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Democrats and Federals.
presented by the embargo issue could between Monroe and Madison. have brought them back to full political usual Congressional caucus followed at power, but lacking these leaders, the op- Washington, and although the Virginia portunity passed
Legislature in its caucus proviously held had been unable to decide between Madison and Monroe, the Congressional body chose Madison by 83 to 11, the minority
being divided between Clinton and MonDuring the ninth Congress, which as- roe, though the latter could by that time sembled on the second of December, 1903, hardly be considered as a candidate. This the Republicans dropped their name and action broke up Randolph's faction in accepted that of "Democrats." In all Virginia, but left so much bitterness betheir earlier strifes they had been charged hind it that a large portion attached them by their opponents with desiring to run to selves to the Federalists. In the election the extremes of the democratic or mob which followed Madison received 122 elecrule," and fear of too general a belief in 'toral votes against 47 for C. C. Pinckney, the truth of the charge led them to denials of South Carolina, and 6 for Geo. Clinton and rejection of a name which the father of New York. of their party had ever shown a fondness
Before Jefferson's administration closed for. The earlier dangers which had he recommended the passage of an act to threatened their organization, and the re- prohibit the African slave trade after Jancollection of defeats suffered in their at- uiry 1st, 1808, and it was passed accord"tempts to establish a government anti-fed- ingly. He had also rejected the form of a
eral and confederate in their composition, treaty received from the British minister had been greatly modified by later suc- Erskine, and did this without the formality cesses, and with a characteristic cuteness of submitting it to the Senate—first, bepeculiar to Americans they accepted an cause it contained no provision on the obepithet and sought to turn it to the best jectionable practice of impressing our seaaccount. In this they imitated the patriots men; second, * because it was accompanied who accepted the epithets in the British by a note from the British ministers, by
of “Ỳankee Doodle," and which the British government reserved to called themselves Yankees. From the itself the right of releasing itself from the ninth Congress the Jeffersonian Republi- stipulations in favor of neutral rights, if cans called themselves Democrats, and the the United States submitted to the British word Republican passed into disuse until decree, or other invasion of those rights by later on in the history of our political France.” This rejection of the treaty by parties, the opponents of the Democracy Jefferson caused public excitement, and accepted it as a name which well filled the the Federalists sought to arouse the commeaning of their attitude in the politics of mercial community against his action, and the country
cited the fact that his own trusted friends, Mr. Randolph of Roanoke, made the Monroe and Pinckney had negotiated it first schism in the Republican party under The President's party stood by him, and Jefferson, when he and three of his friends they agreed that submission to the Senate voted against the embargo act. He resisted was immaterial, as its advice could not its passage with his usual earnestness, and bind him. This refusal to consider the all attempts at reconciling him to the mea- treaty was the first step leading to the war sure were unavailing. Self-willed, strong of 1812, for embargoes followed, and Britain in argument and sarcasm, it is believed openly claimed the right to search Amerthat his cause made it even more desirable ican vessels for her deserting seamen. In for the Republicans to change name in 1807 this question was brought to issue the hope of recalling some of the more by the desertion of five British seamen wayward " Democrats ” who had advoca- from the Halifax, and their enlistment on ted Jacobin democracy in the years gone the U, S. frigate Chesapeake
. Four sepaby. The politicians of that day were rate demands were made for these men, never short of expedients, and no man so but all of the commanders, knowing thé abounded in them as Jefferson himself.
firm attitude of Jefferson's administration Randolph improved his opportunities by against the practice, refused, as did the getting most of the Virginia members to Secretary of State refuse a fifth demand act with him against the foreign policy of on the part of the British minister. the administration, but he was careful not the 23d of June following, while the to join the Federalists, and quickly denied Chesapeake was near the capes of Virginia, any leaning that way. The first fruit of Capt. Humphreys of the British ship Leolis faction was to bring forth Monroe as a pard attempted to search her for deserters. candidate for President against Madison- Capt. Barron denied the right of search, å movement which proved to be quite but on being fired into, lowered his flag, popular in Virginia, but which Jefferson flanked by bringing about a reconciliation
* From the Statesman'. Janual, Vol. 1., by Edwin
Humphreys then took four men from the proposal, and received the benefits of the Chesapeake, three of whom had previously act, and the direct result was to increase entered the British service, but were the growing hostility of England. From Americans by birth, and had been form- this time forward the negotiations had more ally demanded by Washington. The act the character of a diplomatic contest than was a direct violation of the international an attempt to maintain peace. Both counlaw, for a nation's ship at sea like its ter- tries were upon their mettle, and early in ritory is inviolable. The British govern- 1811, Mr. Pinckney, the American minister ment disavowed the act of its officer and to Great Britain, was recalled, and a year offered apology and reparation, which later a formal declaration of war was made
accepted. This event, however, by the United States. strengthened Jefferson's rejection of thé. Just prior to this the old issue, made by Monroe-Pinckney treaty, and quickly stop the Republicans against Hamilton's ped adverse political criticisin at home. scheme for a National Bank, was revived Foreign affairs remained, however, in a by the fact that the charter of the bank complicated state, owing to the wars beceased on the 4th of March, 1811, and an tween England and the then successful attempt was made to recharter it. A bill Napoleon, but they in no wise shook the for this purpose was introduced into Confirm hold which Jefferson had upon the gress, but on the 11th of January, 1811, it people, nor the prestige of his party. He was indefinitely postponed in the House, stands in history as one of the best poli- by a vote of 65 to 64, while in the Senate ticians our land has ever seen, and then it was rejected by the casting vote of the as now no one could successfully draw the Vice-President, Geo. Clinton, on the 5th line between the really able politician and of February, 1811–this notwithstanding the statesman. He was accepted as both, its provisions had been framed or approved His administration closed on the 3d of by Gallatin, the Secretary of the Treasury. March, 1809, when he expressed great The Federalists were all strong advocates gratification at being able to retire to pri- of the measure, and it was so strong that vate life.
it divided some of the Democrats who enMr. Madison succeeded at a time when joyed a loose rein in the contest so far as the country, through fears of foreign aggres- the administration was concerned, the sion and violence, was exceedingly gloomy President not specially caring for political and despondent a feeling not encouraged quarrels at a time when war was threatened in the least by the statements of the Fed with a powerful foreign nation. The views eralists, some of whom then thought politi- of the Federalists on this question descendcal criticism in hours of danger not un-ed to the Whigs some years later, and this patriotic. They described our agriculture fact led to the charges that the Whigs as discouraged, our fisheries abandoned, were but Federalists in disguise. our commerce restrained, our navy dis- The eleventh Congress continued the mantled, our revenues destroyed at a time large Democratic majority, as did the when war was at any moment probable twelfth, which met on the 4th of Novemwith either France, England or Spain. ber, 1811, Henry Clay, then an ardent
Madison, representing as he did the same supporter of the policy of Madison, sucparty, from the first resolved to follow the ceeding to the House speakership. He had policy of Jefferson, a fact about which there previously served two short sessions in the was no misunderstanding. He desired to U.S. Senate, and had already acquired a avert war as long as possible with England, high reputation as an able and fluent debatand sought by skilful diplomacy to avert er. He preferred the House, at that period the dangers presented by both France and of life, believing his powers better calcuEngland in their attitude with neutrals. lated to win fame in the more popular repEngland had declared that a man who resentative hall. Calhoun was also in the was once a subject always remained a House at this time, and already noted for subject, and on this plea based her deter- the boldness of his views and their assermination to impress again into her service tion. all deserters from her navy France, be- In this Congress jealousies arose against cause of refusal to accede to claims equally the political power of Virginia, which had at war with our rights, had authorized the already named three of the four Presiseizure of all American vessels entering dents, each for two terms, and De Witt the ports of France. In May, 1810, when Clinton, the well-known Governor of New the non-intercourse act had expired, Madi-York, sought through these jealousies to son caused proposals to be made to both create a division which would carry him belligerents, that if either would revoke its into the Presidency. His efforts were for å hostile edict, the non-intercourse act should time warmly seconded by several northern be revived and enforced against the other and southern states. A few months later nation. This act had been passed by the the Legislature of New York formally tenth Congress as a substitute for the em- opened the ball by nominating De Witt bargo. France quickly accepted Madison’s | Clinton for the Presidency. An address
was issued by his friends, August 17th, 1812, had actually been intriguing for the diswhich has since become known as the Clin-memberment of the Union. tonian platform, and his followers were The act declaring war was approved by known as Clintonian Democrats. The ad- the President on the 18th of June, 1812, dress contained the first public protest and is remarkably short and comprehenagainst the nomination of Presidential can- sive. It was drawn by the attorney-general didates by Congressional caucuses. There of the United States, William Pinckney, was likewise declared opposition to that and is in the words following :"official regency which prescribed tenets of An act declaring war between the United political faith. The efforts of particular Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and states to monopolize the principal offices the dependencies thereof, and the United was denounced, as was the continuance of States of America and their territories, public men for long periods in office. “Be it enacted, &c. That war be, and
Madison was nominated for a second the same is hereby declared to exist beterm by a Congressional caucus held at tween the United Kingdom of Great Britain Washington, in May, 1812. John Langdon and Ireland, and the dependencies thereof, was nominated for Vice-President, but as and the United States of America, and their he declined on account of age, Elbridge territories; and that the President of the Gerry of Massachusetts, took his place. United States is hereby authorized to use In September of the same year a conven- the whole land and 'naval force of the tion of the opposition, representing eleven United States to carry the same into effect, states, was held in the city of New York, and to issue to private armed vessels of the which nominated De Witt Clinton, with United States commissions, or letters of Jared Ingersoll for Vice-President. This marque and general reprisal, in such form was the first national convention, partisan as he shall think proper, and under the seal in character, and the Federalists have the of the United States, against the vessels, credit of originating and carrying out the goods, and effects, of the government of idea. The election resulted in the success the United Kingdom of Great Britain and of Madison, who received 128 electoral Ireland and the subjects thereof." votes to 89 for Clinton.
This was a soul-stirring message, hut it Though factious strife had been some did not rally all the people as it should what rife, less attention was paid to poli- have done. Political jealousies were very tics than to the approaching war. There great, and the frequent defeats of the Fedwere new Democratic leaders in the lower eralists, while they tended to greatly reduce House, and none were more prominent their numbers and weaken their power, than Clay of Kentucky, Calhoun, Cheves seemed to strengthen their animosity, and and Lowndes, all of South Carolina. The they could see nothing good in any act of policy of Jefferson in reducing the army the administration. They held, especially and navy was now greatly deplored, and in the New England states, that the war had the defenceless condition in which it left been declared by a political party. simply, the country was the partial cause, at least a and not by the nation, though nearly all of stated cause of the factious feuds which fol- the Middle, and all of the Southern and lowed. Madison sought to change this Western States, warmly supported it. policy, and he did it at the earnest solici- Clay estimated that nine-tenths of the peotation of Clay, Calhoun and Lowndes, who ple were in favor of the war, and under the were the recognized leaders of the war inspiration of his eloquence and the strong party. They had early determined that state papers of Madison, they doubtless Madison should be directly identified were at first. Throughout they felt their with them, and before his second nomina- political strength, and they just as heartily tion had won him over to their more de- returned the bitterness manifested by those cided views in favor of war with England. of the Federalists who opposed the war, He had held back, hoping that diplomacy branding them as enemies of the republic, might avert a contest, but when once con- and monarchists who preferred the reign of vinced that war was inevitable and even Britain. desirable under the circumstances, his Four Federalist representatives in Conofficial utterances were bold and free. In gress went so far as to issue an address, the June following the caucus which re- opposing the war, the way in which it had nominated him, he declared in a message been declared, and denouncing it as unjust
. that our flag was continually insulted on Some of the New England states refused the high seas; that the right of searching the order of the President to support it American vessels for British seamen was with their militia, and Massachusetts sent still in practice, and that thousands of peace memorials to Congress. American citizens had in this way been
A peace party was formed with a view to impressed in service on foreign ships that array the religious sentiment of the counpeacful efforts at adjustment of the diff - try against the war, and societies with simculties had proved abortive, and that the ilar objects were organized by the more British ministry and British emissaries radical of the Federalists. To such an ex
The Hartford Convention.
Treaty of Ghent.
treme was this opposition carried, that|jesty and the United States are desirous of some of the citizens of New London, Conn., continuing their efforts to promote its entire made a practice of giving information to abolition, it is hereby agreed that both the the enemy, by means of blue lights, of the contracting parties shall use their best endeparture of American vessels.
deavors to accomplish so desirable an object.
The eleventh and last article provides for binding effect of the treaty, upon the exchange of ratifications.
The position of New England in the war This opposition finally culminated in the assembling of a convention at Hartford, at is explained somewhat by her exposed powhich delegates were present from all of the sition. Such of the militia as served enNew England states. They sat for three
Huren great hardships, and they were alWercks with closed doors, and issued an ad- most constantly called from their homes to dress which will be found in this volume meet new dangers. Distrusting their loyin the lwok devoted to political plattformis. alty; the general government had withIt was charged by the lowmocrats' that the held all supplies from the militia of Massareal vliject of the convention was to new and these States were forced to bear the
chusetts and Connecticut for the year 1814, tiate a separate treaty of peace, on behalf and these States were forced to bear the of New England, with Circat Britain, but burden of supporting them, at the same time this charyi was 'as warmly denied. The contributing their quota of taxes to the exitet truth its not since been discovered, general government-hardships, by the the fears of the participants of threatened way, not greater than those borne by Penntrials for treason, closing their mouths, if Ünion, nor half as hard as those borne by
sylvania and Ohio in the late war for the their profissions were false The treaty of
the border States at the same time. True, Ghent, which was concluded on December 14th, 1814, prevented other action by the the coast towns of Massachusetts were subHartford convention than that stated. It jected to constant assault from the British had assembled nine days before the treaty, navy, and the people of these felt that they
were defenceless. It was on their petition which is as follows:
that the legislature of Massachusetts finally, by a vote of 226 to 67, adopted the report favoring the calling of the Hartford Ĉon
vention. A circular was then addressed to This treaty was negotiated by the Right the Governors of the other States, with a Honorable James Lord Gambier, Henry request that it be laid before their legislaGoulburn, Esq., and William Adams, Esq., tures, inviting them to appoint delegates, on the part of Great Britain, and Jolin and stating that the object was to deliberQuincy Adams, James A. Bavard, Henry ate upou the dangers to which the eastern Clay, Jonathan Russell, and Albert Gal. section was exposed, "and to devise, if latin, on behalf of the United States,
practicable, means of security and defence The treaty can be found on p. 218, vol. which might be consistent with the preser8, of Little & Brown's Statutes at Large. vation of their resources from total ruin, The first article provided for the restora- and not repugnant to their obligations as tion of all archives, records, or property members of the Union.” The italicized portaken by either party from the other dur- tion shows that there was at least then no ing the war. This article expressly pro- design of forming a separate treaty, or of vides for the restoration of “slaves or other promoting disunion. The legislatures of private property". The second article pro-Connecticut and Rhode Island endorsed vided for the cessation of hostilities and the call and sent delegates. Those of New limitation of time of capture. The third Hampshire and Vermont did not, but de article provided for the restoration of legates were sent by local conventions, prisoners of war.
These delegates, it is hardly necessary to The fourth article defined the boundary remark, were all members of the Federal established by the treaty of 1783, and pro- party, and their suspected designs and acvided for commissioners to mark the same. tion made the “Hartford Convention "
The fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth bye-word and reproach in the mouths of articles established rules to gover the pro- Democratic orators for years thereafter. It ceedings of the commissioners.
gave to the Democrats, as did the entire The ninth article bound the United history of the war, the prestige of superior States and His Britannic Majesty to end patriotism, and they profited by it as long all hostilities with Indian tribes, with whom as the memory of the war of 1812 W48 they were then respectively at war. fresh. Indeed, directly after the war, all
The tenth article reads as follows: men seemed to keep in constant view the
“Whereas the traffic in slaves is irrecon- reluctance of the Federalists to support the cilable with the principles of humanity war, and their almost open hostility to it and justice; and, whereas, both His Ma- in New England. Peace brought prots
The Protective Tariff.
perity and plenty, but not oblivion of the. The Democratic members of Congress, old political issues, and this was the be- before the adjournment of the first session, ginning of the end of the Federal party held a caucus for the nomination of canIts decay thereafter was rapid and con- didates to succeed Marlison and (ierry
It was understood that the retiring officers The eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth Con- and their contidential friends favorer gresses had continued Democratic. The James Monroe of Virginia. Their wishes fourteenth began Dec. 4, 1915, with the were carried out, but not without a strusDemocratic majority in the House increased sle, Wm. H. Crawford of (icorvia receive to 30. Clay had taken part in negotiating ing 54 votes against 657 for Monroe The the treaty, and on his return was again Democr:ts opposed to Virginia's dominala elected to the House, and was for the third tion in the polities of the country, made a time elected speaker. Though 65 Feder- second effort, and directed it against Monroe alists had been elected, but 10 were given in the caucus. Aaron Burr denounced to Federal candidates for speaker, this him as an improper and incompetent canparty now showing a strong, and under the didate and joined in the protest then made circumstances, a very natural desire to against any nomination by il Congressional rub out party lines. The internal taxes caucus; he succeeding in getting nineteen and the postage rates were reduced. Democrats to stay out of the mucus Later
he adviseid renewed attempts to break down the Congressional calcus system, and
before the nomination favored Andrew President Madison, in his message, had Jackson as a means to that end. Daniel urged upon Congress a revision of the B. Tompkins was nominated hy the Demotariff
, and pursuant to his recommendation crats for Vice-President. The Federalists what was at the time called a protective named Rufus King of New York, but in tariff was passed. Even Calhoun then the election which followed he received supported it, while Clav proclaimed that but 24 out of 217 electoral votes. The protection must no longer be secondary to Federalists divided their vote for Vicerevenue, but of primary importance. The President, rates fixed, however, were insufficient, and Monroe was inaugurated on the 11th of many American manufactures were soon March, 1817, the oath being administered frustrated by excessive importations of for- by Chief Justice Marshall. The inaugural eign manufactures. The position of Cal- address was so liberal in its tone that it houn and Lowndes, well known leaders seemed to give satisfaction to men of all from South Carolina, is explained by the shades of political opinion. The questions fact that just then the proposal of a pro- which had arisen during the war no longer tective tariff was popular in the south, in had any practical significance, while the view of the heavy duties upon raw cotton people were anxious to give the disturbing which England then imposed. The Feder- ones which ante-dated at least a season of alists in weakness changed their old posi- rest. Two great and opposing policies had tion when they found the Democrats advo- previously obtained, and singularly enough cating a tariff, and the latter quoted and each seemed exactly adapted to the times published quite extensively Alexander when they were triumphant. The FedHamilton's early report in favor of it. eral power had been asserted in a governWebster, in the House at the time and a ment which had gathered renewed strength leading Federalist, was against the bill. during what was under the circumstances The parties had exchanged positions on a great and perilous war, and the exithe question.
gencies of that war in many instances Peace brought with it another exchange compelled the Republicans or Democrats, of positions. President Madison, although or the Democratic Republicans as some he had vetoed a bill to establish a National still called them, to concede points which Bank in 1815, was now (in 1816) anxious had theretofore been in sharp dispute, and for the establishment of such an institution. they did it with that facility which only Clay had also changed his views, and Americans can command in emergencies: claimed that the experiences of the war yet as a party they kept firm hold of the showed the necessity for a national curren- desire to enlarge the scope of liberty in its cy. The bill met with strong opposition application to the citizens, and just here from a few Democrats and nearly all of the kept their original landmark. Federalists (the latter having changed po- It is not singular then that the adminissition on the question since 1811), but it tration of Monroe opened what has ever passed and was signed by the President. since been known in politics as the
Era A bill to promote internal improvements, of Good Feeling.” Party differences raadvocated by Clay, was at first favored by pidly subsided, and political serenity was Madison, but his mind changed and he ve- the order of the day. Monroe made a tour toed the measure-the first of its kind of the States, with the direct object of inpassed by Congress.
specting fortifications and means of de