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69. Is it in any sense true that while the perfect man should be active and strong, the perfect woman should be passive and weak?

70. Within the limits of school life is there any right education for the young man that is not right education also for the young woman?

71. Do the boy's love of noisy toys and the girl's love of doils and ornament, mark a natural or an acquired difference in their tendencies?

72. Is restraint, leading up to self-control, more important in the training of a girl than in the training of a boy?

73. Do women differ from men in the scope and power of the reasoning faculty ?

74. Is marriage an end in life to be more definitely sought and prepared for by the young woman than by the young man?

75. What is your final judgment of Rousseau's scheme for the education of Emile?

II. HERBART'S PSYCHOLOGY, PAGES 178–200. 67. What constitutes an act of self-control?

68. What is the necessary relation between the laws of civil society and man's habit of self-control?

69. What is the origin and function of conscience ?

70. Is the power of self-control to be regarded as limited or as unlimited in the case of any individual ?

71. How do the passions affect the understanding both to set it in motion and to suppress it?

72. What is the source of moral feeling?

73. Upon what elementary conditions does moral character, or man's correct guidance of himself, depend?

74. In what respects are the relations of individuals in society analogous to the relations of concepts in one's mind?

75. Reasoning from the principles of psychology, what destiny awaits man?

III. ADLER'S MORAL INSTRUCTION, PAGES 218-270. 72. What general principle or rule defines the scope of moral justice?

73. How is this general principle to be applied with reference to the life, the liberty and the property of our fellow-beings?

74. What restrictions may be placed upon the mental liberty" of men without violating the general law of moral justice?

75. What is to be taught concerning respect for the reputation of others ?

76. How are children to be taught the relations existing between justice and charity?

77. What special ideas in relation to the state most need to be developed in the minds of the young ?

78. What is the necessary preparation for a profitable memorizing of proverbs and maxims?

79. How may individual moral instruction be given in connection with class instruction ?

80. In what direction lies the highest value of manual training ?


78. The relations of nature and of life are to be interpreted largely through the medium of song and poetry.

79. So far as may be, the exercises of this class should grow out of immediate conditions and circumstances.

80. Observation-lessons and language-work, as pertaining to the affairs of ordinary life, and as a basis of systematic science-studies.

81. Development and culture come from work done, rather than from ideas acquired.

82. By means of the several kindergarten gifts and occupations, the constructive and formative faculties are to find expression.

83. Instruction in drawing begins with representation and comparison, and proceeds into invention.

84. Color-work should deal with simple forms, in pure and distinct colors.

85. Colors should be studied in their natural relations, in their differences and resemblances.

86. The right development of the color sense lifts man into nobler moral atmosphere and adds interest to nature and life.

87. Spontaneous play is the outcome of vital energy and buoyancy, and, under the guidance of the teacher, may be utilized in social development.

88. Stories and fables are necessary as furnishing a basis for the comparison of transient experiences.

89. The several ordinary branches of school study belong to a later period of education than do those modes of instruction already considered.

90. The general purpose of family and school instruction is to advance the all-sided development of the child and the complete unfolding of his nature.

V. PICKARD'S SCHOOL SUPERVISION. [Completed in May Syllabus.]


78. The “trivium” course of study continued from the monastery schools to the early universities.

79. The actual work and attainments necessarily of low grade because of the youth of the students.

80. Grammar dictated, explained and memorized, and the classics studied merely as illustrations of grammar rules.

81. Rhetoric and logic studied from the barest epitomes.

82. In the special professional study lay the distinctive features of the university instruction.

83. The want of books determined the manner of work on the part of the teacher and the pupil, as chiefly dictation and memory.

84. The chief intellectual value of the course arose from the dialectic disputations on definitions and propositions.

85. Graduation with the B. A. degree was based upon an elementary knowledge of the grammar, rhetoric and logic.

86. For the mastership, three years of teaching, attendance upon public lectures and the maintaining of theses or disputations was further required.

87. In due course of time, the universities largely superseded the monastic schools out of which they had grown.

88. Out of the independent and free spirit of the early universities has come the liberty of our modern life.

89. In the present day, the university has the double function of advancing literary and scientific knowledge, and of training the youth for the duties of public life.



FRANCE.— The Superior Normal School. The Superior Normal School, Paris, celebrates, this year, its centenary anniversary. To be exact, the school was organized, under its present name, December 6, 1845. It may be said, however, to have originated with the decree of March 17, 1808, by which Napoleon created the Imperial University. One article of this decree provided for a normal school (pensionnat normal) to prepare young men for the art of teaching letters and sciences. This institution was organized, but it differed essentially from the school which for fifty years has been the nursery of French savants. A prototype existed, however, even before Napoleon's star arose. This is found in the normal schools decreed by the convention in 1794 and actually opened at Paris, in January 1795.

In view of the forthcoming celebration, a volume has been published by Hachette & Co., under the title of "The Centenary of the Normal School.” It consists of a series of articles by graduates of the school. They have essayed to give a complete story of its development and its spirit by sketches from various points of view.

M. Compayré on Herbart. The discussion of Herbartianism, which is one outcome of the Cleveland meeting and the Report of the Committee of Fifteen, gives special interest to a recent article on the same subject in the Manuel Général by M. Compayré. The article is one in a series of literary reviews written in the sketchy, gossipy style characteristic of the author. The subject in this case is a French translation, or rather " adaptation," of Herbart's principal works on pedagogy by M. Pinloche, professor in the faculty of letters at Lille. M. Compayré opens the article by confessing with regrets the general ignorance of Herbart's teachings that prevails among his countrymen. He notes at the same time that Herbart has awakened greater interest in the United States even than in Germany. This M. Compayré concludes from the discussions that he heard in Chicago, especially those relating to Herbart's theory of interest, his doctrine of apperception and his system of concentration. He mentions also Dr. de Garmo's volume on Herbart. M. Compayré finds the explanation of the interest here manifested in Herbart in the spirit of liberty pervading education. “In the United States," he says, “ the controlling thought in education, considered as a whole, is this, that liberty is proposed as an end and at the same time used as a means.” This fact explains in particular the attention given to Herbart's idea of interest as a motive power. In his own judgment of Herbart, M. Compayré places chief stress upon his power of exciting thought, and this especially through suggestive utterances that have the form and spirit of aphorisms. As defects in Herbart's system, he notes the undue importance given to the intellect, quoting in this connection two sayings from Herbart: “The cultivation of ideas is the essential part of education,” and “The education of the character consists, above all, in the education of ideas.” As to the book under review, M. Compayré explains that it is not so much a translation as an adaptation made with a view to meeting French standards. M. Pinloche, it seems, has departed widely from the original. In the first place he has made a very free translation ; in the next place he has arranged the matter on a plan of his own. The result would seem to be rather a French comment on Herbart with illustrative extracts, than a translation from the one language to the other.

Foreign Candidates for French University Honors. Foreign students seeking admission to the Paris Faculties (University) are required to make formal application to the Vice Rector of the Paris académie (present incumbent, M. Greard ) accompanied with (1.) duplicates of the diplomas which they have already obtained; (These must be translated copies, and must be formally registered.) (2.) the record of birth ( duplicate of original and translation.) The diplomas submitted are examined by the Faculty interested ; if they are not entirely satisfactory the candidate must pass an examination. This is oral. The Minister of Public Instruction determines then the degree in the French university system which is equivalent to the diploma offered. No foreign degrees, however, are accepted as equivalents for the French licencié and doctor. When the equivalence has been determined the foreign student may enroll himself in the Faculty for whose courses he has applied. The required period for study for the higher degrees which he seeks to obtain may be shortened by official authority; he must, however, make the full number of enrollments, each of which demands its appropriate fee and an examination. For instance, a candidate who has the diploma of a doctor of medicine from an American university, and who is admitted to study for the corresponding degree in the Paris faculty, may take sixteen enrollments at once. This is equivalent to the total number for the four years, of four terms each, which make up the full course of study in the faculty of medicine. He must, however, pass all the examinations, pay the full fee (about $100 ) and submit a thesis as required. It would be possible thus for the four years' study to be reduced to a few months, if the candidate had the necessary qualifications.

BELGIUM.— Trials of Public Elementary School Teachers.

At this present time, the lot of a public elementary school teacher in Belgium is not a happy one. The law of 1884, passed by the clerical party, substituted communal for state control over these humble but important public servants. All the high ideals of the service embodied in the Liberal law of 1879 - the professional standards, secure tenure, freedom from local prejudice — were destroyed by a stroke of the pen. Even a measure ostensibly carried in the interest of teachers, namely, that those who had been duly certified and engaged, but who might be idle from the lack of positions, should still draw a portion of their salaries for a certain period, even this has proved a means of covert attack. Under the clerical law, a private school may be adopted in place of a public school and receive a subsidy from the public funds. The adopted private school is naturally a church school, and its teachers nuns or members of religious orders. The professional, certificated teacher thrown out of active service, draws a pittance for a short time and then passes from the stage. In communes where the public school is maintained, the teacher is generally forced to be content with the sma!l, minimum salary allowed under the law, without hope of increase and without the stimulus of possible advancement. The entire system is depressed and depressing. Meanwhile there are evidences of increasing illiteracy which excite alarm even in conservative minds. These are, in brief, the conditions

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