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Races, 117). In these MSS. Brandon also be found in the Toltec records is described as a native of Kerry, in of Mexico and Central America, (5 the southwestern corner of Ireland. Nat. Am. Antiq. 268).

Inspired with a holy zeal for the The Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg propagation of the Gospel in unex- in a note to his translation of the Poplored and forgotten regions, but un- pol Vuh or Sacred Book of the Cenwilling to hazard unnecessarily the tral Americans, says, “There is an lives of his followers, he first went to

abundance of legends and traditions, see and consult the venerable St. Edua concerning the passage of the Irish of Aran. Proceeding along the coast into America, and their habitual comof Mayo, he inquired for and collected munication with that country-in the all the traditions he could find con- records of Mexico and Central Amecerning this supposed western conti. rica-centuries before the time of nent, and on his return to Brandon Columbus." Bay, he immediately set out to sea. The Abbe de Bourbourg is thus Directing the course of his bark, spoken of by H. H. Bancroft: “I which was provisioned for a long know of no man better qualified than voyage, across the Atlantic to the Brasseur de Bourbourg to penetrate southwest, with a few faithful com- the obscurity of American Primitive panions, he came, after some rough History. His familiarity with the and dangerous navigation, to a calm Nahua and Central American lansea, where without sail or oar, he was guages, his indefatigable industry carried along for several weeks be- and great erudition, render him emitween and among numerous islands, nently fit for such a task, and every and finally reached the shores of a word written by such a man is envast continent, and afterwards, the titled to respectful consideration." mouth of a great river, which he en- (Atlantis Ib. 419; 5 Bancr-Native, R. tered. Proceeding inward he came 127). to another great river running east The French abbe McGeoghegan, and west.

There he landed, and in relates (Histy. Ireland, 203), that an a vast and beautiful country spent Irish priest named Virgilius being acseven years. Finally setting sail, he cused before Pope Zachary of teachreturned to Ireland by a more north- ing heresy on the subject of the Antiern route, and died at Erraghdune, podes, stoutly maintained that the on the 15th day of May, 577, at the earth was a globe, and there were age of ninety-three years.

people on the other side, who came The life and adventures of St. Bran- originally from Europe. At first he don, are also preserved in the Cot- did write to Pope Zachary, but aftertonian Library at Westminster, (McG, wards he went to Rome in person, History of Ireland, 169,) and may and satisfied Pope Gregory that there


were indeed such other lands and tiquaries of Copenhagen, by whom people, and that the Irish were ac- the Sagas and narratives of the voycustomed to communicate with them ages of the Northinen to Helluland, and a trans-atlantic world.

(Newfoundland), to Markland, the The illustrious Humboldt, review- mouth of the St. Lawrence and Nova ing the testimony offered in support Scotia, and to Vineland, (Mass.), have of the Icelandic Sagas and naratives been separately printed. The tract of the voyages of Northmen to New- named by Leif, Vinland et goda, comfoundland “and all that is known of prehends the coast line between Bosthese early voyages of the North- ton and New York, and consequently me n,” says

Bancroft, (5 Native parts of the present States of MassaRaces, 103) "is contained in the old chusetts, Rhode Island, and ConnecIcelandic Sagas; ” says

says “the discov. ticut." (Ibid. 231). ery of the northern part of America by These documents are of the highthe Northmen cannot be disputed. est authenticity, " although their The length of the voyage, the direc- genuineness have been,” says Bantion in which they sailed with the croft (5 N. R. 103) "the subject of time of the sun's rising and setting, much discussion, it is now certain are all minutely and accurately de- that Iceland settled by the tailed. (2 Cosmos. 234).” This un- Northmen from Norway from a very doubted first discovery of America in early date.its northern portions, by the North- According to Professor Anderson, men, (Ibid. 230).” Mr. Short says, of the University of Wisconsin, there "the Scandinavian discovery of Ame- is a copy of these Sagas in the library rica is a well known fact.” (N. A. of that institution, and the Erbyggia Antiq., 153). “While the Caliphate Sagas, chapter 64, contains the folwas still flourishing under the Abas- lowing record, (1. Andersen Historisides at Bagdad, and Persia was un- cal Sketches 13): “A Norse navigader the dominion of the Samanides, tor by the name of Gudlief GudlanAmerica was discovered in the year gen, undertook a voyage to Dublin; 1000, by Leif, the son of Eric the Red on leaving Ireland he intended to sail by the northern · route.” (2 Cosmos. to Iceland, but he met with northeast Ibid). “There was a subsequent re- winds and was driven far to the west discovery, 'that by Columbus,' in its and the southwest of the Atlantic, in tropical regions,” (Ibid).

“ These a sea where no land was to be seen. important and now acknowledged It was already late in the summer, facts are derived from and by means and Gudlief and his party made of the critical and highly praise- many prayers that they might escape; worthy efforts of Christian Rafn and and it came to pass that one day the Royal Society of Northern An- they saw land in this same south

western ocean, but they knew not

which Humboldt (2 Cos. 235) says, what land it was. Then they re- was composed in the year 825, states, solved to sail to the land, for they according to Letronne, that the Irish were weary of contending longer with clerici or priests were driven from the the violence of the sea, and they found Faroe Islands in 795, and then began a good harbor, and when they had to visit Iceland (Recherches Geograpbeen a short time on shore, there hique et Critique, 129–146). Certain came some people to them. They it is that, when Ingolf reached and knew none of this people, and they settled in Iceland, he found there cerwere of strange aspect, but it rather tain Irish mass books, bells and obappeared to them, that they spoke jects of a similar character, which Irish.”

had been left there by the Irish. And “This portion of America," contin- if as his testimony would leave us to ues Professor Andersen, “is in the conclude, “these objects had belonged Sagas of Thorfin Karlseful, called (says Humboldt, 2 Cosmos. 235), to Ireland edh Miklah, that is to say Irish monks, the question arises natuGreat Ireland, and it is claimed, that rally why these monks should be the name arose from the fact, that termed in the native Sagas, Westernthe country had been colonized long men who had come from the west before their visit by the Irish. Com- across the sea. (Kommir til vestan ing from their own green isle to a um haf"?) In the oldest Sagas, the vast continent, possessing many

historical narratives of Thorfinn of the fertile qualities of their native Karlsсfue and the Landnama Buk, soil, the appellation was a natural one, mention is made of a country to the and there is nothing improbable in the west, six days sail south from Vinconclusion. The Irish visited and in- land, which is expressly called Irehabited Iceland, toward the close of the land edh Mikla or Great Ireland eighth century. To accomplish this which was inhabited by the Irish, voyage, they had to traverse a stormy and was a Christian country. The ocean to the extent of eight hundred omission of its name and all reference miles. As early as 725 they were to it by Diciul, in connection with found upon

the Faroes Islands. the relics found there, is easily acVoyages between Ireland and Iceland counted for by the fact that the in the tenth century were of ordinary voyage of Ernulpus and Buo to Ireoccurrence, and, being a people fa- land ed Mikla, took place in 827, two miliar with the sea, they were years after Diciul's book was pubtainly not incapable of such lished. (See McGoeghagan History, voyage."

Ireland, 203). The Irish monk Diciul, in a great Their names, “Ernulphus," "Irework entitled De Mensura orbisterrae, landum hominum ” and “Buo juve



nem ejusdem provinciam," a youth written in the French language, and of the same country, are mentioned entitled Geographique des peuples Islain the Sagas and by Angrim Johnson, mique, and the letter of Mehrens acas the Irish monks who had so arrived companying it. Mr. Mahrens stated in Iceland from the west across the as the result of some researches he sea, (McGeohegan History of Ireland had prosecuted that there was an exIbid.) Other testimonies, Humboldt tensive country some five or six days' (Ub. Supra. 234) says, "extend to sail south of Vinland, called by the 1064, and probably about 982, Ari. Scandinavians, Ireland edh Mikla or Marson of the powerful Icelandic race Great Ireland, and this was the same of Ulf the squint-eyed, was driven by territory now occupied by the Amestorms southward, on the coast of rican States of North and South this Whiteman's land or Great Ire- Carolina, Georgia and Florida. Sitland, lying between what is now called uated west of Iceland, and settled by Florida and Virginia, and was there the Irish many centuries before the baptised by the people of the country discovery of Iceland, he concluded in the Christian faith. Arefroid, the that this was the west Ireland from most ancient and respectable historian which the Westmen and Irish, menof Iceland, reports and confirms this tioned in the Sagas, came. One of statement. (Mem. So. Antiq., Copenh, the evidences upon which Mr. Meh1859-1860, 55), and he adds that this rens said he had come to this conclusame Ari Marson was his own ances- sion, was that the great Arabic tor. From Humboldt, we further geographer Edrisi, cited by Bryant learn, that the Skralinger related to (U. S. History, 66), as good authority, the Northmen settled in Vinland,

describes the situation of this counthat further southward, there dwelt try and its inhabitants expressly callWhitemen, who clothed themselves in ing it Ireland el Kabirah, locating it long white garments and carried be

upon the spot or place described by fore them poles, to which clothes the Sagas and Skralinger in Humwere attached, and called with a loud boldt. voice. This account was interpreted Now Mr. Short, (N. A. A., 159) who by the Northmen to indicate proces- was probably unacquainted with all sions, in which banners were borne this mass of testimony, but who has accompanied by singing.

nevertheless the courage to speak of At the annual meeting of the Royal the learned and eminent Agassiz, as Society of Antiquaries, held at Co- "a scholar who commits himself to a penhagen, on the 11th of June, 1858, theory without first submitting it to Professor Rafn called the attention crucial test,” and who cannot of that society to a remarkable paper therefore justly complain if I should presented by Mr. A. F. Mehrens, charge him with a similar delinquency


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in his own treatment of the question, dence of "grammatical forms and says, “The claim which credits the structures" between the languages of Irish with the colonization of the At- several tribes of the Mississippi and lantic coast, from North Carolina to the Welsh language, and even underFlorida, is no doubt imaginary. The takes therefrom to trace the colony of obscure and unsatisfactory chronicle Prince Madoc from its landing at Bawhich forms the basis of this claim, lize through his subsequent wanderdestroys its own authority by the ings. Now the Welsh and the Irish statement, that Whitemans' land is are dialects of the Keltic or British six days' sail from Ireland.” The languages, once universal in Great learned and cultivated will be sur- Britain and Ireland, and, so late as prised to learn that the Landnama 1660, the Rev. Morgan Jones, who Buk makes no such statement, and was a native of Basatig, in that counMr. Short has been misled by a mis- try, in a private letter to Dr. Thomas take of one word in the translation, Lloyd, of Pennsylvania, another or his own misconstruction of the Welshman, dated 10th of March 1685, Latin idiom. The passage as trans- which the doctor sent to his brother lated from the Sagas is as follows, in Wales, and was published in the viz.: dilatus est ad Hitramannalan- Gentleman's Magazine, March 1, 1740, dium, Terram alborum hominum, quam fifty-five years aferwards, speaking of nomueli Irlandiam Magnam appellant, an adventure of his, twenty-five years qui in oc:ano occidentali jacot, prope Vin- before the date of his letter, or eighty landiam Bouam, sexdierum navigatione years before the time of this publicaversus occidentem.The Ireland spoken tion, says in his letter to Mr. Lloyd, of is “Irlandiam Magnam," and that having, with five others been that country is just six days' sail from captured by the Tuskeroras of North the Vinlandiam mentioned.

Carolina, he saved his own life and ETHNOLOGICAL EVIDENCE.

that of his company, by addressing The intelligent author of Bradford's them in the British language, and Am. Antiq. (p. 240), asserts as fol- that he was also thereby enabled, lows, viz.: “It appears to be settled, after a stay of four months with that as far as the Indian dialects are them, to converse with them familiconcerned, there exists no evidence arly, and to preach to them three of the descent of any of their tribes times a week. from the Welsh or Irish colonists. Mr. Bryant has collected in addiBut Catlin (2 N. A. Indians 259–265), tion to this remarkable letter, which professes to have discovered this very certainly corroborates and sustains evidence in favor of the Welsh emi- the proofs of an occupation and setgration, not on any " accidental simi- tlement of 'the territory of North larity of sounds,” but in a coinci- Carolina by the Irish at some remote

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