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Sept. 8. -The First Chamber in Holland adopt the much-disputed Law on Religious Liberty, by a majority of 22 to 16.
Sept. 8. A shock of an earthquake is experienced at New Bedford, Mass. Sept. 9.-The remaining portion of "Table Rock," at the Falls of Niagara, breaks off, and falls with a tremendous crash.
Sept. 11. A violent shock of an earthquake is felt at Biloxi and several of the watering-places on the Gulf coast.
Sept. 14. -The first sod of the European and North American Railroad is turned, at St. John, by Lady Head, assisted by the Lieutenant-Governor, in the presence of 25,000 persons.
Sept. 14. The engine of a freight train on the Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroad blows up, when under way, near Franklin, about 65 miles from Pittsburg. The force of the explosion is very great, lifting the locomotive from the track, and hurling it a distance of 50 feet.
Sept. 16. A collision occurs between a passenger and freight train on the New York Central Railroad, at Oneida. The passenger cars are badly broken, and several persons are killed and wounded.
Sept. 25.-The Divan unanimously decide that the Porte cannot accept the Vienna note, and agree that the Grand Council must be convoked.
Sept. 26.- The Grand Council, composed of 140 persons, assembles, and comes to the decision that the system of negotiations is exhausted, and that the time has arrived for the Sultan to declare war in form.
Sept. 28.-A deputation from the Protestant Alliance, headed by the Earl of Shaftesbury, wait upon Lord Clarendon, to state the case of Miss Cuninghame, arrested at Lucca for distributing an Italian version of the Bible, and also of the Pilgrim's Progress, and to urge the government to procure her immediate liberation. Lord Clarendon concurs with Lord Shaftesbury in his opinion of the law in question, as contrary to the principles of the Gospel and the spirit of the age. Sept. 28. The ship Annie Jane, from Liverpool, is driven on the Barra Island, one of the Hebrides, and out of 450 passengers 348 are drowned.
Sept. 29. Queen Victoria assists at the laying of the corner-stone of the great tower of the new royal palace at Balmoral.
Oct. 1.-The Divan resolve on the most vigorous measures, and the Sultan signs the declaration of war. The Sultan also signs and issues a spirited proclamation to the people, appealing to their loyalty and spirit of independence, stating the justice of their cause, and demanding the moral and material aid of the Western Powers. The ambassadors of England and France are requested, at the same time, to order the allied fleets to pass the Dardanelles.
Oct. 3.The bronze statue of Sir Robert Peel is successfully placed on its pedestal in front of the Royal Infirmary at Manchester.
Oct. 4.The manifesto of the Sultan, containing the declaration of war, is read in all the mosques.
Oct. 4.-The "Great Republic," a mammoth clipper of 4,000 tons, and the largest merchant-vessel in the world, is launched from the yard of Mr. Donald McKay, at East Boston, Mass.
Oct. 5. A collision occurs on the Great Southern and Western Railway of Ireland, near Dublin, between a cattle and passenger train, by which thirteen persons are killed, and fifty badly wounded.
Oct. 7. Captain Inglefield, of the Phoenix, arrives at the Admiralty, from the Arctic regions, with the news of the discovery of the Northwest Passage, by Captain McClure, of the Investigator, Oct. 26, 1850.
Oct. 9. An order is signed for the immediate release of Miss Cuninghame at Lucca.
Oct. 10.- Queen Isabella, in commemoration of her birthday, orders three screw-frigates, each carrying 31 guns, to be constructed, and to be called the Berenguela, Petronila, and Blanca, in memory of the three queens from whom her Majesty derives the crowns of Castile, Aragon, and Navarre.
Oct. 12. John Mitchell arrives at San Francisco, Cal., from Australia, via the Sandwich Islands.
Oct. 17. A party of forty-five men, commanded by Colonel Walker, sail from San Francisco, Cal., for the purpose of establishing a republic in Lower California. Oct. 19.A great "National Horse Show" commences at Springfield, Mass. It is a pioneer enterprise of the kind, continues for three days, and is perfectly successful.
Oct. 20.-The Turks have a fleet of twenty-two ships of the line and nine warsteamers in the Bosphorus, mounting 1,116 guns, and the Egyptian contingent, consisting of ten ships of war and two steamers, mounting 614 guns.
Oct. 20.- - Selim Pacha defeats a Russian corps of 15,000 men, on the frontiers of Georgia.
Oct. 22.- The combined fleets enter the Bosphorus.
Oct. 26. - Capt. J. W. Gunnison, of the Corps of Topographical Engineers, with seven other members of the party of exploration, while attempting to survey the lakes in Utah Territory, is massacred by the Indians.
Oct. 27. - A deputation of clergymen and others, headed by Sir Culling Eardley, wait upon Lord Clarendon, and thank him and the government for the exertions made to procure the liberation of Miss Cuninghame.
Nov. 1. The imperial manifesto, making a declaration of war, is published in the gazette of St. Petersburg.
Nov. 2. A second grand festival of the sons of New Hampshire resident in Boston, occurs at the Fitchburg Depot hall, 2,000 being present at the dinner. Nov. 2. The jury, in the case of the captain of the Henry Clay, indicted for manslaughter from the mismanagement of his boat, in racing at the time of the disaster, bring in a verdict of not guilty, in the District Court of the United States for New York.
Nov. 4.- -There is a battle between the Turks and Russians at Oltenitza, with a loss to the Russians of 1,200 killed and wounded.
Nov. 6. The first Presbyterian Chinese church is organized at San Francisco. Nov. 8.A new planet, in the constellation Taurus, is discovered by Mr. Hind, the English astronomer. This planet is the ninth discovered by Mr. Hind since 1846, and raises the number of that extraordinary group of worlds between Mars and Jupiter to twenty-seven.
Nov. 9.-The ceremonies at the inauguration of the Washington aqueduct take place at the Great Falls of the Potomac, President Pierce turning the first turf, followed by the Secretary of War, Senator Douglas, the Mayor of Washington, and other distinguished gentlemen.
Nov. 10. - Maria, Queen of Portugal, dies in childbed. Her husband, Ferdinand, a Prince of Saxe-Coburg, is declared regent during the minority of her son and successor, Pedro V., now aged 16.
Nov. 17.-The Duke de Nemours, on behalf of the entire Orleans House, effects a reconciliation with the Count de Chambord.
The late Queen of Portugal is buried with great solemnity, and demonstrations of public regret.
Nov. 30. A Turkish squadron, consisting of three frigates, two steamers, and some transports, is destroyed by the Russians at Sinope. 5,000 Turks are killed, and Osman Pacha is taken prisoner.
Dec. 2. The steamship Winfield Scott, having on board five hundred passengers, and $1,100,000 in gold, is lost during a dense fog, in the middle of the night, about 500 miles from San Francisco. The passengers and gold are saved.
Dec. 3.- Madame Goldschmidt, the world-renowned Jenny Lind, makes her first public appearance in Europe since her marriage, at Dresden.
Dec. 4. The Russians attack Kalafat, but are repulsed with great slaughter. Dec. 5. The steamship Humboldt, of the New York and Havre line, while attempting to put into Halifax for coal, runs ashore, north of the harbor, on a ledge off Sambro Light, with ninety passengers and 450 tons of freight. The passengers are saved, but the steamship is totally lost.
Dec. 7.-John Flannery, for stabbing and killing a man at St. Louis, while in a state of intoxication, is convicted of murder in the second degree, and sentenced to ninety-nine years' imprisonment in the State penitentiary.
Dec. 7.-The inauguration of the statue of Marshal Ney occurs at Paris, on the anniversary of his execution, the statue being placed in the garden of the Luxembourg, on the spot where he was shot.
Dec. 8.-The Revenue Cutter Hamilton is lost in a hurricane, off Tully Breakers, Charleston Bar; and Capt. Rudolph, the Quartermaster, four men, and two boys, are drowned.
Dec. 8.-Te Deum is sung in the Imperial chapel, and in all the churches of St. Petersburg, for the victories at Sinope Akhaltsich.
Dec. 9.-The men and women of Harbor Creek, near Erie, turn out in large numbers, tear up the railroad track, burn the ties and bridges over the culvert, and plough down the track to its former level.
Dec. 10.-The French and British fleet enter the Black Sea.
-The extensive printing and publishing establishment of the Messrs. Harper, at New York, consisting of six lofty buildings, is totally destroyed by fire, together with their entire set of stereotype plates, and very large stock of books, involving a loss of more than a million of dollars.
Dec. 12.-The first stone of a Roman Catholic Cathedral is laid at Shrewsbury, by Bishop Brown, the young Earl of Shrewsbury giving £15,000 towards its
Dec. 15.-The Dublin Exhibition Building is formally opened as a winter garden, by the Lord Lieutenant and the Countess St. Germans.
Dec. 15. A duel is fought between Mr. Soulé, Jr., son of the American Minister to Spain, and the Duke of Alba, near the Prado, Madrid, without either party being materially injured.
Dec. 15. There is a large fall of snow at Vienna, a very unusual occurrence so early in the season.
Dec. 15. A fine new church, built for the Waldenses, is opened and consecrated, with imposing ceremonies, at Turin.
Dec. 17.-The Irish coasts are visited with a very severe hurricane, causing great damage to shipping, and also loss of life.
Dec. 18. A Divan is held to discuss the collective note of the Four Powers. After a full discussion, it is resolved to accept the note, and renew negotiations, subject to certain conditions.
Dec. 18. A duel is fought between Mr. Soulé, the American Minister to Spain, and M. de Turgot. The latter gentleman is badly wounded in the thigh. Dec. 18. A shock of an earthquake is felt at Memphis, Tenn.
Dec. 22.-- A violent gale prevails at Halifax, sinking a large number of vessels at the wharves.
Dec. 22.-The Pope, in person, confers scarlet hats upon two new Cardinals, Brunelli and Pecci.
Dec. 27. A large mob of armed men tear up the railroad track at Harbor Creek, near Erie, where it had just been relaid. The Mayor, the Sheriff, and militia of the County, arrive on the spot, take possession of the track, and drive away the laborers.
Dec. 27. The mammoth clipper "Great Republic" is destroyed by fire, at her wharf, in New York city, together with the packet ship Joseph Walker, the clipper ships Red Rover, Whirlwind, White Squall, and five large flour warehouses.
Dec. 28.A very severe snow-storm commences, continuing for thirty-six hours, extending over the New England States, and causing great interruption to business and travel.
Dec. 28.-The extension of the South Wales Railway, from Carmarthen to Haverfordwest, is inaugurated, and speeches are made by Lord Evelyn and other members of Parliament, the greatest enthusiasm prevailing.
Dec. 29. A terrible gale prevails at Cape Cod. Many vessels are swamped, with all on board, and more than one hundred are driven ashore.
Dec. 30. The ship Staffordshire, Capt. Richardson, from Liverpool for Boston, strikes on Blande Rock, south of Seal Island, and soon sinks, carrying down with her the captain and one hundred and seventy-seven of the passengers and
Jan. 1.- A terrible fire occurs at Constantinople, destroying four hundred houses, among them those of the Greek Patriarch and the Patriarch of Jerusalem. Jan. 2. - -The authorities of Glasgow, headed by the Lord Provost, formally open the Victoria Bridge.
Jan. 3.-There is a great fall of snow in England, causing very serious interruption to travel on the railroads, and in the metropolis.
Jan. 4. Albion College, at Albion, Michigan, is totally destroyed by fire. -The steamer San Francisco, bound for San Francisco, Cal., with U. S. troops on board, founders at sea, having been much disabled in the gale of December 23d. The gale continues with more or less violence until the 31st of
December, during which time two hundred and forty of the seven hundred human beings on board are swept from the decks, and perish in the sea, among them Col. John M. Washington, Major George Taylor, Capt. H. B. Field, and Lieut. R. H. Smith. The rest are rescued by the ship Three Bells, the barque Kilby, and the Antarctic.
The Russians are defeated at Citale, near Kalafat, with a loss of
Jan. 8. Metropolitan Hall and the Lafarge Hotel, two of the finest buildings in New York City, are totally destroyed by fire.
Jan. 8.- -The Custom House at Portland, Me. is entirely destroyed; also a fine collection of natural history, and the valuable Law Library of Judge Ware. Jan. 9. -The Astor Library, in New York city, is opened for the admission of visitors, and the use of the public.
Jan. 12. A violent snow-storm prevails in the State of Illinois, causing great obstruction to travel. A train of cars, containing one hundred and fifty passengers, is stopped by a huge snow-drift at Grand Prairie, and can make no progress for thirty-six hours. The passengers suffer severely from cold and hunger.
Jan. 13. A terrible earthquake occurs at Finana, in Spain, crumbling down the greatest part of the Alcazaba, an ancient castle of the Moors, breaking houses to pieces, causing large chasms in nearly all the streets, and destroying several of the inhabitants.
Jan. 17. -- Two railroad bridges, and the crossings at High Street and French Creek, at Erie, are demolished by a mob of women, who are afterwards escorted through the town, headed by a band of music, bearing banners inscribed "six feet or four feet eight and a half inches," those being the railroad guages for which they contend.
William Walker proclaims the republic of Sonora, and by a second decree of this date divides it into two states, Sonora and Lower California.
Jan. 20. A fierce tornado occurs in the State of Ohio, extending about half a mile in width, demolishing everything it encounters, and almost entirely destroying the town of Brandon.
Jan. 21.- -The Tayleur, a magnificent vessel of the White Star line, bound for Melbourne, is wrecked on Lambay Island, on the Irish coast, and three hundred and seventy persons are drowned.
-The combined fleets return to the Bosphorus.
A factory, for the manufacture of ball cartridges, blows up, with a terrible explosion, at Ravenswood, L. I., killing in a shocking manner about twenty of the workmen, and destroying fifty thousand ball cartridges, the balls in every direction.
Jan. 28. The steamer Georgia, from Montgomery, Ala., containing two hundred passengers, and one thousand bales of cotton, is destroyed by fire at New Orleans, and sixty of her passengers perish in the flames, or by drowning.
Jan. 31.-The opening of Parliament takes place, the Queen delivering her speech in person, alluding to the Eastern difficulties, and expressing a desire that exertions for an amicable settlement should be persevered in.
-The railroad track at Erie is again torn up by a furious mob. Feb. 1. The splendid Parliament House, and buildings adjoining, at Quebec, including the fine Government Library and philosophical apparatus, are destroyed by fire.
Feb. 4. Eight steamboats, the Charles, Baltimore, Natchez, Leach, Lima, Mohegan, Saxon, and Grand Turk, are totally destroyed by fire at New Orleans, and thirty-seven persons perish in the flames.
Feb. 16. The boiler of the Kate Kearny bursts, while at her wharf, at Louisville, Ky., killing and wounding a large number of people.
Feb. 20. The most violent snow-storm that has occurred since 1831 commences at Washington, and extends over the Middle and New England States. Feb. 23.- A mass meeting, composed of the most respectable citizens of Boston, is held in Faneuil Hall, to remonstrate against the violation of the Missouri Compromise and the passage of the Nebraska Bill.
Feb. 24. Two men fall from the suspension bridge across Niagara Falls, two hundred and forty feet high, and are dashed to pieces.
Feb. 26. The gallery of the French Opera House, at New Orleans, La., falls during the performance (Sunday night), carrying away the second tier, killing three persons, and badly wounding fifty-six. The house is crowded, and the occupants of the galleries, mostly ladies, are precipitated into the parquette.
Feb. 26.-Three shocks of an earthquake are felt at Manchester, Clay County Ky. The first two shocks are very severe, shaking the houses violently, and creating great consternation among the inhabitants.
Feb. 27. A large and enthusiastic meeting of the opponents of the Nebraska Bill is held at New Market, N. H.
Feb. 28. The shock of an earthquake is felt at Lexington, Ky., extending into the surrounding country, and accompanied by a loud, roaring noise. Feb. 28. -The American steamer "Black Warrior" is seized by the Cuban authorities at Havana.
March 1.. A great fire occurs at Manchester, Eng., destroying mnch property. March 1. -The steamship City of Glasgow leaves Liverpool, Eng., for Philadelphia, Pa., with more than three hundred passengers, and is not heard of up to date of December 10th.
March 2.-A large and new steam-boiler, in the extensive car factory of Fales & Gray, at Hartford, Conn., bursts with great violence, tearing apart powerful machinery, and shattering the building, so that the immense roof falls in upon the workmen, instantly killing sixteen, and badly wounding many others.
March 5.A fight takes place between a detachment of twenty-six men under the command of Lieut. D. Bell, of the 2d dragoons, and a party of Jicarilla Apache Indians. The loss of the U. S. troops is two killed and four wounded, that of the Indians nine killed and twenty-one wounded. The celebrated Apache chief, Lobos, is among the killed.
March 5. -The steamboat Caroline, running between Louisville and Memphis, is burnt at the mouth of the White River, and forty five persons perish. Several persons enter by night the shed attached to the Washington Monument, seize, carry away, and break to pieces a block of marble sent from Rome, by the Pontiff, as a tribute to the memory of Washington. The block originally stood in the Temple of Concord, at Rome, was three feet long, eighteen inches high, and ten inches thick, and of a very beautiful texture.
March 11.- Queen Victoria reviews the naval fleet, under command of Sir Charles Napier, at Portsmouth, previous to its departure for the Baltic.
March 13.A convention is concluded and signed between England, France, and the Porte.
March 13. Judge Shaw gives the opinion of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, deciding that the sections of the "Maine Liquor Law" authorizing the seizure and destruction of liquor, are unconstitutional.
March 14.-The steamer Reindeer bursts a flue at Cannelton, Indiana, and fifty persons are killed or wounded.
March 14. Senator Everett presents to the United States Senate the memorial of the 3,000 clergymen of different religious denominations in New England, in which they solemnly protest against the passage of the Nebraska Bill. March 18.--. - A terrible gale prevails at Albany, N. Y. Fifty houses are unroofed, many chimneys and walls blown down, and great damage is done. March 20. Two severe shocks of an earthquake are felt at Macon, Ga. - A Treaty is concluded between the Emperor of Japan and Commodore Perry, of the United States Squadron, which was sent there for the purpose of opening commercial intercourse between Japan and the United States. March 27. Major C. H. Larned and eight men are drowned, by the upsetting of the government boat of Fort Steilacoom, in Puget Sound, near Fort Madison. March 28. -War is formally declared against Russia, by Great Britain and France, to take effect on the 30th of April.
March 30.- A fight takes place twelve miles from Loar, between a company of sixty dragoons, commanded by Lieut. J. W. Davidson, 1st dragoons, and a party of nearly three hundred Jicarilla Apache and Utah Indians. The soldiers suffer severely, losing twenty-one killed, and eighteen wounded. The Indian loss is unknown, but supposed to be great.
March 31.-A "strike," on a grand scale, occurs at Barcelona, Spain. The artisans, to the number of fifteen thousand persons, proceed to the Municipality, and demand that the price of provisions shall be reduced, and wages increased. March 31. Gen. Canrobert, and more than a thousand French troops, land at Gallipoli.
April 7.- All English and French vessels, at Odessa, are ordered out of port. April 8. An explosion occurs on the steamboat Gazelle, at Canemah, Oregon, tearing the boat to pieces, killing twenty-one persons, and wounding many others.