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are dependent on climate and modes of life. And above all, comparative philology is supplying criteria for identity or diversity of race, far more certain than those relied on by earlier investigators. The consequence is that the older works on this science are already somewhat obsolete: if they contain much that is still valuable, it is mixed with much that has been superseded by later inquiry. The object of Mr. Brace in this work is to present the science as it now stands; to set forth in condensed form and popular exposition the facts and views generally accepted by the best living ethnologists. In executing this task, he has had to collect and digest materials scattered in many different quarters, in "the descriptions of travelers, the journals of missionaries, the contributions of army officers to foreign magazines, the papers on particular tribes written by students of races, or the examination of par ticular languages made by students of language."
A leading peculiarity in the work of Mr. Brace is that he founds his ethnological classification on a philological basis. Of the Caucasian race, which figured so largely in the old books, he has nothing to say; instead of it, we have the Indo-European race, which consists in great part of the same nations, but, singularly enough, exIcludes most of the inhabitants of the Caucasus. He has no hesitation in referring the Hindu and the Irishman to one race, and as little in referring the Persian and the Arab to different races; in both cases he relies upon the evidence of language. He is aware, indeed, that such evidence is not infallible, but has its liabilities of error. The Frenchman speaks Latin, but his Gaulish ancestors spoke Celtic, an Indo-European language, but one belonging to a different branch of that great family. The Spaniard speaks Latin, but his Iberian ancestors spoke a language which is represented to us by the modern Basque or Biscayan, and which unquestionably is not of Indo-European stock. If the evidence of language in these cases were not corrected by the teaching of history, we might be led into serious error. But Mr. Brace is certainly right when he asserts that "among all the tests of community of descent in a given group of human beings, the best is the evidence of language, connecting with it also the testimony of history." "The distinctions on which it [classification by language] rests are more permanent and less affected by outward circumstances than the physiological marks of race." To Prof. Agassiz, who maintains that common origin is not proved by similarity in language,
any more than by similarity in the brumming of bears or the miawing of cats, he returns a convincing, but scarcely necessary, reply. It would be hard to find a more striking instance of the fatuity into which an acute mind may fall, when traveling outside of its chosen field of study.
Of the eight parts into which the work is divided, "the First treats of the leading races in the earliest historical period; the Second, of the primitive races in Europe; the Third, of the leading races of Asia in the middle ages; the Fourth, of the modern ethnology of Asia; the Fifth, of Oceanic ethnography; the Sixth, of the ethnology of Africa; the Seventh, of the races of modern Europe; and the Eighth, of the antiquity of man, and the question of unity or diversity of origin." If some of these chapters are filled with details, (and from the nature of the subject it could not be otherwise), they are relieved by the broad and comprehensive views which are everywhere connected with them; while the author's evident interest in his subject gives a constant warmth and glow to his style.
The chapter on the antiquity of man gives a very interesting exhibition of the facts recently brought to light, which seem to require for the beginnings of human existence a date earlier than that of the commonly received chronology. The conclusion is, "that ages ago, in the period of the extinct mammoth, and the fossil bear, a race of barbarian human beings lived on the soil of Europe, capable of fabricating rough implements." What degree of antiquity this would imply, is a question for the geologists to determine, and requires more investigation than has yet been given to it.
The concluding chapter discusses the unity of the race with great moderation and fairness. At its close we find the author's opinion expressed in these words:
"Now if these are facts, on what hypothesis can they be explained so naturally and philosophically, as on that of a community of descent, of all the tribes of mankind, from one pair? It is unphilosophical to suppose more causes than are sufficient to explain the facts. One pair, one source, will account for all these results; why need we suppose several pairs? Still farther, the supposition of a separate creation of each human variety will not meet all the conditions of the Under that theory, we could not account for all the facts stated above.”
PARIS IN AMERICA.* This is one of the most amusing and, at the same time, one of the most curious satires of the day. At first sight it appears to be altogether an extravagant and laughable caricature of many of our American customs, ideas, and principles. It professes to be written by Dr. René Lefebvre, Parisian de la Société des Contribuables de France et des Administrés de Paris, &c. &c., who, by the agency of Jonathan Dream, an American "medium" in Paris, is transported, as we are told, in a magnetic sleep, with his wife, his family, and all Paris about him, to the United States.
Dr. Lefebvre finds his situation on awaking, a very surprising one, and undertakes to describe his experiences of life in the now Americanized Paris; the different phases of the new society into which he and his family are introduced; and the workings of the institutions of every kind about him, as they exhibited themselves to his bewildered gaze. His descriptions, though the broadest caricature, sparkle with wit, and no one can read them without joining heartily in the laugh. But to the attentive reader it is soon apparent that after all it is not America that is satirized, but France. Lefebvre is only a pseudonymn. The author is really Prof. Edouard Laboulaye, well known as the best informed of all French scholars with respect to American affairs;-our fast friend, who, by his public lectures, cramped though they are by the jealous authorities of France, is doing much to spread a practical knowl edge of our history and Constitution among his countrymen. It is in this book by a comparison of American with French institutions in the very extravagant fashion of which we have spoken that the sprightly Frenchman would arrest the attention of his countrymen, and teach them that not only is liberty in politics, and religion, consistent with security and order, but that in the free
*Paris in America. By Dr. RENE LEFEBVRE, Parisian de la Société des Contribuables de France et des Administrés de Paris; des Sociétés Philadelphique et Philharmonique d'Alise et d'Alaise, etc.; de la Real Academia de los Tontos de Guisando; Pastore nell' Arcadia in Brenta (detto Melibeo l'Intronato); Mitglied des Gross-und Klein-Deutschen Narren-Landtags; Mitglied der K. K. HanswurstAkademie zu Gänsedorf; Member of the Tarleton Club, of Coventry, F. R. F. S. M. A. D.D., etc. Commandeur de l'Ordre Grand Ducal della Civetta; Chevalier du Merle Blanc (LXXXIXe Classe) avec plaque, etc, etc. EEGRI SOMNIA. (EDOUARD LABOULAYE). Translated by MARY L. BooтH. New York: Charles Scribner. 1863. 12mo. pp. 373. [For sale by Judd & Clark. Price $1.25.]
dom of American institutions lies the secret of our rapid progress as a nation.
MONEY.*-Mr. Charles Moran has published his views on many of the questions growing out of the use of banks of deposit and banks of circulation; of gold, silver, and paper as a currency, and in a word of "money."
There is much in the little book of interest as expressing the views of a practical man, and at the same time it gives abundant reference to authorities, and evidence that he is familiar with what has been written on the subject.
REBELLION RECORD.-Number XXXIV of this important work is just published, and the documentary history of the rebellion is now brought down to February, 1863. The number contains portraits of Brig. Gen. Weitzel, and Brig. Gen. Sill. Mr. Frank Moore and Mr. Putnam are also making up a "supplementary" volume, containing important documents not included in the reg ular issue of the Record. The Third Part has already appeared, and contains portaits of Judge Pettigru and Chief-Justice Taney. This work is growing in value with every new number, and should have a prominent place in every public library in the country. For sale by T. H. Pease. Price per number, 50 cents.
LORD BACON'S WORKS.-The labors of Messrs. Taggard & Thompson of Boston, in republishing the new edition of Lord Bacon's Works, are now drawing towards a close. Volume VI and VII of the Philosophical Works have been recently issued from the press, and but three more volumes will be needed to complete the set. For sale by T. H. Pease. Price $1.50 per volume.
LIBER PSALMORUM.f-We gladly call attention to a beautiful little pocket edition of the Psalms, in the Hebrew text, which Mr. Draper, of Andover, has just published. The neat appearance of the page with its sharp cut letters will make the edition a general favorite, and it is certainly very creditable to the Andover press.
Money. By CHARLES MORAN. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1863. 12mo. [Price $1.25. For sale by Peck, White, & Peck.]
Liber Psalmorum. Text according to Hahn. Andover: W. F. Draper. 24mo. 1863. pp. 177.
Union Foundations. A study of American Nationality as a fact of science. By Capt. E. B. HUNT. Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. New York: D. Van pp. 61.
Why the North cannot accept of Separation. By EDWARD LABOULAYE, Professor in the College of France; Advocate at the Imperial Court of Paris; Member of the Institute. 8vo. pp. 16.
Upon Whom rests the Guilt of the War? Separation: war without end. By EDWARD LABOULAYE. 1863. 8vo. PP. 19.
The Psalter and the Sword. A Sermon preached in the Broadway Tabernacle Church, on Thanksgiving Day, Nov. 27, 1862, by JOSEPH P. THOMPSON, D. D. 8vo. pp. 24.
God in Civil Government. A Discourse preached in the first Presbyterian Church, New Albany, (Indiana), Nov. 27, 1862. By the Rev. JOHN G. AtterBURY, Pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church. 8vo. pp. 16.
The Memory of Washington. A Sermon preached in the first Congregational Church, Litchfield, Conn., Feb. 22, 1863. By GEORGE RICHARDS. 8vo. pp. 22.
Loyalty. A Sermon preached in the Florence Church, in Northampton, (Mass.) on the 22d day of Feb., 1863. By Rev. HORACE C. HOVEY, Pastor of the Church. Svo. pp. 16.
The new and complete Tax Payer's Manual. Containing the Direct and Excise Taxes; with the recent amendments by Congress, and the decisions of the Commissioner; also complete marginal references, and an analytical Index, showing all the items of taxation, the mode of proceeding, and the duties of the officers, with an explanatory preface. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1863. 8vo. Pp. 184.
Decisions on the Tax Law. By the Hon. GEORGE S. BOUTWELL, Commissioner of Internal Revenue. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1863. pp. 24. 8vo.
The New Religion. Two Dicourses delivered to the first Congregation of the New Catholic Church in the City of New York, Oct. 12th, and Oct. 19th, 1862. By the Pastor, Rev. EDWARD BOWMAN FREELAND. 1862. 12mo. pp. 34.
Eulogy, by the Hon. Geo. W. Anderson, on the Life and Character of the late Brigadier General Nathaniel Lyon; delivered in joint session, in the Hall of the House of Representatives, on invitation of the General Assembly, on the 5th day of March, 1863. 8vo. pp. 15.
A Discourse delivered at the Semi-Centennial Anniversary of the Tolland County Auxiliary of the A. B. C. F. M., at Rockville, Conn. Oct. 16, 1862. By CHARLES W. CLAPP, Pastor of the Second Congregational Church, Rockville, with an abstract of the Report of the Treasurer. 8vo. pp. 32.