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The sign is prefixed to the latitude, or declination, of the Sun, or other heavenly body, when north, and the sign when south; but the former prefixed to the hourly motion of the Moon in latitude indicates that she is approaching, and the latter that she is receding from, the north pole of the ecliptic.

The letters M. A., m. a., denote Morning and Afternoon.

Spring

signs.

Dominical Letter,
Epact,

Lunar Cycle, or Golden Number, 13 Julian Period,.

Summer

signs.

CHRONOLOGICAL CYCLES.

G | Solar Cycle,

12 Roman Indiction, .

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Winter

signs.

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7. Libra.

8. m Scorpio.

9. Sagittarius.

10.

11.

Capricornus.
Aquarius.
Pisces.

12.

h. m.

9 52 A. 11 0 A.

41 A. 9 52 M. 3 40 M.

d. h. m. 89 1 8 92 20 41

93 14 11

89 17 48

186 10 52
178 18 56

16 13 6568

365 5 48

365 5 49

Mean Time at Washington Observatory.

Septuagesima Sunday, Feb. 4th
Quinq. or Shrove Sunday, Feb. 18th
Ash Wed., Lent begins, Feb. 21st
Mid-Lent Sunday,
Mar. 18th
Palm Sunday,

Easter Sunday,
Low Sunday,

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MOVABLE FESTIVALS OF THE CHURCH IN 1855.

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Sebat begins,

Adar begins,

66

[The anniversaries marked with an asterisk (*) are to be strictly observed.]

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11th, Fast of Esther,

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14th, Purim,

66 15th, Schuscan Purim,

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JEWISH CALENDAR.

66 10th, Fast for the Siege of Jerusalem,

April 1st Corpus Christi Day,} June 7th

8th Fête Dieu,

April 15th 1st Sunday in Advent, Dec. 2d

"18th, Lag Beomer,

Sivan begins,

66

Nisan begins, .

66 15th, *Beginning of the Passover,

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66 7th, *Second Feast,

Mar. 4, "

Mar. 5, "
Mar. 20, 66
Apr. 3, "

16th, *Second Feast, or Morrow of the Passover, Apr. 4, "

66

21st, *Seventh Feast,

66 22d, *End of the Passover,.

66

Ijar begins,

Apr. 9, " Apr. 10, Apr. 19, " May 6, " May 18, " May 23, " May 24, June 17, "

66

July 3, "

July 16, "

July 24, "

Aug. 15, "

6th, *Feast of Weeks or Pentecost,

Rogation Sunday,
May 13th
Ascen. Day, or Holy Th., May 17th
Whitsunday, or Pentecost, May 27th
Trinity Sunday,
June 3d

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Thammuz begins,

66 17th, Fast for the taking of the Temple,
Ab begins,

"9th, Fast for the burning of the Temple,
66 Elul begins,

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"6 "15th, Feast of the Huts or Tabernacles,

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5616 Tisri begins, *Feast for the New Year,

66

"2d, *Second Feast for the New Year,
"4th, Fast of Gedaljah,

66 "10th, *Fast of the Reconciliation or Atonement,

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Dec. 22, 1854
Dec. 31, 66

Jan. 20, 1855

Feb. 19, "

Mar. 1, "

Sept. 13, "

Sept. 14, "
Sept. 16, "

Sept. 22, "
Sept. 27,

"C

Year. Names of the Months.

5616 Tisri 16th, *Second Feast of the Huts,

66

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66 Sebat begins,

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66 21st, Feast of Palms or Branches,
"22d, *End of the Hut or Congregation Feast,
"23d, *Rejoicing for the Discovery of the Law,

Marchesvan begins,

"Redjeb Chaban

66

Chisleu begins,

66 25th, Consecration of the Temple,

Year. Names of the Months.

1271 Rabia II. begins,

66

Jomadhi I. 66

Jomadhi II.

66

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Thebet begins,

66 10th, Fast for the Siege of Jerusalem,

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The Jewish year generally contains 354 days, or 12 lunations of the Moon; but in a cycle of 19 years, an intercalary month (Veader) is 7 times introduced, for the purpose of rendering the average duration of the year nearly or quite correct.

66

Ramadan

66 Schewall 66 Dsu'l-kadah

66

66

Dsu'l-hejjah "6

66

1272 Muharrem

66

Saphar

Rabia I.

Rabia II.

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MAHOMETAN CALENDAR.

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The Mahometan Era dates from the flight of Mahomet to Medina, July 16th, A. D. 622.

The Mahometan year is purely lunar; it consists of 12 synodical periods of the Moon, or of 354 days 19 times in a cycle of 30 years, and of 355 days 11 times. The average length of this year is therefore 35411 days, which differs only thirty-three seconds from the truth; a degree of exactness that could only have been attained by a long series of observations. But as no allowance is made for the excess of 11 days in the length of a tropical year over the time of 12 revolutions of the Moon, it is obvious that once in about 33 years the above months will correspond to every season and every part of the Gregorian year.

HEIGHT OF THE GREATEST OR SPRING TIDES IN 1855.

Computed by the Formula of Laplace (Mécanique Céleste, Vol. II. pp. 289, Paris ed., and [2858] Bowd. ed.).

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The unit of altitude at any place is the height at that place of that tide which arrives about a day and a half after the time of New or Full Moon, when the Sun and Moon, at the moment of conjunction or opposition, are at their mean distance from the Earth, and in the plane of the celestial equator.

This unit of altitude, which must be derived from observation for each place, multiplied by the quantities in the above table, gives the height of the spring tides at that place during the present year.

By the above table it appears that the highest tides of 1855 will be those of Feb. 18, March 19, April 17, Aug. 28, Sept. 27, and Oct. 26.

The actual rise of the tide, however, depends so much on the strength and direction of the wind, that it not unfrequently happens that a tide, which would, independently of these, have been small, is higher than another, otherwise much greater. But when a tide, which arrives when the Sun and Moon are in a favorable position for producing a great elevation, is still further increased by a very strong wind, the rise of the water will be uncommonly great.

The formula from which these tides were computed is, however, strictly true only for Brest and its vicinity, and must be regarded as a very uncertain approximation for the coast of the United States.

Twilight begins and ends. Mean Time.
13th day.
Begins. Ends. Begins. Ends.
h. m. h. m.
h. m. h. m.

19th day.

7th day. Begins. Ends. h. m. h. m.

5 48m 6 29a

5 47m 6 35a

5 48m 6 24a
5 46

6 26

5 46

6 31

5 45

6 37

5 44

6 29

5 44

6 34

5 43

$ 39

5 36

6 37

5 37

6 41

5 36

6 46

6 37

5 33

5 34

5 33

6 49

6 40
6 26 5 43
6 30
PHASES, AND APOGEE AND PERIGEE, OF THE MOON.

6 44
6 35

5 43

5 42

6 40

3d day, 3h. 11.4m. M.

New Moon, 18th day,
First Quarter, 24th

66

11th

7 5.9 M.

Apogee, 5th day, 6h. M.

1st day. Begins. Ends. h. m. h. m. 5 48m 6 20a

6 22

6 25

6 33

Boston,
N. York, 5 46
Wash'n, 5 43
Charles., 5 35

N. Orl's, 5 31
S. Fran., 5 42

Full Moon,
Last Quarter,

Days of Month.

Days of Week.

Boston, &c.

Perigee, 18th day, 10h. M.

Sun's upper limb rises and sets (cor. for refr.) Mean Time.

1 M. 7 30 2 Tu.

30

3 W. 4 Th.

5 F.

S.

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29

9 Tu. 29 10 W. 11 Th. 12 F.

13 S.

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Washington,
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16 Tu. 27 17 W.

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18 Th. 25 19 F.

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9 12 13 6 59

25 Th. 21
26 F.
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28 Su. 7 18 5 8 7 14 5 12 7 10 5 176 58 5 29 6 53 5 34 7 8 5 19 29 M.

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54 30

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24 14

53 33

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25th day. Begins. Ends. h. m. h. m. 5 44m 6 42a

5 42

6 44

5 41

6 45

5 35

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5 40

6 46

16 59

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