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Germany, under the ablest instructors, and after his return became professor of Sanscrit in Yale College, in 1854, teaching also classes in German and French. He organized the department of Modern Languages in the Sheffield Scientific School, in 1862, and has been connected with that department ever since.

Professor Whitney has been a voluminous author, both of books and of magazine articles that have commanded universal attention among scholars the world over. His work has been recognized by many prominent institutions, from which he received numerous degrees. His career illustrates the possibilities of a scholarly life which offers opportunities for usefulness and wide influence second to none. We know that such a life as Professor Whitney's sets the world forward and makes humanity richer and stronger. The man is gone but his example and influence remain, and will not soon, if ever, lose their vitality.


HE Conference on the Relation of Education to Ethics, which

was held in connection with the Summer School of applied Ethics at Plymouth during the second week in August, was thoroughly successful. As to numbers it is estimated that it increased the school by at least one-fourth on that week. The lectures were earnest and stimulating, and those held in the evening were followed by well sustained discussions. President MacAlister of the Drexel Institute gave three addresses on the “Relation of the School to the Labor Problem," dealing successively with the industrial, the political and the ethical aspects of education. Professor Ashley of Harvard spoke on Economic History as an element of Historical Study. Professor Clark of Amherst, also, sent a paper advocating the teaching of Economics in school. Dr. Anderson of Yale explained the “Ethical Element in Physical Training.” Professor Adler, in a lecture which he called “Organic Education." showed how the school can fit the child for the highest service to society. Dr. Burnham of Clark University had for his subject, “ The Educational Movement in Europe in relation to Social and Political Movements." Professor Palmer of Harvard gave a charming address on " The School as an Ethical Instrument." And the closing lecture was by Mr. James L. Hughes of Toronto on “The Ethical Element in the Kindergarten." The conference was organized by a committee consisting of Messrs. Dutton of Brookline, Huling and Hanus of Cambridge, Page of Boston and Miss Lucy Wheelock of Boston. It is quite possible that another year the Conference may be expanded into a full department of the School of Ethics.



Statements of varying degrees of authority, emphasis and even eloquence are frequently made on the influence of the professional teacher in bringing about the present state of affairs in matters educational.

In order to put the statements to some kind of practical test, some weeks ago the writer submitted a circular letter to fifteen representative denominational colleges of nearly as many different denominations and different sections of the country. I chose this class of institutions because they seem on the whole more conservative; and also because of the traditional practice of employing clergymen as teachers, thus relying largely on another profession and bringing to these schools the maximum of non-professional service both in amount and efficiency.

The circular read as follows:

Jan. 9th, 1894. DEAR SIR,

Will you kindly aid me in gathering some facts concerning college education by filling out and returning this blank? The name of your institution will not be used in connection with the facts you give. 1. Whole number of regular Professors employed in 1873. | 1883.) 1893. 2. How many of above numbers are professional

teachers (e. g. who never entered the ministry,

law, or medicine) ? 3. How many of above who do service at the same time in (a) Ministry

(6) Law,

(c) Medicine. Remarks.

I did not make the purpose known and have taken the figures just as given. The reports show the following facts :

1873. | 1883. | 1893. 1. Whole number of regular Professors in the ten colleges,

96 100 125 2. Whole number of professional teachers

58 66 93 3. Number from other professions

38 34 32 (a) Hence the ratio of professional teachers is 3:5 3:44 3:4(6) Ratios of non-professional teachers

1in219 lin3+ 1 in 4(c) Ratios of professional to non-professional teachers are nearly as

3:2 | 2:1 3:1 A further inspection of the reports shows that most of the nonprofessional teachers belong to the profession of theology in about the following ratios : 30 to 23 to 21 for the three respective periods. The ratio is a decreasing one and rapidly so, when we take into account the fact that for the same periods the whole numbers engaged were increasing and very rapidly between 1883 and 1893, as 96 to 100 to 125. Also those who belong to the medical profession show an increasing ratio as 3 to 4 to 7 for the same periods, thus indicating a large relative increase of the number for the last decade, as one would suspect.

The number who came into teaching from the legal profession remained too nearly constant to be tabulated. This is probably owing to several facts as this class of institutions does not work toward the legal profession as an end, and there is therefore a certain lack of affinity ; also, the profession of law is much more remunerative and entices its votaries to remain in the profession.

It will further be observed that the increase in professorships is much greater during the last decade than during the first as might have been guessed ; and that in the changed complexion of college faculties is a manifest tendency toward the scientific basis of this phase of professional life. Another institution not included in the above list shows by her catalogues a sudden change from 4 ministers and one professional teacher in 1891-2 to 5 educators and 1 minister in 1892-3.

The tendency toward professional service is more marked in eastern and western colleges than in central and southern states. Further it is most evident in the west, as west of the Mississipi River, and least of all in the south. It is no part of the purpose of this note to interpret the facts herein given, but simply to state them for what. they are worth. Is the efficiency of educational effort increasing ? Is the product of that effort improving? If so, or if not, why?


The Department of Professional Study is necessarily omitted from this number, but will appear as usual in the October issue. We are sorry to disappoint the many readers of this valuable department, but trust it will not be necessary to do so again. This department is of great value to all and especially to those who become Correspondence Members.



The educational matter of chief interest in England is the excitement respecting religious instruction in the London School Board. The controversy, it may be remembered, was started originally by a member of the Board, Mr. Athelstan Riley, who complained of the religious instruction as then given. After months of heated discussion which caused more or less excitement throughout the country, the whole matter was referred (July 7, 1893) to a committee of the Board.

It was rumored soon after that the committee had approved a “Test Circular” to be sent to teachers, which rumor was subsequently confirmed. The circular was approved by the Board in its meeting of March 15, after a prolonged and hot debate. This measure has substantially the obnoxious feature of a denominational qualification for teachers. In defining the sense in which the Board rules as to religious instruction are to be interpreted, the circular says: “In the course of the lessons, as opportunity occurs, you will impress upon the children the relation in which they stand to God the Father as their Creator, to God the Son as their Redeemer, and to God the Holy Ghost as their Sanctifier.”

“ The Board cannot approve of any teaching which denies either the divine or the human nature of the Lord Jesus Christ, or which leaves on the minds of the children any other impression than that they are bound to trust and serve Him as their God and Lord.”

All this is against the convictions of Unitarians and several other sects, and excites apprehension also in many orthodox circles, in which the question arises : What next ? The fact that the circular closes with the assurance that means will be taken to release teachers from giving the Bible lessons without prejudice to their position” is not comforting, especially in view of the fact that the originator of the whole controversy stated in a committee meeting that "he knew that many teachers could not give religious instruction in the spirit of the circular, and that unless its issue were followed by withdrawal from the religious instruction of a sufficient number of teachers he would ask for more stringent measures."

While the majority of the London Board have taken this position, it is by no means certain that they represent the wishes of a majority of the rate-payers. Not only non-religious bodies, but all nonconformist denominations have made open and vigorous protests

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against the measure. It appears, now, that some compromise may be agreed upon, especially in view of the fact that 3,150 teachers employed by the Board have asked to be relieved from giving religious instruction. At a meeting of the "Metropolitan Board Teachers Association," attended by 1,500 members, a manifesto was unanimously adopted calling upon all the teachers who had requested this relief, not "to reply individually to the Board's individual request." The signers assert that as "experts they are convinced that the introduction into the schools of the definite dogmatic teaching desired by the leaders in this movement is both unsuitable and unwarranted. They feel strongly that the religious instruction should aim at the formation of character and the inculcation of the principles of morality rather than at supplying doctrinal teaching, which is best left for a more mature age. Instruction of the former character they have given in the past from the open Bible, and as they are denied the relief promised on application, they will continue to give such instruction in the future without reference to the circular."

". They are still of opinion that the operation of the circular will amount to the application of a test, and they agree with the Rev. Dr. Abbott (late of the City of London School,') that a teacher who will conform will be more useful than one who will not, and, in the end, the former will have his reward in better pay and quicker promotion, and that a new kind of dissent will thus be started, and School Board Non-conformists will find themselves gradually drifting out of the swim of professional advancement." It is noticeable that the Press, as a rule, sustains the teachers.



The summer has witnessed several brilliant ceremonies in University circles of France. The new buildings for the Facultes of Caen, were opened with imposing ceremonies, on the third of June. All the French facultes and the leading Universities of Europe, Germany alone excepted, were represented in the concourse. Visitors were reminded of the antiquity of this seat of learning by the following inscription on the interior wall. “University of Caen, 1432.” This gave the text for the address of welcome by the Mayor of Caen who reviewed the early glories and later decline of this University of Normandy. M. Liard, the Director General of Superior Instruction in the Ministry of Public instruction was the recipient of special honors as he was formerly the rector of the académie of Caen. An interesting feature of the ceremonies was a grand banquet tendered the guests of honor by the neighboring maritime city of Havre. The

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