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institution or an assemblage of multi- general manager. In this capacity he millionaires, conducting their opera- did much to promote immigration to tions on

the gigantic scale with the northwest and aided largely in which later residents of Chicago have filling with sturdy and enterprising become familiar. The earliest meet- farmers, the famous wheat-growing ings of the Board were primitive in region now known as Red River style, and there was more or less dif- Valley. ficulty in securing the attendance of An Episcopalian in his church affimembers. It was, therefore, made a lations, he was one of the promoters part of Mr. Hilliard's duty, as secre- of the movement which resulted in the tary, to take steps to secure an in- organization of Trinity Church, and creased attendance. An amusing one of the earliest officials of that orreminiscence of this period is the fact, ganization. It was in 1844 that about that in order to secure such attend. twenty of the leading “old settlers" ance, he was authorized to have set of Chicago came together and organout at the Board headquarters, each ized this society in accordance with day at noon, an old-fashioned lun- a form prescribed by the learned and cheon of crackers and cheese, which pious Bishop Chase, who also sugis said to have accomplished the pur- gested the name given to the church. pose for which it was designed. The men who effected this organiza

When the Chamber of Commerce tion were men of high character and was organized for the purpose of pro- marked executive ability, and as a reviding a home for the Board of sult they soon built up one of the Trade, Mr. Hilliard became a direc- most prosperous churches in the city. tor of that corporation, and served in That some of the ablest ministers of that capacity several years. He was the Episcopal Church have had also identified during his active busi- charge of the parish, is attested by ness life with many other enterprises the fact that no less than four of them which have contributed to the im- have been made bishops in later years. provement of the city, in the growth Mr. Hilliard became a member of the of which he has always felt the deep. Trinity Board of Trustees in 1845, est and most absorbing interest. served many years as vestrymen and

After his retirement from the lum- warden, and in every way was one of ber business, and while giving his at- its most helpful and valuable memtention largely to his real estate inter- bers up to the time that his removal ests, he also represented the Northern from the city necessitated a change in Pacific Railroad Company in Chicago, his church connections. as its general agent, while C. B. He became a member of the Ma. Wright was serving as president of sonic fraternity in 1845, at which that corporation, with H. E. Sargent as time he was initiated into Oriental

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Lodge. He was long identified with his family from Pennsylvania to Chi-
this Lodge in an official capacity, cago in 1833.
became an honorary life member in His son, Dr. Valentine A. Boyer, a
1874, and is now the oldest living brother of Mrs. Hilliard, began prac-
member who took his degrees under ticing medicine in Chicago, in 1833,
its auspices. He was made a Knight and at the time of his death, some-
Templar in 1854, and has taken thirty- thing less than a year since, he was the
two of the consistory degrees.

oldest resident physician in the city. In 1843 he was married, Mrs. Maria

Two sons

were born to Mr. and Beaubien becoming his wife at that Mrs. Hilliard, and death has never time. Mrs. Hilliard was a daughter yet invaded the family circle. Edof John K. Boyer, who was widely ward P. Hilliard, one of the sons, is a known throughout Pennsylvania,

Pennsylvania, resident of Chicago, the other, WilOhio, and Illinois, as a public works liam P. Hilliard, a citizen of St. Paul, contractor, and who removed with Minn.



Four years

As pioneer, philanthropist, and pub- “Bevis," in 1635, and upon his arlic benefactor, Philo Carpenter left rival in this country settled at Weyhis impress upon the history of Chi- mouth, Mass. Both his grandfathers cago, and to no

one who has any were patriots of the Revolutionary knowledge of that history, is the era. Nathanial Carpenter, his grandname an unfamiliar one.

father on the paternal side, resigned more than a half century of his life a captaincy in the British army to were spent in the great western city, take part with the colonists in the which came into existence at the be- struggle for national independence. ginning of that period, and during all He raised a company with which he that time he was one of the leading joined the continental forces, and spirits, not only in promoting the ma- fought through the war, being at the terial growth and prosperity of the close a major in command of West city, but in aiding to build ир

its Point. Abel Carpenter, a son of the ligious, educational, and benevolent major, and the father of Philo, was a institutions.

farmer, who did his part in transformMr. Carpenter was a native of New ing the wilderness of western MassaEngland, and a descendant of Wil- chusetts into a productive agricultuliam Carpenter, who sailed from ral region. Southampton, England, on the ship Philo Carpenter was born in the


town of Savoy, Mass,, February 27, pecially of favorable openings for 1805, and grew up on

his father's business at Fort Dearborn, Mr. Carfarm; remaining at home until he penter sold out his store in Troy and was twenty one years of age.

When purchased a stock of drugs and medihe left home he went out into the cines, which he started on the way to world well equipped, physically, Fort Dearborn, in 1832, Shortly morally, and mentally, for the active afterwards, in the summer of that duties of life, and endowed by nature year, he himself set out for the rewith that splendid courage and resist- mote western trading post. He less energy which has been so impor- reached Schenectady by rail, traveled tant a factor in the advancement of from there to Buffalo by canal boat, western civilization. His education and from Buffalo to Detroit by the was acquired in the common schools little steamer “Enterprise." From and in the academy at South Adams. that point he traveled overland by At the academy he became interested stage to the town of Niles, Mich., and in medical studies, and after making thence down the river to St. Joseph two trips to the south as a commer- on a lighter cial traveler, he went to Troy, N. Y., At St. Joseph, Mr. Carpenter and anwhere he entered the drug store of other noted pioneer of Chicago, Mr. Dr. Robbins as a clerk. Continuing George W. Snow, with whom he had his studies he acquired a general become acquainted, learned that the knowledge of medicine, and a thor- cholera was raging at Fort Dearborn, ough knowledge of the drug busi- and the captain of the schooner on

Subsequently he purchased which they were to sail across the a half interest in the store in which lake, refused to make the trip. Unhe began as an employe, and carried deterred either by fear of the epi

a prosperous business up to the demic or by the difficulties which lay time he decided to change his loca

in the way of their reaching Chicago tion, and identify himself with the or Fort Dearborn, they engaged two pioneers of the northwest.

Indians to tow them around the lake in A near relative who had explored a canoe, with an elm bark tow rope. the country lying between Detroit One of the Indians was attacked by and St. Louis, returned to New York cholera on the way, and was treated State and gave Mr. Carpenter a glow- successfully by the young druggist. ing account of what he had seen, and When they got within a few miles of the inducements which “the west” the Fort, the Indians refused to go held out to men of energy, ability, any further, and the two passengers and enterprise.

disembarked from the canoe, to spend Impressed by what he heard, es- the following night with Samuel El




lis, a farmer, who hitched up his ox demand in a new settlement, and as team and carried them to their desti- the population of Chicago increased nation next day.

rapidly after provision had been Mr. Carpenter found here, at that made for the construction of the Illitime, something less than two hun- nois and Michigan Canal, his business dred people exclusive of the garrison soon became a prosperous one. at the Fort. These early settlers, In 1833, he erected a frame store with a few exceptions, were Indians building, the lumber for which was and half-breeds, who lived in log brought from Indiana on a prairie shanties, and the place had little the schooner drawn by twelve yoke of appearance of a prosperous commu

In this building he continued nity.

to do business until 1842, when he reThe reports which had been scat- moved to a new location, and the foltered abroad concerning the ravages lowing year retired from mercantile of cholera at the Fort, had not been pursuits to give attention to other inexaggerated, and Mr. Carpenter at terests. once found opportunity to turn his Always sanguine as to the future of knowledge of drugs and medicines to Chicago, whatever funds he was able good account. Prompt to respond to spare from his business in the early where duty called, and fearless of years of his residence in the city, consequences to himself, he turned were invested in real estate. A quarhis attention to the relief of the af- ter section of land which he secured flicted, as far as he was able to con- on the west side of the river, which tribute to such relief, and was tireless afterwards became Carpenter's addi. in his work as long as the epidemic tion to Chicago, was patented during lasted. Notwithstanding the fact Andrew Jackson's administration as that he thus made his entrance into President, and the patent deed, still in Chicago under the most unfavorable the possession of Mr. Carpenter's circumstances, he studied the situa- heirs, has attached to it General Jacktion carefully and reached the con- son's signature. clusion that he had made no mistake This farm which was looked upon in his selection of a location. His by many of the old settlers as keen perception took in at once its unpromising an investment at the advantages as a trade-centre, and time it came into Mr. Carpenter's when his stock of goods arrived, he possession, fulfilled the prediction opened the first drug store in Chi. made for it by the owner, and “made cago, in a small log building which him rich," much richer undoubtedly he had rented for that purpose. The than he ever expected to be. following year he added to his stock His first residence in Chicago was of goods the staple articles always in built in 1833, opposite the present


In 1833,

Court House
square, on La Salle

spent the last twelve years of his life, street. Before he came to Chicago- and died August 7, 1886. in 1830—he had been married to Miss With incidents of note, and the inSarah Forbes Bridges, who died be. ception of enterprises which have fore the end of that year.

been far-reaching in their influence in he was married again, Miss Ann later years, the name of Philo CarThompson,* of Saratoga, N. Y., be- penter was associated in the early coming his second wife. She it was history of Chicago to a greater extent who became the mistress of the some- perhaps than of any of his contempowhat pretentious two-story frame raries. In church and charitable work residence on La Salle street, upon its he was especially active from the becompletion, who brought joy and ginning of his long residence in the sunshine into the home of the pio- city. neer, and who seconded him in all of “ With a Methodist brother and an his good works, up to the time of her

officer of the Fort, he held a prayerdeath in 1866.

meeting the first evening after his arIn 1840, having subdivided his "west rival at Fort Dearborn." He arrived side" farm into city lots, he built, what

at the Fort on the 18th of July, 1832, in those days was considered a splen- and on the 22d of the same month he did residence on one of the newly laid held church services, reading a serout blocks, improved the grounds by mon in the absence of the minister. which it was surrounded, and had for “This” says the Rev. Mr. Hildreth many years one of the historically in- " was the beginning of uninterrupted teresting homes of the city. At a public worship in Chicago." later date he lived for a time at Aurora, Within less than a month from that Ill., but returned to Chicago where he time, he had founded a Sunday


*“Only the angels know," says one who has written of Mrs. Carpenter, “how much of the usefulness of this good man wrought by the prayerful influence of his sainted wife, Ann Thompson Carpenter. So symmetrical was her character in all the womanly virtues, so exalted her standard of personal piety, that one, who had known her intimately for years, hesitates to tell the sim. ple truth lest the words find no credence. There was an indescribable charm in the house over which she presided, and the wanderer and the wayfarer always found a place and a welcome. In all the trials of life,


in the sickness and death of three children, there was the same unmurmuring spirit, the same loving submission to the will of God. In perfect sympathy with her husband in every

work of reform, she was ever fearful that his zeal should find some hasty utterance that would wound the feelings of another.

He was a person of strong convictions, she, of deep sympathies; while he denounced sin, her mantle of charity was covering the sin

It is not too much to say, that in her sweet spirit every Christian grace had special prominence."


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