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presented by the embargo issue could have brought them back to full political power, but lacking these leaders, the opportunity passed
between Monroe and Madison.
Democrats and Federals.
Before Jefferson's administration closed
During the ninth Congress, which as-roe, though the latter could by that time sembled on the second of December, 1805, hardly be considered as a candidate. This the Republicans dropped their name and action broke up Randolph's faction in accepted that of "Democrats." In all Virginia, but left so much bitterness betheir earlier strifes they had been charged hind it that a large portion attached themby their opponents with desiring to run to selves to the Federalists. In the election the extremes of the democratic or mob which followed Madison received 122 elecrule," and fear of too general a belief in toral votes against 47 for C. C. Pinckney, the truth of the charge led them to denials of South Carolina, and 6 for Geo. Clinton and rejection of a name which the father of New York. of their party had ever shown a fondness for. The earlier dangers which had he recommended the passage of an act to threatened their organization, and the re- prohibit the African slave trade after Jancollection of defeats suffered in their at-uary 1st, 1808, and it was passed accord"tempts to establish a government anti-fed-ingly. He had also rejected the form of a eral and confederate in their composition, treaty received from the British minister had been greatly modified by later suc- Erskine, and did this without the formality cesses, and with a characteristic cuteness of submitting it to the Senate-first, bepeculiar to Americans they accepted an cause it contained no provision on the obepithet and sought to turn it to the best jectionable practice of impressing our seaaccount. In this they imitated the patriots men; second, * because it was accompanied who accepted the epithets in the British by a note from the British ministers, by satirical song of "Yankee Doodle," and which the British government reserved to called themselves Yankees. From the itself the right of releasing itself from the ninth Congress the Jeffersonian Republi- stipulations in favor of neutral rights, if cans called themselves Democrats, and the the United States submitted to the British word Republican passed into disuse until decree, or other invasion of those rights by later on in the history of our political France." This rejection of the treaty by parties, the opponents of the Democracy Jefferson caused public excitement, and accepted it as a name which well filled the the Federalists sought to arouse the commeaning of their attitude in the politics of mercial community against his action, and the country. cited the fact that his own trusted friends, Monroe and Pinckney had negotiated it. The President's party stood by him, and they agreed that submission to the Senate was immaterial, as its advice could not bind him. This refusal to consider the treaty was the first step leading to the war of 1812, for embargoes followed, and Britain openly claimed the right to search American vessels for her deserting seamen. 1807 this question was brought to issue by the desertion of five British seamen from the Halifax, and their enlistment on the U. S. frigate Chesapeake. Four separate demands were made for these men, but all of the commanders, knowing the firm attitude of Jefferson's administration against the practice, refused, as did the Secretary of State refuse a fifth demand on the part of the British minister. On the 23d of June following, while the Chesapeake was near the capes of Virginia, Capt. Humphreys of the British ship Leopard attempted to search her for deserters. Capt. Barron denied the right of search, but on being fired into, lowered his flag,
Mr. Randolph of Roanoke, made the first schism in the Republican party under Jefferson, when he and three of his friends voted against the embargo act. He resisted its passage with his usual earnestness, and all attempts at reconciling him to the measure were unavailing. Self-willed, strong in argument and sarcasm, it is believed that his cause made it even more desirable for the Republicans to change name in the hope of recalling some of the more wayward "Democrats" who had advocated Jacobin democracy in the years gone by. The politicians of that day were never short of expedients, and no man so abounded in them as Jefferson himself.
Randolph improved his opportunities by getting most of the Virginia members to act with him against the foreign policy of the administration, but he was careful not to join the Federalists, and quickly denied any leaning that way. The first fruit of Lis faction was to bring forth Monroe as a candidate for President against Madisona movement which proved to be quite popular in Virginia, but which Jefferson flanked by bringing about a reconciliation
*From the Statesman'. Manual, Vol. 1., by Edwin Williams.
proposal, and received the benefits of the act, and the direct result was to increase the growing hostility of England. From this time forward the negotiations had more the character of a diplomatic contest than an attempt to maintain peace. Both countries were upon their mettle, and early in 1811, Mr. Pinckney, the American minister to Great Britain, was recalled, and a year later a formal declaration of war was made by the United States.
Just prior to this the old issue, made by the Republicans against Hamilton's scheme for a National Bank, was revived by the fact that the charter of the bank ceased on the 4th of March, 1811, and an attempt was made to recharter it. A bill for this purpose was introduced into Congress, but on the 11th of January, 1811, it was indefinitely postponed in the House, by a vote of 65 to 64, while in the Senate it was rejected by the casting vote of the Vice-President, Geo. Clinton, on the 5th of February, 1811-this notwithstanding its provisions had been framed or approved by Gallatin, the Secretary of the Treasury. The Federalists were all strong advocates of the measure, and it was so strong that it divided some of the Democrats who enjoyed a loose rein in the contest so far as
Mr. Madison succeeded at a time when the country, through fears of foreign aggres-the administration was concerned, the sion and violence, was exceedingly gloomy President not specially caring for political and despondent a feeling not encouraged quarrels at a time when war was threatened in the least by the statements of the Fed- with a powerful foreign nation. The views eralists, some of whom then thought politi- of the Federalists on this question descendcal criticism in hours of danger not un-ed to the Whigs some years later, and this patriotic. They described our agriculture fact led to the charges that the Whigs as discouraged, our fisheries abandoned, were but Federalists in disguise. our commerce restrained, our navy dismantled, our revenues destroyed at a time when war was at any moment probable with either France, England or Spain.
The eleventh Congress continued the large Democratic majority, as did the twelfth, which met on the 4th of November, 1811, Henry Clay, then an ardent supporter of the policy of Madison, succeeding to the House speakership. He had previously served two short sessions in the U. S. Senate, and had already acquired a high reputation as an able and fluent debater. He preferred the House, at that period of life, believing his powers better calcu
Madison, representing as he did the same party, from the first resolved to follow the policy of Jefferson, a fact about which there was no misunderstanding. He desired to avert war as long as possible with England, and sought by skilful diplomacy to avert the dangers presented by both France and England in their attitude with neutrals.lated to win fame in the more popular repEngland had declared that a man who resentative hall. Calhoun was also in the was once a subject always remained a House at this time, and already noted for subject, and on this plea based her deter- the boldness of his views and their assermination to impress again into her service tion. all deserters from her navy. France, because of refusal to accede to claims equally at war with our rights, had authorized the seizure of all American vessels entering dents, each for two terms, and De Witt the ports of France. In May, 1810, when Clinton, the well-known Governor of New the non-intercourse act had expired, Madi-York, sought through these jealousies to son caused proposals to be made to both create a division which would carry him belligerents, that if either would revoke its into the Presidency. His efforts were for a hostile edict, the non-intercourse act should time warmly seconded by several northern be revived and enforced against the other and southern states. A few months later nation. This act had been passed by the the Legislature of New York formally tenth Congress as a substitute for the em- opened the ball by nominating DeWitt bargo. France quickly accepted Madison's Clinton for the Presidency. An address
In this Congress jealousies arose against the political power of Virginia, which had already named three of the four Presi
Humphreys then took four men from the
was issued by his friends, August 17th, 1812,
Madison was nominated for a second term by a Congressional caucus held at Washington, in May, 1812. John Langdon was nominated for Vice-President, but as he declined on account of age, Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts, took his place. In September of the same year a convention of the opposition, representing eleven states, was held in the city of New York, which nominated De Witt Clinton, with Jared Ingersoll for Vice-President. This was the first national convention, partisan in character, and the Federalists have the credit of originating and carrying out the idea. The election resulted in the success of Madison, who received 128 electoral votes to 89 for Clinton.
had actually been intriguing for the dismemberment of the Union.
The act declaring war was approved by the President on the 18th of June, 1812, and is remarkably short and comprehensive. It was drawn by the attorney-general of the United States, William Pinckney, and is in the words following:
An act declaring war between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the dependencies thereof, and the United States of America and their territories.
Be it enacted, &c. That war be, and the same is hereby declared to exist between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the dependencies thereof, and the United States of America, and their territories; and that the President of the United States is hereby authorized to use the whole land and naval force of the United States to carry the same into effect, and to issue to private armed vessels of the United States commissions, or letters of marque and general reprisal, in such form as he shall think proper, and under the seal of the United States, against the vessels, goods, and effects, of the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the subjects thereof."
This was a soul-stirring message, but it did not rally all the people as it should have done. Political jealousies were very great, and the frequent defeats of the Federalists, while they tended to greatly reduce their numbers and weaken their power, seemed to strengthen their animosity, and they could see nothing good in any act of the administration. They held, especially in the New England states, that the war had been declared by a political party simply, and not by the nation, though nearly all of the Middle, and all of the Southern and
Though factious strife had been somewhat rife, less attention was paid to_politics than to the approaching war. There were new Democratic leaders in the lower House, and none were more prominent than Clay of Kentucky, Calhoun, Cheves and Lowndes, all of South Carolina. The policy of Jefferson in reducing the army and navy was now greatly deplored, and the defenceless condition in which it left the country was the partial cause, at least a stated cause of the factious feuds which followed. Madison sought to change this Western States, warmly supported it. policy, and he did it at the earnest solici-Clay estimated that nine-tenths of the peotation of Clay, Calhoun and Lowndes, whople were in favor of the war, and under the were the recognized leaders of the war inspiration of his eloquence and the strong party. They had early determined that state papers of Madison, they doubtless Madison should be directly identified were at first. Throughout they felt their with them, and before his second nomina-political strength, and they just as heartily tion had won him over to their more de- returned the bitterness manifested by those cided views in favor of war with England. of the Federalists who opposed the war, He had held back, hoping that diplomacy branding them as enemies of the republic, might avert a contest, but when once con- and monarchists who preferred the reign of vinced that war was inevitable and even Britain.
desirable under the circumstances, his Four Federalist representatives in Conofficial utterances were bold and free. In gress went so far as to issue an address, the June following the caucus which re-opposing the war, the way in which it had nominated him, he declared in a message been declared, and denouncing it as unjust. that our flag was continually insulted on Some of the New England states refused the high seas; that the right of searching the order of the President to support it American vessels for British seamen was with their militia, and Massachusetts sent still in practice, and that thousands of peace memorials to Congress. American citizens had in this way been A peace party was formed with a view to impressed in service on foreign ships, that array the religious sentiment of the counpeacful efforts at adjustment of the diffi- try against the war, and societies with simculties had proved abortive, and that the ilar objects were organized by the more British ministry and British emissaries radical of the Federalists. To such an ex
some of the citizens of New London, Conn., made a practice of giving information to the enemy, by means of blue lights, of the departure of American vessels.
treme was this opposition carried, that | jesty and the United States are desirous of continuing their efforts to promote its entire abolition, it is hereby agreed that both the contracting parties shall use their best endeavors to accomplish so desirable an obJeet."
The Hartford Convention.
The position of New England in the war is explained somewhat by her exposed position. Such of the militia as served endured great hardships, and they were almost constantly called from their homes to meet new dangers. Distrusting their loyheld all supplies from the militia of Massaalty, the general government had withchusetts and Connecticut for the year 1814,
which is as follows:
This opposition finally culminated in the assembling of a convention at Hartford, at which delegates were present from all of the New England states. They sat for three weeks with closed doors, and issued an address which will be found in this volume in the book devoted to political platforms. It was charged by the Democrats that the real object of the convention was to negand these States were forced to bear the tiate a separate treaty of peace, on behalf of New England, with Great Britain, but burden of supporting them, at the same time this charge was as warmly denied. The contributing their quota of taxes to the exact truth has not since been discovered, general government-hardships, by the the fears of the participants of threatened way, not greater than those borne by Penntrials for treason, closing their mouths, if sylvania and Ohio in the late war for the their professions were false The treaty of Union, nor half as hard as those borne by the border States at the same time. True, Ghent, which was concluded on December 14th, 1814, prevented other action by the the coast towns of Massachusetts were subHartford convention than that stated. It jected to constant assault from the British had assembled nine days before the treaty, navy, and the people of these felt that they were defenceless. It was on their petition that the legislature of Massachusetts finally, by a vote of 226 to 67, adopted the report favoring the calling of the Hartford Convention. A circular was then addressed to the Governors of the other States, with a request that it be laid before their legislatures, inviting them to appoint delegates, and stating that the object was to deliberate upon the dangers to which the eastern section was exposed, "and to devise, if practicable, means of security and defence which might be consistent with the preservation of their resources from total ruin, and not repugnant to their obligations as members of the Union." The italicized portion shows that there was at least then no design of forming a separate treaty, or of promoting disunion. The legislatures of Connecticut and Rhode Island endorsed the call and sent delegates. Those of New Hampshire and Vermont did not, but delegates were sent by local conventions. These delegates, it is hardly necessary to remark, were all members of the Federal party, and their suspected designs and action made the "Hartford Convention" a bye-word and reproach in the mouths of Democratic orators for years thereafter. It gave to the Democrats, as did the entire history of the war, the prestige of superior patriotism, and they profited by it as long as the memory of the war of 1812 was all fresh. Indeed, directly after the war, men seemed to keep in constant view the reluctance of the Federalists to support the war, and their almost open hostility to it
Whereas the traffic in slaves is irreconcilable with the principles of humanity
and justice; and, whereas, both His Main New England. Peace brought pros
Treaty of Ghent.
This treaty was negotiated by the Right Honorable James Lord Gambier, Henry Goulburn, Esq., and William Adams, Esq., on the part of Great Britain, and John Quincy Adams, James A. Bayard, Henry Clay, Jonathan Russell, and Albert Gallatin, on behalf of the United States.
The treaty can be found on p. 218, vol. 8, of Little & Brown's Statutes at Large. The first article provided for the restoration of all archives, records, or property taken by either party from the other during the war. This article expressly provides for the restoration of "slaves or other private property " The second article provided for the cessation of hostilities and limitation of time of capture. The third article provided for the restoration of prisoners of war.
The fourth article defined the boundary established by the treaty of 1783, and provided for commissioners to mark the same.
The eleventh and last article provides for binding effect of the treaty, upon the exchange of ratifications.
The fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth articles established rules to govern the proceedings of the commissioners.
The ninth article bound the United States and His Britannic Majesty to end all hostilities with Indian tribes, with whom they were then respectively at war.
The tenth article reads as follows:
The Democratic members of Congress, perity and plenty, but not oblivion of the old political issues, and this was the be- before the adjournment of the first session, ginning of the end of the Federal party. held a caucus for the nomination of canIts decay thereafter was rapid and con-didates to succeed Madison and Gerry It was understood that the retiring officers and their confidential friends favored James Monroe of Virginia. Their wishes were carried out, but not without a struggle, Wm. H. Crawford of Georgia receiv
The eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth Congresses had continued Democratic. The fourteenth began Dec. 4, 1815, with the Democratic majority in the House increased to 30. Clay had taken part in negotiating ing 54 votes against 65 for Monroe. the treaty, and on his return was again Democrats opposed to Virginia's dominaelected to the House, and was for the third tion in the politics of the country, made a time elected speaker. Though 65 Feder-second effort, and directed it against Monroe alists had been elected, but 10 were given in the caucus. Aaron Burr denounced to Federal candidates for speaker, this him as an improper and incompetent canparty now showing a strong, and under the didate, and joined in the protest then made circumstances, a very natural desire to against any nomination by a Congressional rub out party lines. The internal taxes caucus; he succeeding in getting nineteen and the postage rates were reduced. Democrats to stay out of the caucus. Later he advised renewed attempts to break down the Congressional caucus system, and before the nomination favored Andrew Jackson as a means to that end. Daniel B. Tompkins was nominated by the Democrats for Vice-President. The Federalists named Rufus King of New York, but in the election which followed he received but 24 out of 217 electoral votes. The Federalists divided their votes for VicePresident.
The Protective Tariff.
Monroe was inaugurated on the 14th of March, 1817, the oath being administered by Chief Justice Marshall. The inaugural
President Madison, in his message, had urged upon Congress a revision of the tariff, and pursuant to his recommendation what was at the time called a protective tariff was passed. Even Calhoun then supported it, while Clay proclaimed that protection must no longer be secondary to revenue, but of primary importance. The rates fixed, however, were insufficient, and many American manufactures were soon frustrated by excessive importations of foreign manufactures. The position of Cal-address was so liberal in its tone that it houn and Lowndes, well known leaders seemed to give satisfaction to men of all from South Carolina, is explained by the shades of political opinion. The questions fact that just then the proposal of a pro- which had arisen during the war no longer tective tariff was popular in the south, in had any practical significance, while the view of the heavy duties upon raw cotton people were anxious to give the disturbing which England then imposed. The Feder- ones which ante-dated at least a season of alists in weakness changed their old posi- rest. Two great and opposing policies had tion when they found the Democrats advo- previously obtained, and singularly enough cating a tariff, and the latter quoted and each seemed exactly adapted to the times published quite extensively Alexander when they were triumphant. The FedHamilton's early report in favor of it. eral power had been asserted in a governWebster, in the House at the time and a ment which had gathered renewed strength leading Federalist, was against the bill. during what was under the circumstances The parties had exchanged positions on a great and perilous war, and the exithe question. gencies of that war in many instances compelled the Republicans or Democrats,
Peace brought with it another exchange of positions. President Madison, although or the Democratic-Republicans as some
he had vetoed a bill to establish a National Bank in 1815, was now (in 1816) anxious for the establishment of such an institution. Clay had also changed his views, and claimed that the experiences of the war showed the necessity for a national currency. The bill met with strong opposition from a few Democrats and nearly all of the Federalists (the latter having changed position on the question since 1811), but it passed and was signed by the President.
still called them, to concede points which had theretofore been in sharp dispute, and they did it with that facility which only Americans can command in emergencies: yet as a party they kept firm hold of the desire to enlarge the scope of liberty in its application to the citizens, and just here kept their original landmark.
A bill to promote internal improvements, advocated by Clay, was at first favored by Madison, but his mind changed and he vetoed the measure the first of its kind passed by Congress.
It is not singular then that the administration of Monroe opened what has ever since been known in politics as the of Good Feeling." Party differences rapidly subsided, and political serenity was the order of the day. Monroe made a tour of the States, with the direct object of inspecting fortifications and means of de