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ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

A

POPULAR DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS AND

BIOGRAPHY,

BROUGHT DOWN TO THE PRESENT TIME;

INCLUDING

A COPIOUS COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES

IN

AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY;

ON

THE BASIS OF THE SEVENTH EDITION OF THE GERMAN

CONVERSATIONS-LEXICON.

EDITED BY

FRANCIS LIEBER,

ASSISTED BY

E. WIGGLESWORTH AND T. G. BRADFORD.

Vol. VIII.

Philadelphia:

CAREY AND LEA.
SOLD IN PHILADELPHIA BY E. L. CAREY AND A. HART-IN NEW YORK

BY G. & C. & H. CARVILL-IN BOSTON. BY

CARTER & HENDEE.

1831.

EASTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA, to wit : BE IT REMEMBE

MBERED, that on the tenth day of August, in the fifty-fourth year of the Independence of the United States of America, A. D. 1829, Carey, Lea & Carey, of the said district, have deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit:

“ Encyclopædia Americana. A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, Politics and Biograph rought down to the present Time; including a copious Collection of Original Articles in American Biography ; on the Basis of the seventh Edition of the German Conversations-Lexicon. Edited by Francis Lieber, assisted by E. Wigglesworth.”

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, “ An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned;" and also to the act, entitled, “ An Act supplementary to an act, entitled,

An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to tho authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned,' and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints."

D. CALDWELL,
Clerk of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

Gen. Lib.
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ENCYCLOPÆDIA AMERICANA.

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LINNEUS. (See Linné.)

arrangement of plants, or the sexual sysLINNÉ, Charles, but more generally des- tem of botany, relative to which he wrote ignated by his Latinized name, Linnæus, a memoir, which was shown to Rudbeck, the most celebrated naturalist of his age, the botanical professor, who was so struck was a native of Sweden. He was the son with its ingenuity, that he received the of a clergyman, and was born May 13, author into his house, as tutor to his sons, old style, 1707, at Rashult

, in the province and made him his assistant in the office of of Smaland. His father was fond of gar- delivering, lectures. Forty years before, dening, and his little domain was stocked Rudbeck had made a journey to Lapland, with plants not commonly cultivated—a which excited the curiosity of the learned. circumstance to which the prevailing taste A new journey was now concluded upon, of the son may be fairly attributed. He and, in 1732, Linné was sent, by the acadwas sent to the grammar-school, and af- emy of sciences at Upsal, to make a tour terwards to the gymnasium of Wexio, to through Lapland, from which he returned he educated for the ministry ; but, as he towards the close of the year. Fifty disliked the studies of the school, and pre- Swedish dollars were thought sufficient ferred to collect plants and catch butter- by Linné to defray his expenses, and with flies, he remained behind his fellow-pupils this small sum he made a journey of more in Latin and Greek, and the teachers de- than 3500 miles, unaccompanied. In clared to his father that he was only fit 1733, he visited the mining district around for a mechanic. The father sent him to a Fahlun, and gave lectures on mineralogy, shoemaker; but the physician Rothmann, having formed a system of that science, having discovered talents in the boy, in- afterwards published in his Systema Natuduced his parents to let him study. As . While he was thus adding to his repubotany afforded him no prospect of a tation at Upsal, he became involved in a support, Linné was obliged to study medi- violent quarrel with the medical professor, cine. In 1727, he entered at the univer- Nicholas Rosen, who seems to have acted sity of Lund in Scania, whence he re with a great deal of illiberality, and found moved, the following year, to Upsal. means to prevent Linné from continuing During his early residence there, the nar- his private lectures. He therefore engaged rowness of his father's circumstances ex- in a scientific tour through the province posed him to great difficulties, from which of Dalecarlia, and remained for some he was relieved by the patronage of Cel- time at Fablun, lecturing and practissius, the theological professor, an eminenting medicine with considerable naturalist, who had become acquainted cess. He again went to Lapland on a with him in the botanical garden at Upsal, mineralogical tour, with seven young men; and through whose recommendation he and, in 1735, published a complete Flora obtained some private pupils. He also of this country—a classical work. In the formed a friendship with Artedi, a med same year, he went to the university of ical student like himself, devoted to the Harderwyck, in Holland, and took the decultivation of natural history. He now, in gree of M. Đ. He then visited Leyden, his 24th year, conceived the idea of a new where the first sketch of his Systema Natu

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