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administrative affairs appointed army assistant authority banner Bureau called candidates censors central government ceremonies Chang Cheng Chien Chihli China Chinese civil service command commissioner corruption Council Court Department dismissed district divided duties Dynasty edict emperor essays examination executive fact favor finance five forces foreign four gave give given governor graduates Grand Secretaries hand imperial important influence institution issued kinds Kuang land laws magistrate Manchus means memorials ment Metropolitan military Ming ministers nature officials organization Peking period pointed political position practice Prince privilege provinces punishment rank rebellion received records regular regulations reign responsible result says sent Shih successful supervising taels term territories third throne tion took Tsing Tung usually viceroy whole
Page 374 - The Empire of Japan shall be reigned over and governed by a line of Emperors unbroken for ages eternal.
Page 87 - The purpose of this recording was to give data to the Censors as to the correctness of the speeches and acts of the emperor: Uje. principal duty of the Censors was originally to supervise and correct the words and actions of the sovereign so that he could live up to the high moral standard required of him as a model of the people. Hence they were given the right of freedom of speech in their criticism of the august ruler. In the Chou Dynasty,21 the duty of the Censor was gradually shifted from correction...
Page 371 - The Emperor determines the organization of the different branches of the administration, and the salaries of all civil and military officers, and appoints and dismisses the same.
Page 11 - That the services of the wisest and ablest men in the nation are indispensable to its good government. III. That the people have the right to depose a sovereign DD who, either from active wickedness or vicious indolence, gives cause to oppressive and tyrannical rule.
Page 328 - Chinese, he had only co-jurisdiction with the Governor of Shansi. All these Chinese officials, like those of other parts of China, attended to duties thrust upon them by the central government or by the natives. Their inactivity, hence the looseness of the government, left a great deal to the natives. "As regards local government, this is carried on by the Mongols themselves with almost no interference from the Chinese higher authorities.
Page 242 - An Imperial Edict of the 24th of July, 1901 (annex No. 18), reformed the Office of foreign affairs, (Tsungli Yamen), on the lines indicated by the Powers, that is to say, transformed it into a Ministry of foreign affairs (Wai-wu Pu), which takes precedence over the six other Ministries of State. The same edict appointed the principal members of this Ministry.
Page 33 - Three feudal princes" and the revolt in Northern Mongolia were results of my own tactics. The silver reserve in the treasury has never been used by me except for military campaigns and famine relief. Knowing that this money is the flesh and blood of my little people, I never wasted a single bit of the silver. Wherever I went, I never ordered special decorations or preparations for my...
Page 196 - C, thought that the natural resources of a country should be owned by the state, and created the government monopolies of salt, iron, timber and other minerals as the only source of public revenue, because he disapproved taxation as a means of raising public revenues on the following...
Page 208 - ... pleases by thwarting all the measures of the ministers, a weak one will yield to the ministers even in affairs of the provincial finance. But, finance being a delicate question, the greedy is loath to give it to others, the energetic takes it as a help for the execution of his plans; so the Department of Revenues, nominally the central organ for finance, becomes only a decoration in Peking Between the provinces, a system of mutual help prevailed. Nature being more generous to some, the government...
Page 31 - Tung Kao bears witness to this point in a short passage: — From the grand secretaries and ministers of the six departments down to an insignificant clerk in the remote corner of the empire, appointment or dismissal, reward or punishment, is all given directly by the emperor himself. This has never been practiced by rulers heretofore. The elevation of position coupled with the concentration of power made the Manchu emperors more like oriental * Ming defense commissioner of the Northern frontiers.