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wishes of a majority, and gave him on the 4th ballot the required two-thirds vote, and then nominated him by acclamation.

In 1852 the Democracy of Illinois again recommended Mr. Douglas to the Democracy of the nation for the Presidency; other states did the same. The Convention met at Baltimore, and having adopted the two-thirds rule proceeded to a ballot. The following ballotings will exhibit the state of the vote during the protracted contest.

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On the next ballot Gen. Pierce received 283 votes, and was then unanimously nominated. It will be seen that until the 49th ballot no candidate had received a majority of the Convention; had Mr. Buchanan, or Mr. Marcy, or Mr. Cass obtained a majority, the friends of the other candidates would undoubtedly have yielded their individual preferences, and given him the required two-thirds vote.

In 1856 the ever memorable Cincinnati Convention met in June. The two-thirds rule was again adopted. Mr. Douglas had been recommended by the conventions of several states, but as this was the first National Convention of the Democracy since the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, he was more solicitous for the adoption of a platform that would approve the principles of that measure than he was for the nomination. His name, however, was submitted to the Convention by his friends. There were but four names before the ConventionMessrs. Buchanan, Pierce, Douglas, and Cass. The whole number of votes was 296, of which 149 would be a majority, and 198 two-thirds. There were seventeen ballotings. On the first ballot Mr. Buchanan had 135, Mr. Pierce 122, Mr. Douglas 33, Mr. Cass 6. On the thirteenth ballot, Mr. Buchanan received 150 votes, being a majority, and the first time that a majority vote had been obtained by any one. Mr. Douglas was at Washington, and the result of the several ballotings was announced in that city as soon as made. The

Convention adjourned that day without making a nomination, and when it assembled next day, the 16th ballot was taken with the following result: Buchanan 168, Douglas 122, Cass 6. Mr. Buchanan lacked thirty of the required two-thirds vote. The Convention was at a "dead lock."

The eventful scene that took place can hardly be described in words. A majority of the delegates had expressed their choice; had recorded their wish for the nomination of Mr. Buchanan. It was true the two-thirds rule had been adopted, but that rule was never designed or intended to defeat the wishes of a majority when once clearly and unmistakably ascertained and declared. The vote of the states was announced and recorded. The choice of the majority was declared, and there were no questions asked whether that majority was made up of delegates from Democratic states, or from states hopelessly in the power of the opposition. It was regarded as the vote of the Democracy of the nation, a vote given by men in non-Democratic states as well as in Democratic states, with but one purpose and aim, and that was to nominate the man who in the estimation of the whole Democracy was the strongest candidate for the time. Mr. Buchanan's 168 votes on the sixteenth ballot were given for him as follows: from states that subsequently voted for him for President, 86; from states that voted for Frémont, 82. Mr. Douglas' 122 votes were given him-from states that voted for Buchanan, 84; from states that voted for Frémont, 38. General Cass received the vote of California. A majority of the delegates representing the Democratic states voted against Mr. Buchanan on the sixteenth ballot; yet, he having a clear majority of the delegates from all the states, after the result of that ballot was announced, certain proceedings took place which are thus recorded in the official report of the action of the Convention:

"Mr. Preston, of Kentucky, said: Mr. President: As one of the friends of Mr. Douglas, I have become sufficiently satisfied, by the evidences presented here, that it is the wish of this Convention that James Buchanan should, be the nominee for President of the United States. I believe that Judge Douglas himself, and the friends of Judge Douglas-and when I say this I speak with some degree of knowledge on the subject-I believe that the friends of Mr. Douglas will be among the first to come forward, and in a spirit of liberality put an end to the useless contest. I will now give way to the gentleman from Illinois, the friend of Mr. Douglas.

"During Mr. Preston's remarks there were loud expressions of dissatisfaction and cries of 'No, no!' 'Don't withdraw!' 'Don't withdraw.'

"Here W. A. Richardson, of Illinois, arose, and waving his hand, there was immediate and general silence. In a solemn and impressive manner that gentleman proceeded to address the Convention as follows:

"Mr. Richardson. Mr. President and gentlemen of the Convention: Before undertaking to advise any gentleman on this floor what he ought to do, I consider that I have a duty which I owe to my constituents, and which, since it is now imposed on me, I feel it is due to the Democratic party and friends of Stephen A. Douglas that I should discharge. Whatever may be the opinion of the gentlemen as to the contest, I am satisfied that I can not advance his interests or the interests of the common cause, or the principles of the Democratic party, by continuing him in this contest. I will, therefore, state that I have a dispatch from Judge Douglas, which I desire may be permitted to be read, and I shall then withdraw his name from before the Convention. I desire gentlemen, after that, to decide on what course they may deem it proper to pursue. (Tremendous applause-profound sensation.) "The dispatch was sent to the chair to be read, and is as follows:

666 LETTER OF S. A. DOUGLAS TO W. A. RICHARDSON, OF ILLINOIS. "'WASHINGTON, June 4, 1856. "DEAR SIR: From the telegraphic reports in the newspapers, I fear that an embittered state of feeling is being engendered in the Convention, which may endanger the harmony and success of our party. I wish you and all my friends to bear in mind that I have a thousand fold more anxiety for the triumph of our principles than for my own personal elevation.

"If the withdrawal of my name will contribute to the harmony of our party or the success of our cause, I hope you will not hesitate to take the step. Especially it is my desire that the action of the Convention will embody and express the wishes, feelings and principles of the Democracy of the Republic; and hence, if Mr. Pierce or Mr. Buchanan, or any other statesman who is faithful to the great issue involved in the contest, shall receive a majority of the Convention, I earnestly hope that all my friends will unite in insuring him two-thirds, and then in making his nomination unanimous. Let no personal considerations disturb the harmony or endanger the triumph of our principles. S. A. DOUGLAS.

"To Hon. W. A. RICHARDSON, Burnett House, Cincinnati, Ohio.'

"The reading of this dispatch was interrupted by frequent and tremendous applause. It was some time before order could be restored. When the Convention had subsided into something like order, the president announced that they would proceed with the seventeenth ballot."

On the next, or seventeenth ballot, Mr. Buchanan was nominated unanimously. The friends of Mr. Douglas at once conceding the justice of the suggestions in his letter, that Mr. Buchanan having received the votes of a majority of the Convention ought to be given the required two-thirds.

On the 4th of January, 1860, the Democratic State Convention of Illinois, in consequence of the call of the National Convention at an earlier day than usual, met some months in advance of the ordinary period, to appoint delegates to Charleston. The Convention was large, harmonious, and included

within its members the veterans who had done service in the party for twenty or thirty years. The following resolutions, reported by a committee of which the Hon. O. B. FICKLIN was chairman, were adopted unanimously.

WHEREAS, The Democratic party assembled in national convention in June, 1856, by the unanimous vote of all the delegates from every state in the Union, adopted a platform of principles, as the only authoritative exposition of Democratic doctrines, which remains unaltered and unalterable until the meeting of the Charleston convention.

AND WHEREAS, We have good reasons for the belief, that if we depart from the doctrines of that platform by attempting to force upon the party new issues and tests, the Democracy of the several states may never be able to agree upon another platform of principles with the same unanimity.

AND WHEREAS, The Democratic party is the only political organization which can maintain in their purity the principles of self-government, the reserved rights of the states, and the perpetuity of the Union under the Constitution.

AND WHEREAS, The unity, integrity, and supremacy of the Democratic party depend upon its faithful adherence to those fundamental principles upon which we have achieved so many glorious triumphs, and to which we are solemnly and irrevocably pledged. Therefore,

Resolved, That the Democracy of Illinois, in state convention assembled, do reassert and affirm the Cincinnati platform, in the words, spirit, and meaning with which the same was adopted, understood, and ratified by the people in 1856, and do reject and utterly repudiate all such new issues and tests as the revival of the African slave trade, or a congressional slave code for the territories, or the doctrine that slavery is a federal institution deriving its validity in the several states and territories in which it exists from the Constitution of the United States, instead of being a mere municipal institution, existing in such states and territories "under the laws thereof."

Resolved, That there can be no exception to the rule that every right guaranteed by the Constitution must be protected by law, in all cases where legislation is necessary for its protection and enjoyment, and, in obedience to this principle, it was the imperative duty of Congress to enact an efficient law for the surrender of fugitive slaves.

Resolved, That no considerations of political expediency or partizan policy can release any member of Congress or American citizen from his sworn obligations of fidelity to the Constitution, or excuse him for not advocating and supporting all legislation which may be necessary for the protection and enjoyment of every right guaranteed by that instrument.

Resolved, That the Democratic party of the Union is pledged in faith and honor, by the Cincinnati platform and its indorsement of the Kansas-Nebraska act, to the following propositions:

1st. That all questions pertaining to African slavery in the territories shall be for ever banished from the halls of Congress.

2d. That the people of the territories respectively shall be left perfectly free to make just such laws and regulations in respect to slavery and all other matters of local concern as they may determine for themselves, subject to no other limitations or restrictions than those imposed by the Constitution of the United States.

3d. That all questions affecting the validity or constitutionality of any territorial enactments, shall be referred for final decision to the Supreme Court of the United States as the only tribunal provided by the Constitution which is competent to determine them.

Resolved, That in the opinion of the Democracy of Illinois, Mr. Buchanan truly interpreted the Cincinnati platform in his letter accepting the presidential nomination, when he said, "the people of a territory, like those of a state, shall decide for themselves whether slavery shall or shall not exist within their limits."

Resolved, That we recognize the paramount judicial authority of the Supreme Court of the United States, as provided in the Constitution, and hold it to be the imperative duty of all good citizens to respect and obey the decision of that tribunal, and to aid, by all lawful means, in carrying them into faithful execution.

Resolved, That the Democracy of Illinois repel, with just indignation, the injurious and unfounded imputation upon the integrity and impartiality of the Supreme Court, which is contained in the assumption on the part of the so-called Republicans that, in the Dred Scott case, that august tribunal decided against the right of the people of the territory to decide the slavery question for themselves, without giving them an opportunity of being heard by counsel in defense of their rights of self-government, and when there was no territorial law, enactment or fact before the court upon which that question could possibly arise.

Resolved, That whenever Congress or the Legislature of any state or territory shall make any enactment, or do any act which attempts to divest, impair, or prejudice any right which the owner of slaves, or any other species of property, may have or claim in any territory or elsewhere, by virtue of the Constitution or otherwise, and the party aggrieved shall bring his case before the Supreme Court of the United States, the Democracy of Illinois, as in duty bound by their obligations of fidelity to the Constitution, will cheerfully and faithfully respect and abide by the decision, and use all lawful means to aid in giving it full effect according to its true intent and meaning. Resolved, That the Democracy of Illinois view with inexpressible horror and indignation the murderous and treasonable conspiracy of John Brown and his confederates to incite a civil insurrection in the slaveholding states; and heartily rejoice that the attempt was promptly suppressed, and the majesty of the law vindicated, by inflicting upon the conspirators, after a fair and impartial trial, that just punishment which the enormity of their crimes so richly merited.

Resolved, That the Harper's Ferry outrage was the natural consequence and logical result of the doctrines and teachings of the Republican party, as explained and enforced in their platforms, partizan presses, books and pamphlets, and in the speeches of their leaders, in and out of Congress; and for this reason an honest and law-abiding people should not be satisfied with the disavowal or disapproval by the Republican leaders of John Brown's acts, unless they also repudiate the doctrines and teachings which produced those monstrous crimes, and denounce all persons who profess to sympathize with murderers and traitors, lamenting their fate and venerating their memory as martyrs who lost their lives in a just and holy cause.

Resolved, That the delegates representing Illinois in the Charleston convention be instructed to vote for and use all honorable means to secure the readoption of the Cincinnati platform, without any additions or subtractions.

Resolved, That no honorable man can accept a seat as a delegate in the national Democratic convention, or should be recognized as a member of the Democratic party, who will not abide the decisions of such convention and support its nominees.

Resolved, That we affirm and repeat the principles set forth in the resolutions of the last state convention of the Illinois Democracy, held in this city

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