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disregard of right and the unparalleled ' attempt by Congress, on any pretext oppression and tyranny which have ever, to deprive any state of this right, or marked its career. After the most solemn interfere with its exercise, a flagrant and unanimous pledge of both Houses of usurpation of power which can inc n Congress to prosecute the war exclusively warrant in the constitution, and, if sanefor the maintenance of the government, tioned by the peopic wil subver subver our and the preservation of the Union under horn of government, and can only enc in a the constitution, it has repeated y mounted" singit centralized and consolidated the most sacred pledge under which one ernment in which the separate existence was rallied that nobit Volunteer arm of the states will in entire absorbed, and which carried our flag i victory. Instead an unqualinet despotisn t established of restoring the Union, it has so far as in place of a federal union of co-equa states. its } ower, dissolved it and subjected ten And that we regard the construction acı states in ume of profound peace, to mili- |(so caled of Congress as usurbation and tary despotism and supremu? lt unconstitutional, revolutionary and void. has nullined there there the right of trial p jury; it has abolished the habeas corpus, that mos sacred writ of liberty; it has overthrown the freedom of speei and press; it has substituted arbitrary seizures and arrests, and military trials and Secret star-chamber inquisitions, the constie tut dia. tribunals; it has disregarded II time of peace, the right of the people to be free from searches and seizures; it has endotel the post and telegrad offices, and evel the private rooms of individuals, and seized their private papers and peters without any spec. charge of nourt of afidavit as ra ured by the COLLI I&W. 1: has converted the ADRIAL capito. into a bastile; it has established & systen of spies and offical espionage i VLITI HO tbola monarchy of Lurope would new dare to resort. It has abolished the rilli of appeal on important constitution questions to the supreme judi in
nais. and areatens t cum o destros its original jurisdiction, viel is izrevorg bir rested by the constitution; while the bly learned Chief Justice has been subjected to the most atrocious calumnie nieres because he would not prostitute his high office the support of the faise and partsan charges preferred against the Pres dent. Its corruption and extravagance have exceeded an hing knovi in history; anything and, its frauds and monopolies, it has nearly doubled the burden of the dent created by the war. It has stripped the President of his constitutional power of appointment, ereL of Lis own cabinet. Cnder its repeated assaults, the pillars of the government are rocking on their base; and should it succeed in November next, and inaugurate its President, we will meet, as a subjected and conquered people, amid the ruins of liberty and the scattered, the United States in ther effort to protec fragments of the constitution.
Resolved, That this convention symme thizes cordially with the workingmen of
the right and interests of the laboring classes of the country.
And we do declare and resolve that ever since the people of the United States threw of all subjection to the British crown, the privilege and trust of suffrage have belonged to the several states, and have been granted, regulated, and con
Resolved. That the thanks of the con vention are tendered Chief Justice SaimoL 1. Chase, for the justice, dignity and impartiality with which he presided trolled exclusively by the political power over the court of impeachment on th of each state respectively; and that any trial of President Andrew Johnson.
That our soldiers and sailors. vu‹ CTTzied the flag of our Count I victor against th mos galiant and determined must ever be gratefuly remembered. and all the guaranty ther favor must be faithfully carried into execution.
That the public lands shou lands show in die tributed as voden as possibis among the propis, and should be disposed of eine under the pre-emption of homestead and orld in reasonable quantitiet and to none but actul ozcudante a minumum DZICE established DV THE governmem When grant of public lands ma loved, necessary for the encouragement o inooram pubi inprovement the proCeas of the sale of su lands, and not the lands themselves shouc de so applied. That the Presidem of the United States, Audrey Jonson in exercising the power ne in resisting the aggres of Le nici cân sions of ongres upon the constitutiona rights of the states and the peobe tiled to the gratitude of the whon amer. and or benal of the Demo CLL peanut eratic party, we tender in our than for his patrious efforts that regard
IDOL tavriatioΞΗ. the Democratic party appea to every patio memding al the conservarve element and al who ne sire to support the constitution and restore the Union, forgetting al past differences of opinion. tunne with us in the present great struggit for the literaes of the peeple; and that to al suc 10 whatever pay they may have heretofore belonged we extent the right hand of fellowship. and hai al such co-operating will 15, friends and brethren.
1872.-Labor Reform Platform.
We hold that all political power is inherent in the people, and free government founded on their authority and established for their benefit; that all citizens are equal in political rights, entitled to the largest religious and political liberty compatible 7. That we ask for the enactment of a with the good order of society, as also the law by which all mechanics and day-lause and enjoyment of the fruits of their borers employed by or on behalf of the labor and talents; and no man or set of government, whether directly or indirectly, men is entitled to exclusive separable en-through persons, firms, or corporations, dowments and privileges or immunities contracting with the state, shall conform from the government, but in consideration to the reduced standard of eight hours a of public services; and any laws destruc- day, recently adopted by Congress for native of these fundamental principles are tional employes; and also for an amendwithout moral binding force, and should ment to the acts of incorporation for cities be repealed. And believing that all the and towns, by which all laborers and meevils resulting from unjust legislation now chanics employed at their expense shall affecting the industrial classes can be re- conform to the same number of hours. moved by the adoption of the principles contained in the following declaration : therefore,
8. That the enlightened spirit of the age demands the abolition of the system of contract labor in our prisons and other reformatory institutions.
Resolved, That it is the duty of the government to establish a just standard of distribution of capital and labor, by providing a purely national circulating medium, based on the faith and resources of the nation, issued directly to the people without the intervention of any system of banking corporations, which money shall be legal tender in the payment of all debts, public and private, and interchangeable, at the option of the holder, for government bonds bearing a rate of interest not to exceed 3.65 per cent., subject to future legislation by Congress.
2. That the national debt should be paid in good faith, according to the original contract, at the earliest option of the government, without mortgaging the property of the people or the future exigencies of Jabor to enrich a few capitalists at home and abroad.
3. That justice demands that the burdens of government should be so adjusted as to bear equally on all classes, and that the exemption from taxation of government bonds bearing extravagant rates of interest, is a violation of all just principles of revenue laws.
6. That the presence in our country of Chinese laborers, imported by capitalists in large numbers for servile use is an evil entailing want and its attendant train of misery and crime on all classes of the American people, and should be prohibited by legislation.
4. That the public lands of the United States belong to the people, and should not be sold to individuals nor granted to corporations, but should be held as a sacred trust for the benefit of the people, and should be granted to landless settlers only, in amounts not exceeding one hundred and sixty acres of land.
9. That the protection of life, liberty, and property are the three cardinal principles of government, and the first two are more sacred than the latter; therefore, money needed for prosecuting wars should, as it is required, be assessed and collected from the wealthy of the country, and not entailed as a burden on posterity.
10. That it is the duty of the government to exercise its power over railroads. and telegraph corporations, that they shall not in any case be privileged to exact such rates of freight, transportation, or charges, by whatever name, as may bear unduly or unequally upon the producer or consumer.
11. That there should be such a reform in the civil service of the national government as will remove it beyond all partisan influence, and place it in the charge and under the direction of intelligent and competent business men.
12. That as both history and experience teach us that power ever seeks to perpetuate itself by every and all means, and that its prolonged possession in the hands of one person is always dangerous to the interests of a free people, and believing that the spirit of our organic laws and the stability and safety of our free institutions are best obeyed on the one hand, and secured on the other, by a regular constitutional change in the chief of the country at each election; therefore, we are in favor of limiting the occupancy of the presidential chair to one term.
5. That Congress should modify the tariff so as to admit free such articles of common use as we can neither produce nor grow, and lay duties for revenue mainly upon articles of luxury and upon such ar-tration of justice being the only true bond ticles of manufacture as will, we having of union to bind the states together and rethe raw materials, assist in further develop- store the government of the people. ing the resources of the country. 14. That we demand the subjection of
13. That we are in favor of granting general amnesty and restoring the Union at once on the basis of equality of rights and privileges to all, the impartial adminis
the military to the civil authorities, and the use of intoxicating liquors; and we inthe confinement of its operations to nation-vite all persons to assist in this movement. al purposes alone.
That competence, honesty, and sobriety are indispensable qualifications for holding office.
15. That we deem it expedient for Congress to supervise the patent laws so as to give labor more fully the benefit of its own ideas an l inventions.
That fixed and moderate salaries of pub
16. That fitness, and not political or personal considerations, should be the only recommendation to public office, either ap-lic officers should take the places of fee and ative or elective: and any and all laws perquisites; and that all means should be wing to the establishment of this prin- taken to prevent corruption and encourage ciple are heartily approved.
Columbus, Okio, February 2
The preamble raios that protection and allerance are reciprocal duties; and crerg citizen who viel obedient- the full commands of government should be proteted in enjoyment of person.. se 1.b. v. personal hat the rafie in intoxicatin greatly impairs the personal security personal liberty of a great mass of citizens. and -d private property insecure. That all political parties are hopelessly unwilling to adopt in adequate pol of this question: Therefore, & à national convention, we adopt the Dlowing declaration of lowing declaration of prizombies:
That while we acknowledge the pare patriotism and propound statesman-hip of three atriots who laid the foundation of -his at once the ¦ zor zalment, se urag night of the states sever Ly and their ineeparıble union by the federal constitution. we vouki not merely varnish the sepulchres of our ublican fathers, we do hereby renew our pleiges of solemn fealty to the imperishable principles of civil and religions liberty embodied in the Declaration of Independence and our federal constitu
That removals from public office for mere political differences of opinion are wrong.
That there can be no greater peril to a nation than existing party competition for the liquor vote. That any party not op posed to the traffic. experience shows will engage in this competition-will court the favor of criminal classes-will barter away the public morals, the purity of the ballot, and every object of good government, for party success.
That, as prohibitionists, we will individually use all efforts to persuade men from
That the President and Vice-President should be elected directly by the people.
That we are in favor of a sound national currency, adequate to the demands of business, and convertible into gold and silver at the will of the holder, and the adoption of every measure compatible with justice and public safety to appreciate our present urrency to the gold standard.
That the rates of ocean and inland post106. and road telegraph lines and water transportation, should be made as low as possible by law.
That we are opposed to all discrimination in favor of capital against labor, as well as all monopoly and class legislation.
That the removal of the burdens imposed in the traffic in intoxicating drinks will emancipate labor, and will practically promote labor reform
That sufrage should be granted to all persons, without regard to sex.
That the fostering and extension of comman schools is a primary duty of the gov ernment.
That a liberal policy should be pursued to promote foreign immigration.
1972. —Liberal Republican Platfor
We, the Liberal Republicans of the That the traffic in intoxicating beverages United States, in national convention as is a fishonor to Christian civilization, a sembled at Cincinnati, proclaim the followpolitical wrong of unequalled enormity, ing principles as essential to just governsubversive of ordinary objects of government. ment, not capable of being regulated or restrained by any system of license whatever, and imperatively demands, for its suppression, effective leral prohibition, both by state and national legislation.
1. We recognize the equality of all men before the law, and hold that it is the duty of government, in its dealings with the people, to mete out equal and exact justice to all of whatever nativity, race, color, or persuasion, religious or political.
2. We pledge ourselves to maintain the union of these states, emancipation, and enfranchisement, and to oppose any reopening of the questions settled by the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments of the constitution.
3. We demand the immediate and absolute removal of all disabilities imposed on account of the Rebellion, which was finally subdued seven years ago, believing that
universal amnesty will result in complete | peace, by treating with all on fair and equal pacification in all sections of the country. terms, regarding it alike dishonorable 4. Local self-government, with impartial either to demand what is not right or subsuffrage, will guard the rights of all citi-mit to what is wrong. zens more securely than any centralized 12. For the promotion and success of power. The public welfare requires the these vital principles and the support of supremacy of the civil over the military the candidates nominated by this convenauthority, and the freedom of person under tion, we invite and cordially welcome the the protection of the habeas corpus. We co-operation of all patriotic citizens, withdemand for the individual the largest lib-out regard to previous political affiliations. erty consistent with public order, for the state self-government, and for the nation a return to the methods of peace and the constitutional limitations of power.
5. The civil service of the government has become a mere instrument of partisan tyranny and personal ambition, and an object of selfish greed. It is a scandal and reproach upon free institutions, and breeds a demoralization dangerous to the perpetuity of republican government. We, therefore, regard a thorough reform of the civil service as one of the most pressing necessities of the hour; that honesty, capacity, and fidelity constitute the only valid claims to public employment; that the of fices of the government cease to be a matter of arbitrary favoritism and patronage, and that public station shall become again a post of honor. To this end, it is imperatively required that no President shall be a candidate for re-election.
6. We demand a system of federal taxation which shall not unnecessarily interfere with the industry of the people, and which shall provide the means necessary to pay the expenses of the government, economically administered, the pensions, the interest on the public debt, and a moderate reduction annually of the principal thereof; and recognizing that there are in our midst honest but irreconcilable differences of opinion with regard to the respective sysItems of protection and free trade, we remit the discussion of the subject to the people in their congressional districts and the decision of Congress thereon, wholly free from Executive interference or dictation.
We, the Democratic electors of the United States, in convention assembled, do present the following principles, already adopted at Cincinnati, as essential to just government:
Platform;" which see above.]
to actual settlers.
11. We hold that it is the duty of the government, in its intercourse with foreign nations, to cultivate the friendships of
The Republican party of the United States, assembled in national convention in the city of Philadelphia, on the 5th and 6th days of June, 1872, again declares its faith, appeals to its history, and announces its position upon the questions before the country;
1. During eleven years of supremacy it has accepted, with grand courage, the solemn duties of the time. It suppressed a gigantic rebellion, emancipated four millions of slaves, decreed the equal citizenship of all, and established universal suffrage. Exhibiting unparalleled magnanimity, it criminally punished no man for political offenses, and warmly welcomed all who proved their loyalty by obeying the laws and dealing justly with their neighbors. It has steadily decreased, with firm hand, the resultant disorders of a great war, and initiated a wise and humane policy toward the Indians. The Pacific railroad and similar vast enterprises have been generously aided and successfully conducted, the public lands freely given to actual settlers, immigration protected and encouraged, and a full acknowledgment of the natural
7. The public credit must be sacredly maintained, and we denounce repudiation in every form and guise.
8. A speedy return to specie payment is demanded alike by the highest considerations of commercial morality and honest government.
ism and sacrifices of the soldiers and sailors of the Republic; and no act of ours shall ever detract from their justly earned fame or the full rewards of their patriotism.
10. We are opposed to all further grants of lands to railroads or other corporations. The public domain should be held sacred
9. We remember with gratitude the hero-ized citizen's rights secured from European powers. A uniform national currency has been provided, repudiation frowned down, the national credit sustained under the most extraordinary burdens, and new bonds negotiated at lower rates. The revenues have been carefully collected and honestly applied. Despite annual large reductions of the rates of taxation, the public debt has been reduced during General Grant's presidency at the rate of a hundred millions a year, great financial
crises have been avoided, and peace and plenty prevail throughout the land. Menacing foreign difficulties have been peacefully and honorably compromised, and the honor and power of the nation kept in high respect throughout the world. This glorious record of the past is the party's best pledge for the future. We believe the people will not intrust the government to any party or combination of men composed chiefly of those who have resisted every
2. The recent amendments to the national constitution should be cordially sustained because they are right, not merely tolerated because they are law, and should be carried out according to their spirit by appropriate legislation, the enforcement of which can sately be intrusted only to the party that secured those amendments.
3. Complete liberty and exact equality in the enjoyment of all civil, political, and public rights should be established and effectually maintained throughout the Union by efficient and appropriate state and federal legislation. Neither the law nor its administration should admit any discrimination in respect to citizens by reason of race, creed, color, or previous condition of servitude.
4. The national government should seek to maintain honorable peace with all nations, protecting its citizens everywhere, and sympathizing with all peoples who strive for greater liberty.
5. Any system of civil service under which the subordinate positions of the government are considered rewards for mere party zeal is fatally demoralizing; and we, therefore, favor a reform of the system, by laws which shall abolish the evils of patronage, and make honesty, efficiency, and fidelity the essential qualifications for public positions, without practically creating a life tenure of office.
6. We are opposed to further grants of the public lands to corporations and monopolies, and demand that the national domain be set apart for free homes for the people.
titled to the care of a generous and grateful people. We favor such additional legislation as will extend the bounty of the government to all our soldiers and sailors who were honorably discharged, and who in the line of duty became disabled, without regard to the length of service or the cause of such discharge.
9. The doctrine of Great Britain and other European powers concerning allegiance "once a subject always a subject”— having at last, through the efforts of the Republican party, been abandoned, and the American idea of the individual's right to transfer allegiance having been accepted by European nations, it is the duty of our government to guard with jealous care the rights of adopted citizens against the assumption of unauthorized claims by their former governments, and we urge continued careful encouragement and protection of voluntary immigration.
10. The franking privilege ought to be abolished, and a way prepared for a speedy reduction in the rates of postage.
11. Among the questions which press for attention is that which concerns the relations of capital and labor; and the Republican party recognizes the duty of so shaping legislation as to secure full protection and the amplest field for capital, and for labor, the creator of capital, the largest opportunities and a just share of the mutual profits of these two great servants of civilization.
12. We hold that Congress and the President have only fulfilled an imperative duty in their measures for the suppression of violence and treasonable organizations in certain lately rebellious regions, and for the protection of the ballot-box; and, therefore, they are entitled to the thanks of the nation.
13. We denounce repudiation of the public debt, in any form or disguise, as a national crime. We witness with pride the reduction of the principal of the debt, and of the rates of interest upon the balance, and confidently expect that our excellent national currency will be perfected by a speedy resumption of specie payment.
14. The Republican party is mindful of its obligations to the loyal women of America for their noble devotion to the cause of freedom. Their admission to wider fields of usefulness is viewed with satisfaction; and the honest demand of any class of citizens for additional rights should be treated with respectful consideration.
7. The annual revenue, after paying current expenditures, pensions, and the interest on the public debt, should furnish a moderate balance for the reduction of the principal; and that revenue, except so much as may be derived from a tax upon tobacco and liquors, should be raised by duties upon importations, the details of which should be so adjusted as to aid in securing remunerative wages to labor, and promote the industries, prosperity, and growth of the whole country.
8. We hold in undying honor the soldiers and sailors whose valor saved the Union. Their pensions are a sacred debt of the nation, and the widows and orphans 16. The Republican party proposes to of those who died for their country are en-respect the rights reserved by the people to
15. We heartily approve the action of Congress in extending amnesty to those lately in rebellion, and rejoice in the growth of peace and fraternal feeling throughout the land.