on a sec-

tional line necessarily fatal to the Union.-When and why the South should

attempt disunion....


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"Popular Sovereignty."—" A short cut to all the ends of Black Republicanism."

-Douglas as a demagogue.-The true issues in the Kansas controversy.-Import-

ant passages in the Congressional debate.-Settlement of the Kansas question.—

Douglas' foundation of a new party. His demagogueical appeals.-The true situa-

tion.-Loss of the sectional equilibrium.-Serious temper of the South." The

John Brown raid."-Identity of John Brown's provisional constitution and or-

dinances with the subsequent policy of the Republican Party.-Curious fore-

shadow of Southern subjugation.-The descent on Harper's Ferry.-Capture and

execution of Brown.-His declaration.-Northern sympathy with him.-Alarming

tendency of the Republican Party to the Ultra-Abolition school.-"The Helper

Book."-Sentiments of Sixty-eight Northern congressmen.-The conceit and in-

solence of the North.-Affectation of Republicans that the Union was a concession

to the South.-Hypocrisy of this party.-Indications of the coming catastrophe of

disunion. The presidential canvass of 1860.-Declarations of the Democratic

Party.—The Charleston Convention.-Secession of the Southern delegates.-The

different presidential tickets.-Election of Abraham Lincoln.-Analysis of the

vote. How his election was a "sectional" triumph.-Ominous importance of it

in that view.-Arguments for sustaining Lincoln's election.-Seward's argument

in the Senate.-Lincoln's election a geographical one.-How there was no longer

protection for the South in the Union.-The Anti-slavery power compact and in-

vincible. Another apology for Lincoln's election.-Fallacy of regarding it as a

transfer of the Administration in equal circumstances from the South to the North.

-How the South had used its lease of political power.-Senator Hammond's tri-

bute.-Power in the hands of the North equivalent to sectional despotism.-The

North "acting in mass."-The logical necessity of disunion.....


Preparations of South Carolina to withdraw from the Union.-Passage of her Ordinance

of Secession.-The Federal force in Charleston Harbour evacuates Fort Moultrie,

and occupies Sumter.-Description of Fort Sumter.-How the Secession of South

Carolina was entertained in the North.-The levity and inconsistency of the North

with respect to this event.-Doctrine of Secession, and Northern precedents.-

Record of Massachusetts.-Mr. Quincy's declaration in Congress.-A double justifi-

cation of the withdrawal of the Southern States from the Union.-The right of Self-

government.-Opinion of Mr. Lincoln.-Opinion of the New York "Tribune."—

Opinion of Mr. Seward.-The Secession question in the Cotton States.-Hesitation

of Georgia.-Project of Alexander H. Stephens.-Secession of all the Cotton States.

-Seizure of Federal forts and arsenals.-Fort Pickens.-Senator Yulee's letter.-

The scenes of Secession transferred to Washington.-Resignation of Southern Sena-

tors.-Jefferson Davis' farewell speech to the Federal Senate.-Senator Clay's bill

of indictment against the Republican party.-The Convention at Montgomery.—

Constitution of the Confederate States. Jefferson Davis chosen President. His per-

sonal history. His character.-Why the public opinion about him was so divided

and contradictory. Measures looking to pacification.-Three avenues through

which it was expected.-Early prospects of pacification in Congress.-The Republi-

can "ultimatum."-"The Crittenden compromise."-Measures of compromise and

peace in Congress exclusively proposed by the South, and deliberately defeated by

the North.—The Peace Conference.-Its failure.-Disposition of the Border Slave

States. How mistaken by the North.-The Virginia Convention.-How the Secession

party gained in it. The record of Virginia on the subject of State Rights.-Presi-

dent Buchanan on the Secession question.-His weak character and undecided

Character of Abraham Lincoln in history.-Absurd panegyric.-The personal and

political life of the new President.-His journey to Washington.-His speech at

Philadelphia. The flight from Harrisburg.-Alarm in Washington.-Military dis-

play in the capital.-Ceremony of inauguration.-Criticism of Lincoln's address.—

What the Republican party thought of it.-Serious pause at Washington.-State-

ment of Horace Greeley.-How the Inaugural Address was received in the Seceded

States. Visit of Confederate Commissioners to Washington.-Seward's pledge to

Judge Campbell.-The Commissioners deceived.-Military and Naval expeditions

from New York.-Consultation of the Cabinet on the Sumter question.-Capt.

Fox's visit to Charleston.-His project.-Objections of Gen. Scott.-Singular article

in a New York journal.-Lincoln's hesitation.-His final device.-Seward's game

with the Commissioners.-The reduction of Fort Sumter.-Description of the Con-

federate works for the reduction of Sumter. -Beauregard demands the surrender

of the Fort.-The bombardment.-The fort on fire.-The Federal fleet takes no

part in the fight.-The surrender.—Great excitement in the North.-Its true

meaning. The crusade against the South.-Dr. Tyng's exhortation.—Conduct of

Northern Democrats.-Dickinson, Everett, and Cochrane.-President Lincoln's

Proclamation. His pacific protests to the Virginia Commissioners.-Secession of

Virginia. Discontent in the Western counties.-Second secessionary movement of

the Southern States.-Violent acts of the Washington Administration.-Prepara-

tions of the Confederate Government for War.-Rush of volunteers to arms.-Pre-

sident Davis' estimate of the military necessity.-Removal of the seat of govern-

ment to Richmond.-Activity of Virginia.-Robert E. Lee.-His attachment to the

Union.-Why he joined the Confederate cause.-His speech in the State House at

Richmond. His organization of the military force of Virginia.-Military council

in Richmond. The early reputation of Lee....


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Mr. Lincoln's remark about the wolf. His designs upon Virginia.-Federal occupation

of Alexandria.—Tragedy at the Marshall House.-Jackson, the martyr.-The affair

of Great Bethel.-Easy victory of the Confederates.-Exaggerations of Southern

newspapers. Apparent lull of hostilities.-New demonstrations of public opinion

in the North.-Financial difficulties at Washington.-Popular clamour against

President Lincoln and Gen. Scott.-Early indications of the real objects of the war.

-The rights of humanity.-Virginia the great theatre of the war.-The Grand

Army of the North.-Consultation of President Davis and Beauregard and Lee.--

Beauregard's line of defence in Northern Virginia.-Sketch of General Beauregard.

-His person and manners.-His opinion of the Yankee.-The Army of the Potomac

and the Army of the Shenandoah.-Gen. Johnson's evacuation of Harper's Ferry.—

"Stonewall" Jackson's first affair with the enemy.-Johnston amusing the

enemy.-Affair of Rich Mountain.-McClellan's march into Northwestern Virginia

-Rosecrans' capture of the Confederate force on Rich Mountain.-Retreat of the

Confederates from Laurel Hill.-Death of Gen. Garnett.-Extent of the disaster to

the Confederates.-The "Grand Army" advancing on Manassas.-Johnston's move-

ment to Beauregard's line.-The Battle of Manassas.-The affair of 18th July.--

Longstreet's gallant defence.-Theatre of the great battle.-Beauregard's change

of purpose, and his plan of battle.-The Stone Bridge.-The "Big Forest."—The

Confederates flanked.-The day apparently lost for them.-The scene at the

Henry House.-Timely arrival of Jackson.-Gen. Beauregard disconcerted.-Ride

from the Hill to the Henry House.-The battle restored.-The bloody plateau.—

Three stages in the battle.-The last effort of the enemy. The strange flag.-

Arrival of Kirby Smith.-The grand and final Charge.-Rout and panic of the

enemy. The fearful race to the Potomac.-Scenes of the retreat.-Failure of the

Confederates to pursue, or to advance upon Washington.-A lost opportunity...134

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