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the truth as it is in Jesus, by a wakeful, honest, and progressive theology.
Gaussex ON THE CANON.*-Bishop Colenso and Professor Gaussen represent two opposite extremes of opinions, and we feel that in passing from one to the other we must take a long stride. We have one comprehensive objection to the German Professor, and that is he is too rhetorical ;-declaiming when he ought to criticise, and appealing when he should reason. No better example of this deficiency can be desired than that given in the brief attempt at an argument on the canonical authority of the Old Testament which may be found at the close of this volume. It is so brief, vague, and declamatory, as to be utterly unsatisfactory.
The bulk of the volume upon the canon of the New Testament merits warm encomiums for the exhaustiveness of its research; and, despite the characteristic faults of the author, is well fitted to, be useful. The author has read abundantly among the later critics, and has cited copiously from them. The translation and abridgment are executed with skill and success by Dr. Kirk, and the volume itself will, we hope, be extensively circulated. While we cannot subscribe to Gaussen's uncritical theory of inspiration, we cheerfully acknowledge our great obligations to him and to his translator for the abundant materials and the convincing testimony which they have made accessible to the reading public on a subject so important as the canon of the New Testament. For a satisfying and critical treatment of the canon of the Old Testament we much look to other writers.
PRESIDENT HOPKINS ON MORAL SCIENCE.-The new volume of Lowell Lectures by President Hopkins will add fresh honor to his reputation, and may safely be pronounced to be one of the most important contributions to the science of ethics which has been furnished from our country. It is written from the author's own starting-point, and developed in a manner which is peculiar to himself; and is, in all its parts, composed with ease, skill, and attractiveness. The author makes no parade of his reading, but he is obviously familiar with the distinctive principles of the modern theories—and mediates between those which seem to be at variance with a good degree of skill and success. Above all, he is conspicuously honest, independent, and truth-loving. He has had the rare courage to change his opinions on some points of fundamental interest, and the still rarer courage to avow it. It may be that ex. act and formal thinkers may find that he is not always so precise in his language, nor so guarded in his statements as they would desire. Speculative students might prefer more scholastic definitions, a more rigid development and more learned references. But there are few men who can write a volume which so happily combines the matter which satisfies the philosopher and the manner which delights the people.
* The Canon of the Holy Scriptures examined in the Light of History. By Prof. L. GAUSSEx. Translated from the French, and abridged by EDWARD N. Kirk, D. D. Published by the American Tract Society, Boston. 12mo. pp. 463.
| Lectures on Moral Science. Delivered before the Lowell Institute, Boston, by Mark HOPKINS, D, D., LL. D, President of Williams College,, &c. &c. Boston: Gould & Lincoln. 1862. 12mo. pp. 304. For sale in New Haven by Judd & Clark. Price $1.
We cannot give an analysis of the contents of the volume. The positions of the author on one or two fundamental principles are well stated in the following extracts from the Summary which concludes the volume:
“The three questions proposed concerning duty-1st. What ought to be done ? 2d. Why ought it to be done? 3d. How ought it to be done ?- we attempted to answer by a consideration of ends. We saw that all rational arrangement, construction, and action, must have reference to an end, and can be comprehended only in the light of that end; and that all rules and laws have their significance and value in the same way.
“We assumed that from a study of the structure of man, physical and mental, some knowledge may be gained, not only of his separate organs and faculties, and of their use, but also of the end of man himself. If man cannot know his own end there can be no philosophy of man-no comprehensive or satisfactory knowledge of him." p. 296.
“Ends were distinguished as subordinate, ultimate, and supreme.
“As the conception of an end involves that of some good, we considered the nature and sources of good. This we found to result from activity, and that the . highest good would be from the activity of the highest powers in a right relation to their highest object. We discriminated the different kinds of good as it comes from the susceptibilities and the powers, finding from one what is distinctively pleasure, from the other happiness and blessedness." p. 297.
“We next investigated the relation between holiness or virtue, and happiness. In doing this we distinguished between moral good, as the natural and necessary result of moral goodness, and natural good; and also considered the good there
is from the approbation of goodness. Moral good and that from approbation were shown to be infallibly connected with moral goodness. Natural good is not necessarily thus connected, but there is a tendency towards it. There is between them no contrariety, or opposition, or 'antinomy,' and they ought to be connected by will in the way of reward. That they are not thus connected in the present state, is an evidence of disorder, and an indication of a state yet future.
" In connection with this we affirmed the duty of each one to secure his own good through moral goodness, and found that this was not only compatible with the good of the whole, but necessary to it,—thus bringing into harmony a rational self-love and benevolence.
“Regarding not only the quantity, but also the quality of enjoyment, we saw that the good and end for man was not to be found either in holiness by itself, or in happiness by itself, but in holy happiness or blessedness. That these are thus necessarily united, no doubt God intended we should know; also that we should seek them as thus united; and our idea of perfection is the highest possible union of these, together with all natural good following in their train.
" In determining, next, more specifically, the sphere of moral science, we took our point of observation at the performance of an outward act, and going back wards to its source, we found an immediate recognition of the moral quality of the act as good or evil; while, in going forwards and outwards to its consequences, we found the ideas of utility, and, in one sense, of right and wrong. In the one case we were wholly concerned with the person and the motive; in the other with the outward act and its results." pp. 300, 301.
THE LIFE OF NATHANIEL LYON.* _The name and fame of this brave officer will ever be precious to his countrymen, and Dr. Ashbel Woodward has done good service in preparing this memoir, which we have here before us in an octavo of 360 pages.
We learn that NATHANIEL LYON was born in Ashford, Connecticut, July 14, 1818, of a family which was represented, on both the father's and mother's side, in the struggle for American Independence, among the defenders of our liberties. Concerning Colonel Thomas Knowlton, a maternal uncle, General Washington declared that “he would have been an honor to any country.” Of another Knowlton-Lieutenant Daniel-General Putnam said, "such is his courage and want of fear, I could order him into the mouth of a loaded cannon."
At the age of nineteen young Lyon entered the Military Acade
* The Life of General Nathaniel Lyon. By AshBeL WOODWARD, M, D., Franklin, Conn. Hartford : Case, Lockwood & Co. 1862. 12mo.
my at West Point as a car
os to the while there was a diligent and successful student, accom
"untry, everything in the curriculum with ease. He graduate
e 30, 1841, ranking eleventh in a class which numbered fifty In July following, he was commissioned Second Lieutena n the Second Regiment of Infantry U.S. A., and shortly after, left his home to join the regiment which was then engaged in the prosecution of the war against the Seminole Indians in Florida. At its close, in 1842, the Second Regiment was ordered to Sackets Harbor, N. Y., where it remakned till 1846 ; when, war having been declared with Mexico, it was sent to the Texan frontier. Chapters III., IV., V., are occupied with the Mexican War, so far as its details have a bearing on the history of the Lieutenant. Throughout that entire campaign he exhibited great bravery and endured many hardships and dangers. The Government showed its appreciation of the services rendered by promoting him to the rank of Captain. Captain Lyon’s next field of labor was California—the El Dorado of the Southwestwhere he was located most of the time from 1849 till 1856. Chapters VI., VII., and VIII., graphically describe the condition of soci. ety there, and his operations and mode of life in the new State during this period, which is fraught with privation and suffering ;-frequently his life was in peril in encounters with Indians.
In 1856 we are not surprised to find him debating seriously the question of resigning his connection with the army-finally deciding to do so if he should be ordered (as at that time seemed probable) into Kansas, to aid in enforcing the laws which had been enacted by a pro-slavery legislature, elected by non-resident voters. Chapter IX. records his career at various stations along the Missouri river till 1860; here, in the midst of constantly recurring excitement, he was becoming schooled and qualified for participation in the work of putting down the gigantic rebellion which, years before, he foresaw would be ushered in, whenever an administration opposed to the extension of slavery should succeed to the control of the Government. In 1860, that time came. The accession of Mr. Lincoln to the Presidency awakened the spirit of rebellion among the slavery propagandists-secession was their rallying cry, and to its standard, multitudes of infatuated men rushed, “ from near and from far," determined to resist with arms an administration whose only crime consisted in being elected. Lyon at this time, with a mere handful of men, was stationed at the Ar
senal at St. Louis. His position Moral goerilous, and constantly becoming more so, for he was menth mora all sides, and the hosts of the enemy were continually beirenden ungthened. Chapters X. and XI. review the startling event or he period immediately subsequent, and exhibit Lyon brave attempting to enforce the authority of the Government. He goes forth from St. Louis; and wherever his little band makes a stand, its enemies quail and flee before it. The praises of a grateful people are bestowed upon him, and the Government manifests its approbation and confidence by creating him a Brigadier-General and extending his authority. We here are able to get some idea of his character from a letter which he wrote about this time to a friend in Booneville, Mo., June 28th, 1861. In reply to a note received requesting him to make a memorandum of the most prominent events in his past life for the benefit of the public, he writes, I do not comply “because I have no time, and do not think the subject of the least importance. This great and most wicked rebellion absorbs my whole being to the exclusion of any considerations of fame or selfadvancement. In this issue, if I have or shall have a conspicuous part, I would share it, and the honors of it, equally with every one who contributes to sustain the great cause of our country which I have so much at heart. I have not received your notice of me in the Journal of Commerce. Most of the notices by the press are more or less erroneous. But alas! the past is nothing-painfully indeed unfruitful of benefits to our race. It is with the present we are dealing, and let us all devote ourselves to it with a view to secure the future; and let that future be blank and forever oblivious, rather than our cause fail before the unscrupulous villainy now at war upon it.”
Chapter XII. records the closing scenes of the brave soldier's life. The vigorous policy of General Lyon and his associates had secured to the Federal authority the principal towns on the Missouri river. Taking his departure thence, after very inadequate preparation, and with but a feeble force, he enters southwestern Missouri, where was the stronghold of the rebellion in the state. Four Southern armies, led by able Generals, were stationed at convenient combining distances, prepared not merely to assume the defensive, but awaiting opportunity to go forth to encounter Lyon and his men in full confidence that they would fall an easy prey Meanwhile, General Lyon, with less than five thousand followers,