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ANNUAL REGISTER,

FOR THE YEAR

1865.

PART I.

ENGLISH HISTORY.

CHAPTER I.

Tranquil and prosperous state of the United Kingdom at the commencement of the

year-State of trade and of the public revenue-Stability of the Government of Lord Palmerston-Progress of the civil war in America, and policy of England towards the belligerents-Hostilities in New Zealand–The Parliament summoned on the 7th of February for its last session — The proceedings opened by Commission

- The Royal Speech-Debates in both Houses on the Address — Remarks of Lord Derby on the policy of the United States Government towards England— Explanations of Earl Russell—The Address voted nem. con.-Debate in the Commons on the condition of Ireland-Amendment moved and negatived—Further discussions upon Irish questions, the condition of the peasantry, the emigration, the tenure of land and tenant right, and the Church EstablishmentImportant debate on resolutions moved by Mr. Dilwyn-Speech of the Chancellor of the Exchequer on the Irish Church.

The year 1865 opened under favourable auspices for the United Kingdom. England was at peace with her neighbours, and might reasonably expect, under judicious guidance, to maintain friendly relations with foreign states. Only one remote corner of her own colonial possessions afforded employment to a military force. The desultory and inconclusive contest with the natives of New Zealand continued to smoulder on; a warfare in which a certain loss was incurred without any compensating honour or advantage. The internal condition of the country was prosperous and tranquil, and the continued increase of the national wealth was attested by palpable evidence on all sides. The benefit of an abundant harvest in the preceding year had been felt with all its customary effects. Trade was in a sound and healthy state; the revenue exhibited the same buoyancy which had been its characteristic feature of late years, and there was a total absence of

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political agitation or other symptoms of popular discontent. The great calamity of the cotton famine, attended with so much suffering during the two preceding years, had now almost disappeared, and the manufacturing districts of Lancashire showed signs of revived industry and comfort. The long-protracted contest in America, which had been the source of these troubles, appeared now, after four years of its destructive continuance, to be drawing to a close. Signs of exhaustion on the part of the Southern States portended the termination of a struggle which had been maintained with extraordinary tenacity and great sacrifices on both i sides. England adhered stedfastly to her avowed policy of neutrality,—an attitude not maintained without considerable difficulty, nor without incurring occasional outbreaks of jealousy and displeasure from each of the contending parties. The Administration of Lord Palmerston still maintained its ground, and did not appear to have in any degree lost its hold upon the contidence of the public. The spirit of party, indeed, though dormant, was not extinct, nor is it ever likely to become so in England, but there prevailed among persons of various political persuasions a general acquiescence in the opinion that the veteran Minister, whose career could not in the course of nature be long protracted, might be safely trusted, at least during the brief term of an expiring Parliament, to maintain the honour of the country and the security of her institutions.

The Legislature was summoned to meet for the despatch of business at the usual period, the 7th of February being the day appointed. To the regret of her subjects, the Queen did not appear to open Parliament in person, that duty being performed by Commission. Her Majesty's Message, delivered from the throne by the Lord Chancellor, was in the following terms :

“My LORDS AND GENTLEMEN, “We are commanded to assure you that Her Majesty has great satisfaction in recurring again to ihe advice and assistance of her Parliament.

“ The negotiations in which the Emperor of Austria and the King of Prussia were engaged with the King of Denmark were brought to a conclusion by a Treaty of Peace; and the communications which Her Majesty receives from foreign Powers lead her to entertain a well-founded hope that no renewed disturbance of the peace of Europe is to be apprehended.

“ The civil war in North America still unhappily continues. Her Majesty remains stedfastly neutrul between the contending parties, and would rejoice at a friendly reconciliation between them.

“A Japanese Daimio in rebellion against his sovereign, infringed the rights accorded by treaty to Great Britain and to certain other powers; and the Japanese Government having failed to compel him to desist from his lawless proceedings, the diplomatic

agents and the naval commanders of Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, and the United States of North America undertook a combined operation for the purpose of asserting the rights which their respective Governments have obtained by treaty. That operation has been attended with complete success; and the result has afforded security for foreign commerce and additional strength to the Government of Japan, with which the relations of Her Majesty are friendly.

" Papers on this subject will be laid before you.

“Her Majesty regrets that the conflict with some of the native tribes in New Zealand has not yet been brought to a close, but the successful efforts of Her Majesty's regular forces, supported by those raised in the colony, have led to the submission of the insurgents; and those who are still in arms have been informed of the equitable conditions on which their submission would be accepted.

" Her Majesty has had great satisfaction in giving her sanction to the meeting of a conference of delegates from her several North American provinces, who, on invitation from Her Majesty's Governor-General, assembled at Quebec. Those delegates adopted resolutions having for their object a closer union of those provinces under a central Government. If those resolutions shall be approved by the provincial legislatures, a bill will be laid before you for carrying this important measure into effect.

"Her Majesty rejoices at the general tranquillity of her Indian dominions, but Her Majesty regrets that long.continued outrages on the persons and property of subjects of Her Majesty, and for which no redress could be had, have rendered it necessary to employ a force to obtain satisfaction for the past and security for the future.

“Her Majesty deeply laments the calamity which has recently occasioned great loss of life and property at Calcutta and at other places in India. Prompt assistance was rendered by the officers of the Government, and generous contributions have been made in various parts of India to relieve the sufferings which have thus been occasioned.

GENTLEMEN OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS“Her Majesty has directed the estimates for the ensuing year to be laid before you.

" They have been prepared with every attention to economy, and with due regard to the efficiency of the public service.

“MY LORDS AND GENTLEMEN,“ Her Majesty commands us to inform you that the general condition of the country is satisfactory, and that the revenue realizes its estimated amount. The distress which prevailed in some of the manufacturing districts has greatly abated; and the Act

political agitation or other symptoms of popular discontent. The great calamity of the cotton famine, attended with so much suffering during the two preceding years, had now almost disappeared, and the manufacturing districts of Lancashire showed signs of revived industry and comfort. The long-protracted contest in America, which had been the source of these troubles, appeared now, after four years of its destructive continuance, to be drawing to a close. Signs of exhaustion on the part of the Southern States portended the termination of a struggle which had been maintained with extraordinary tenacity and great sacrifices on both sides. England adhered stedfastly to her avowed policy of neutrality,-an attitude not maintained without considerable difficulty, nor without incurring occasional outbreaks of jealousy and displeasure from each of the contending parties. The Administration of Lord Palmerston still maintained its ground, and did not appear to have in any degree lost its hold upon the confidence of the public. The spirit of party, indeed, though dormant, was not extinct, nor is it ever likely to become so in England, but there prevailed among persons of various political persuasions a general acquiescence in the opinion that the veteran Minister, whose career could not in the course of nature be long protracted, might be safely trusted, at least during the brief term of an expiring Parliament, to maintain the honour of the country and the security of her institutions.

The Legislature was summoned to meet for the despatch of business at the usual period, the 7th of February being the day appointed. To the regret of her subjects, the Queen did not appear to open Parliament in person, that duty being performed by Commission. Her Majesty's Message, delivered from the throne by the Lord Chancellor, was in the following terms :

" MY LORDS AND GENTLEMEN, “We are commanded to assure you that Her Majesty has great satisfaction in recurring again to the advice and assistance of her Parliament.

“ The negotiations in which the Emperor of Austria and the King of Prussia were engaged with the King of Denmark were brought to a conclusion by a Treaty of Peace; and the communications which Her Majesty receives from foreign Powers lead her to entertain a well-founded hope that no renewed disturbance of the peace of Europe is to be apprehended.

“The civil war in North America still unhappily continues. Her Majesty remains stedfastly neutral between the contending parties, and would rejoice at a friendly reconciliation between them.

“A Japanese Daimio in rebellion against his sovereign, infringed the rights accorded by treaty to Great Britain and to certain other powers; and the Japanese Government having failed to compel him to desist from his lawless proceedings, the diplomatic agents and the naval commanders of Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, and the United States of North America undertook a combined operation for the purpose of asserting the rights which their respective Governments have obtained by treaty. That operation has been attended with complete success; and the result has afforded security for foreign commerce and additional strength to the Government of Japan, with which the relations of Her Majesty are friendly.

Papers on this subject will be laid before you. . “Her Majesty regrets that the conflict with some of the native tribes in New Zealand has not yet been brought to a close, but the successful efforts of Her Majesty's regular forces, supported by those raised in the colony, have led to the submission of the insurgents; and those who are still in arms have been informed of the equitable conditions on which their submission would be accepted.

“Her Majesty has had great satisfaction in giving her sanction to the meeting of a conference of delegates from her several North American provinces, who, on invitation from Her Majesty's Governor-General, assembled at Quebec. Those delegates adopted resolutions having for their object a closer union of those provinces under a central Government. If those resolutions shall be approved by the provincial legislatures, a bill will be laid before you for carrying this important measure into effect.

“Her Majesty rejoices at the general tranquillity of her Indian dominions, but Her Majesty regrets that long continued outrages on the persons and property of subjects of Her Majesty, and for which no redress could be had, have rendered it necessary to employ a force to obtain satisfaction for the past and security for the future.

“Her Majesty deeply laments the calamity which has recently occasioned great loss of life and property at Calcutta and at other places in India. Prompt assistance was rendered by the officers of the Government, and generous contributions have been made in various parts of India to relieve the sufferings which have thus been occasioned.

“GENTLEMEN OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS“Her Majesty has directed the estimates for the ensuing year to be laid before you.

“ They have been prepared with every attention to economy, and with due regard to the efficiency of the public service.

“ MY LORDS AND GENTLEMEN,“Her Majesty commands us to inform you that the general condition of the country is satisfactory, and that the revenue realizes its estimated amount. The distress which prevailed in some of the manufacturing districts has greatly abated ; and the Act

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