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will resist all attempts at renewing in Congress, or out of it, the agitation of the slavery question, under whatever shape or color the attempt may be made.

[Here resolutions 13 and 14, of the platform of 1848, were inserted.]

17. Resolved, That the Democratic party will faithfully abide by and uphold the principles laid down in the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions of 1792 and 1798, and in the report of Mr. Madison to the Virginia Legislature in 1799; that it adopts those principles as constituting one of the main foundations of its political creed, and is resolved to carry them out in their obvious meaning and import.

Second. The state governments should be held secure to their reserved rights, and the General Government sustained in its constitutional powers, and that the Union should be revered and watched over as the palladium of our liberties.

Third. That while struggling freedom everywhere enlists the warmest sympathy of the Whig party, we still adhere to the

18. Resolved, That the war with Mexico, upon all the principles of patriotism and the law of nations, was a just and necessary war on our part, in which no American citizen should have shown himself opposed to his country, and neither morally nor physically, by word or deed, given aid and comfort to the enemy. 19. Resolved, That we rejoice at the re-doctrines of the Father of his Country, as storation of friendly relations with our announced in his Farewell Address, of sister Republic of Mexico, and earnestly keeping ourselves free from all entangling desire for her all the blessings and pros-alliances with foreign countries, and of perity which we enjoy under republican never quitting our own to stand upon forinstitutions, and we congratulate the eign ground; that our mission as a repubAmerican people on the results of that lic is not to propagate our opinions, or imwar which have so manifestly justified the pose on other countries our forms of govpolicy and conduct of the Democratic ernment, by artifice or force, but to teach party, and insured to the United States by example, and show by our success, indemnity for the past and security for the moderation and justice, the blessings of future. self-government, and the advantages of free institutions.

| their devotion to the constitution and the Union, do proclaim the following as the political sentiments and determination for the establishment and maintenance of which their national organization as a party was effected:

1852.-Whig Platform.
Baltimore, June 16.

20. Resolved, That, in view of the condition of popular institutions in the old world, a high and sacred duty is devolved with increased responsibility upon the De-its mocracy of this country, as the party of the people, to uphold and maintain the rights of every state, and thereby the union of states, and to sustain and advance among them constitutional liberty, by continuing to resist all monopolies and exclusive legislation for the benefit of the few at the expense of the many, and by a vigilant and constant adherence to those principles and compromises of the constitution which are broad enough and strong enough to embrace and uphold the Union as it is, and the Union as it should be, in the full expansion of the energies and capacity of this great and progressive people.

The Whigs of the United States, in convention assembled adhering to the great conservative principles by which they are controlled and governed, and now as ever relying upon the intelligence of the American people, with an abiding confidence in their capacity for self-government and

First. The government of the United States is of a limited character, and is confined to the exercise of powers expressly granted by the constitution, and such as may be necessary and proper for carrying the granted powers into full execution, and that powers not granted or necessarily implied are reserved to the states respectively and to the people.

Fourth. That, as the people make and control the government, they should obey

constitution, laws and treaties as they would retain their self-respect and the respect which they claim and will enforce from foreign powers.

Fifth. Governments should be conducted on the principles of the strictest economy; and revenue sufficient for the expenses thereof, in time of peace, ought to be derived mainly from a duty on imports, and not from direct taxes; and on laying such duties sound policy requires a just discrimination, and, when practicable, by specific duties, whereby suitable encouragement may be afforded to American industry, equally to all classes and to all portions of the country.

Sixth. The constitution vests in Congress the power to open and repair harbors, and remove obstructions from navigable rivers, whenever such improvements are necessary for the common defense, and for the protection and facility of commerce with foreign nations or among the states, said improvements being in every instance national and general in their character.

Seventh. The Federal and state governments are parts of one system, alike necessary for the common prosperity, peace and

eurity and ought to be regarded alike constitution, and the grants of power there with a cordial, habitual and immovable at-in ought to be strictly construed by all the tachment. Respect for the authority of departments and agents of the government, each, and acquiescence in the just consti- and it is inexpedient and dangerous to extutional measures of each, are duties re-ercise doubtful constitutional powers. quired by the plainest considerations of i 4. That the constitution of the United national, state and individual welfare. tates, ordained form a more perfect Union, to establish justice, and secure the blessings of liberty, expressly denies to the general government all power to deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; and, therefore, the government. having no




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Eighth. That the series of acts of the 32d Congress, the act known as the Fugitive Slave Law included, are received and doque ed in by the Why party of the United States as a settlement in principle and sub-tance of the dangerous and exciting questi which they caborace; and, power to make a slave than to make a tar as they are contr ed, we will main-king, and no more power to establish tain them, and insist upon their Strict sten- Savery than to establish a monarchy. rience hall should at at once proceed to relieve itself the necessity of further rise from all responsibility for the existence of lation to guardagain the evasion of the -lavery, wherever it possesses constitutional law on the one hand and the abf power to legislate for its extinction. their powers on the other-not impairing eficiency; an i we deprecatenate demands of the slave power for more all further axitation of the question thus slave states, new save territories, and the settled, as danger us ar peace, and will nationalization of slavery, our distinct Sisemaztezan e all continue or and final answer is no more slave states, renew soch actation whenever, where no slave territory, no nationalized slavery, е - however the attempt may be made; and no national legislation for the extraand we will maintain the stem as essen-dition of slaves. tial to the nationality of the Whig party. and the integrity of the Union.

5. That, to the persevering and importu





1. That governments deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed are instituted among men to secure to all those inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the parsals: happins. with which they are en towed by their reator, and of which | Lone can be deprived by valid legislation. except for crime.

192 -Free-soll Platfor

Pittsburg, August 11.

That the doctrine that any human

Haring assembled in national convention as the free democracy of the United es united by a commen resolve maintain right against wrong, and freedom against slavery; confiding in the intelligence. patriotism, ai discriminating jusce of the American people; putting our law is a finality, and not subject to moditrust in God for the triumph of our cause.cation or repeal, is not in accordance and invoking His glance in cur endea- with the creed of the founders of our govvors to advance it, we L * submit to the ernment and is dangerous to the liberties candid ja lumen of all men, the following of the people. declaration of p

and measures:

That the true mission of American democracy is to maintain the liberties of the people, the sovereignty of the states, and the perpetuity of the Union, by the impartial application of public affairs. without sectional discriminations, of the fundamental principles of human rights. strict justice, and an economical adminis

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3. That the Federal government is one of limited powers derived solely from the

6. That slavery is a sin against God, and a crime against man, which no human enactment nor usage can make right: and that Christianity, humanity, and patriotism alike demand its abolition.

7. That the Fuzire Slave Act of 1850) is repugnant to the constitution, to the principles of the common law, to the spirit of Christianity, and to the sentiments of the civilized world; we, therefore. deny it binding free on the American people, and demand its immediate and total re peal.

9. That the acts of Congress, known as the Compromise measures of 1850, by making the admission of a sovereign state contingent upon the adoption of other mea sures demanded by the special interests of slavery; by their omission to guarantee freedom in the free territories: by their aitempt to impose unconstitutional limitations on the powers of Congres- and the people to admit new states: by their provisions for the assumption of five millions of the state debt of Texas, and for the payment of five millions more, and the cession of large territory to the same state under menace, as an inducement to the relinquishment of a groundless claim; and by their invasion of the sovereignty of the states and the liberties of the people, through the enactment of an unjust, oppressive, and unconstitutional fugitive

slave law, are proved to be inconsistent | against which all independent governwith all the principles and maxims of de-ments should protest, and endeavor by all mocracy, and wholly inadequate to the proper means to prevent; and especially is settlement of the questions of which they it the duty of the American government, are claimed to be an adjustment. representing the chief republic of the 10. That no permanent settlement of world, to protest against, and by all prothe slavery question can be looked for ex-per means to prevent, the intervention of cept in the practical recognition of the kings and emperors against nations seektruth that slavery is sectional and freedom ing to establish for themselves republican national; by the total separation of the or constitutional governments. general government from slavery, and the exercise of its legitimate and constitutional influence on the side of freedom; and by leaving to the states the whole subject of slavery and the extradition of fugitives from service.

17. That the independence of Hayti ought to be recognized by our government, and our commercial relations with it placed on the footing of the most favored nations.

11. That all men have a natural right to a portion of the soil; and that as the use of the soil is indispensable to life, the right of all men to the soil is as sacred as their right to life itself.

12. That the public lands of the United States belong to the people and should not be sold to individuals nor granted to corporations, but should be held as a sacred trust for the benefit of the people, and should be granted in limited quantities, free of cost, to landless settlers.

14. That river and harbor improvements, when necessary to the safety and convenience of commerce with foreign nations, or among the several states, are objects of national concern; and it is the duty of Congress, in the exercise of its constitutional powers, to provide for the same.

15. That emigrants and exiles from the old world should find a cordial welcome to homes of comfort and fields of enterprise in the new; and every attempt to abridge their privilege of becoming citizens and owners of soil among us ought to be resisted with inflexible determination.

13. That due regard for the Federal constitution, a sound administrative policy, demand that the funds of the general government be kept separate from banking institutions; that inland and ocean postage should be reduced to the lowest possible point; that no more revenue should be raised than is required to defray the strictly necessary expenses of the public service and to pay off the public debt; and that the power and patronage of the government should be diminished by the abolition of all unnecessary offices, salaries and privileges, and by the election of the people of all civil officers in the service of the United States, so far as may be consist

20. That the free democratic party is not organized to aid either the Whig or Democratic wing of the great slave compromise party of the nation, but to defeat them both; and that repudiating and renouncing both as hopelessly corrupt and utterly unworthy of confidence, the pur

ent with the prompt and efficient transac-pose of the Free Democracy is to take postion of the public business. session of the Federal government and administer it for the better protection of the rights and interests of the whole people.

21. That we inscribe on our banner Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men, and under it will fight on and fight ever, until a triumphant victory shall reward our exertions.

16. That every nation has a clear right to alter or change its own government, and to administer its own concerns in such manner as may best secure the rights and promote the happiness of the people; and foreign interference with that right is a dangerous violation of the law of nations,

18. That as by the constitution, “the citizens of each state shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states," the practice of imprisoning colored seamen of other states, while the vessels to which they belong lie in port, and refusing the exercise of the right to bring such cases before the Supreme Court of the United States, to test the legality of such proceedings, is a flagrant violation of the constitution, and an invasion of the rights of the citizens of other states, utterly inconsistent with the professions made by the slaveholders, that they wish the provisions of the constitution faithfully observed by every state in the Union.

19. That we recommend the introduction into all treaties hereafter to be negotiated between the United States and foreign nations, of some provision for the amicable settlement of difficulties by a resort to decisive arbitrations.

22. That upon this platform, the convention presents to the American people, as a candidate for the office of President of the United States, John P. Hale, of New Hampshire, and as a candidate for the office of Vice-President of the United States, George W. Julian, of Indiana, and earnestly commend them to the support of all freèmen and all parties.

1856.-The American Platforz Adopted at Philadelphia February 21. 1. An humble acknowledgment to the

Supreme Being for His protecting care | from landing upon our shores; but no invouchsafed to our fathers in their success-terference with the vested rights of forful revolutionary struggle, and hitherto eigners. manifested to us, their descendants, in the 10. Opposition to any union between preservation of the liberties, the indepen-church and state; no interference with dence, and the union of these states. religious faith or worship; and no testoaths for office.

11. Free and thorough investigation into any and all alleged abuses of public functionaries, and a strict economy in public expenditures.

2. The perpetuation of the Federal Union and constitution, as the palladium of our civil and religious liberties, and the only sure bulwarks of American independ


3. Americans must rule America; and to 12. The maintenance and enforcement this end native-born citizens should be se- of all laws constitutionally enacted, until lected for all state, federal, and municipal said laws shall be repealed, or shall be deoffices of government employment, in pre-clared null and void by competent judicial ference to all others. Nevertheless, authority.

4. Persons born of American parents 13. Opposition to the reckless and unresiding temporarily abroad, should be wise policy of the present administration entitled to all the rights of native-born in the general management of our national citizens. affairs, and more especially as shown in removing "Americans" (by designation) and conservatives in principle, from office, and placing foreigners and ultraists in their places; as shown in a truckling subserviency to the stronger, and an insolent and cowardly bravado towards the weaker powers; as shown in reopening sectional agitation, by the repeal of the Missouri Compromise; as shown in granting to unnaturalized foreigners the right of suffrage in Kansas and Nebraska; as shown in its. vacillating course on the Kansas and Nebraska question; as shown in the corruptions which pervade some of the departments of the government; as shown in disgracing meritorious naval officers through prejudice or caprice; and as shown in the blundering mismanagement of our foreign relations.

5. No person should be selected for political station (whether of native or foreign birth, who recognizes any allegiance or obligation of any description to any foreign prince, potentate, or power, or who refuses to recognize the federal and state constitution (each within its sphere) as paramount to all other laws, as rules of political action.

6. The unequaled recognition and maintenance of the reserved rights of the several states, and the cultivation of harmony and fraternal good-will between the citizens of the several states, and, to this end, noninterference by Congress with questions appertaining solely to the individual states, and non-intervention by each state with the affairs of any other state.

7. The recognition of the right of nativeborn and naturalized citizens of the United States, permanently residing in any territory thereof, to frame their constitution and laws, and to regulate their domes-build up the "American Party" upon the tic and social affairs in their own mode, principles hereinbefore stated. subject only to the provisions of the federal constitution, with the privilege of admission into the Union whenever they have the requisite population for one Representative in Congress: Provided, always, that none but those who are citizens of the United States under the constitution and laws thereof, and who have a fixed residence in any such territory, ought to participate in the formation of the constitution or in the enactment of laws for said territory or state.

15. That each state council shall have authority to amend their several constitutions, so as to abolish the several degrees, and substitute a pledge of honor, instead of other obligations, for fellowship and admission into the party.

16. A free and open discussion of all political principles embraced in our platform.

8. An enforcement of the principles that no state or territory ought to admit others than citizens to the right of suffrage or of holding political offices of the United


9. A change in the laws of naturalization, making a continued residence of twenty-one years, of all not heretofore provided for, an indispensable requisite for citizenship hereafter, and excluding all paupers and persons convicted of crime

14. Therefore, to remedy existing evils and prevent the disastrous consequences otherwise resulting therefrom, we would

1856.-Democratic Platform,
Adopted at Cincinnati, June 6.

Resolved, That the American democracy place their trust in the intelligence, the patriotism, and discriminating justice of the American people.

Resolved, That we regard this as a distinctive feature of our political creed, which we are proud to maintain before the world as a great moral element in a form of government springing from and upheld by the popular will; and we con

trast it with the creed and practice of federalism, under whatever name or form, which seeks to palsy the will of the constituent, and which conceives no imposture too monstrous for the popular credulity.

Resolved, therefore, That entertaining these views, the Democratic party of this Union, through their delegates, assembled in general convention, coming together in a spirit of concord, of devotion to the doctrines and faith of a free representative government, and appealing to their fellow citizens for the rectitude of their intentions, renew and reassert, before the American 8. That the separation of the moneys of people, the declaration of principles the government from banking institutions. avowed by them, when, on former occa-is indispensable to the safety of the funds sions, in general convention, they have of the government and the rights of the presented their candidates for the popular suffrage.

the best interests of this country, dangerous to our republican institutions and the liberties of the people, and calculated to place the business of the country within. the control of a concentrated money power and above the laws and will of the people; and the results of the democratic legislation in this and all other financial measures upon which issues have been made between the two political parties of the country. have demonstrated to candid and practical men of all parties their soundness, safety, and utility in all business pursuits.


1. That the Federal government is one of limited power, derived solely from the constitution, and the grants of power made therein ought to be strictly construed by all the departments and agents of the gov-pend the passage of a bill whose merits. ernment, and that it is inexpedient and can not secure the approval of two-thirds dangerous to exercise doubtful constitu- of the Senate and House of Representational powers. tives, until the judgment of the people can

9. That we are decidedly opposed to taking from the President the qualified veto power, by which he is enabled, under restrictions and responsibilities amply sufficient to guard the public interests, to sus

2. That the constitution does not confer | be obtained thereon, and which has saved upon the general government the power to the American people from the corrupt and commence and carry on a general system tyrannical dominion of the Bank of the of internal improvements. United States and from a corrupting system of general internal improvements.

10. That the liberal principles embodied by Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence, and sanctioned in the Constitution, which makes ours the land of liberty and the asylum of the oppressed of every nation, have ever been cardinal principles in the democratic faith; and every attempt to abridge the privilege of becoming citizens and owners of soil among us, ought to be resisted with the same spirit which swept the alien and sedition laws from our statute books.

3. That the constitution does not confer authority upon the Federal government, directly or indirectly, to assume the debts of the several states, contracted for local and internal improvements or other state purposes; nor would such assumption be just or expedient.

4. That justice and sound policy forbid the Federal government to foster one branch of industry to the detriment of another, or to cherish the interests of one portion of our common country; that every citizen and every section of the country has a right to demand and insist upon an equality of rights and privileges, and a complete and ample protection of persons and property from domestic violence and foreign aggression.

5. That it is the duty of every branch of the government to enforce and practice the most rigid economy in conducting our public affairs, and that no more revenue ought to be raised than is required to defray the necessary expenses of the government and gradual but certain extinction of the public debt.

6. That the proceeds of the public lands ought to be sacredly applied to the national objects specified in the constitution, and that we are opposed to any law for the distribution of such proceeds among the states, as alike inexpedient in policy and repugnant to the constitution.

And whereas, Since the foregoing declaration was uniformly adopted by our predecessors in national conventions, an adverse political and religious test has been secretly organized by a party claiming to be exclusively Americans, and it is proper that the American democracy should clearly define its relations thereto; and declare its determined opposition to all secret political societies, by whatever name they may be called—

Resolved, That the foundation of this union of states having been laid in, and its prosperity, expansion, and pre-eminent example in free government built upon, entire freedom of matters of religious concernment, and no respect of persons in regard to rank or place of birth, no party can justly be deemed national, constitutional, or in accordance with American

7. That Congress has no power to char-principles, which bases its exclusive organter a national bank; that we believe such ization upon religious opinions and accian institution one of deadly hostility to dental birth-place. And hence a political

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