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STATES OF EUROPE,
With the Form of Government, and Square Miles, according to McCulloch's Geographical Dictionary, with Corrections; and the Population (chiefly) from the Almanack de Gotha for 1853.
Andorra, Pyrenees, Repub. With two syndics and a council, *Anhalt-Bernburg, Duchy, States having limited powers,
*Baden, Grand Duchy,
*Bremen, Free City,
Republic; senate and assembly,
Limited monarchy; with prov. states,
*Mecklen.-Schwerin, G. Du. Limited sovereignty; with one chamber,
*Oldenburg, Grand Duchy,
*Reuss, Principalities of,
360 63,700 1849
5,712 1,362,774 1849 28,435 4,519,546 1850 11,313 4,359,090
Limited sovereignty; one chamber,
Senate and council of ancients,
*Saxe-Coburg & Gotha, 66 Lim. sov.; one chamb. for each duchy,
Limited monarchy; with a legislature,
Sicilies, The Two, Kingdom, Absolute monarchy,
Tuscany, Grand Duchy,
Limited sovereignty; one chamber,
*Member of the Confederation of Germany.
† United to Anhalt-Dessau and Bernburg, since November 23, 1847.
! Including Poland and Finland.
$ Including Wallachia, Moldavia, and Servia, containing respectively 2,600,000, 1,400,000, and 1,000,000 inhabitants.
a Exclusive of Iceland, with a population of 60,000, and an area of 32,000 square miles.
b Exclusive of Algeria, which contains a population of 246,531, and has an area of 100,000 square miles.
THE ROYAL FAMILY.
The Queen. Alexandrina Victoria, born May 24, 1819; succeeded her uncle, William IV., June 20, 1837; married, Feb. 10, 1840, to Prince Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emanuel of Saxe Coburg and Gotha, born Aug. 26, 1819. Issue, Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa, born Nov. 21, 1840; Albert Edward, born Nov. 9, 1841; Alice Maud Mary, born April 25, 1843; Alfred Ernest Albert, born August 6, 1844; Helena Augusta Victoria, born May 25, 1846; Louisa Caroline Alberta, born March 18, 1848; Arthur William Patrick Albert, born May 1, 1850. George Leopold Duncan, born April 7, 1853.
Her Majesty's Mother, Victoria Maria Louisa, Princess Dowager of Leiningen, Duchess of Kent, born August 17, 1786.
The King of Hanover. George Frederic Alexander Charles Augustus, King of Hanover (second Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale), only son of Ernest, King of Hanover (who was fifth son of King George III., and uncle to the Queen), born May 27, 1819, married Feb. 18, 1843, the Princess Alexandrina, oldest daughter of Joseph, reigning Duke of Saxe Altenburg, by whom he has issue Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederic, Crown Prince of Hanover, born September 21, 1845, and two princesses.
The Duke of Cambridge. Prince George William Frederic Charles, son of Adolphus Frederic, the first Duke (who was youngest surviving son of King George III., and uncle to the Queen), born March 26, 1819.
The Duchess of Gloucester. Mary, Duchess of Gloucester, fourth daughter of King George III., and aunt to the Queen, born April 25, 1776, married, July 22, 1816, her cousin, Prince William Frederic, second Duke of Gloucester (who died Nov. 30, 1834).
High Court of Chancery.— Lord Cranworth (R. M. Rolfe, b. 1790, ap. 1852), Lord High Chancellor, salary, £10,000; Sir John Romilly (ap. 1851), Master of the Rolls, £7,000; Sir R. T. Kindersley (b. 1792, ap. 1851), Sir John Stuart (ap. 1852), Sir William Page Wood (ap. 1852), Vice-Chancellors, £6,000 each.
Court of Appeal in Chancery. — Sir J. L. Knight Bruce (ap. 1851); Sir George James Turner (b. 1798, ap. 1851), Lords Justices, £6,000 each.
Court of Queen's Bench. — - Lord Campbell (b. 1779, ap. 1850), Lord Chief Justice, £8,000; Sir J. T. Coleridge (b. 1790, ap. 1835), Sir Wm. Wightman (ap. 1841), Sir William Erle (b. 1793, ap. 1845), and Sir Charles Crompton (ap. 1852), Judges, £5,500 each.
Court of Common Pleas.· Sir John Jervis (b. 1802, ap. 1850), Lord Chief Justice, £7,000; Sir W. H. Maule (ap. 1840), Sir C. Creswell (ap. 1842), Sir Edw. Vaughan Williams (ap. 1847), and Mr. Crowder (ap. 1854), Judges, £5,500 each.
Court of Exchequer.
Sir Frederic Pollock (b. 1783, ap. 1844), Lord Chief Buron, £7,000; Sir James Parke (b. 1782, ap. 1834), Sir E. H. Alderson (b. 1787, ap. 1834), Sir Thomas Joshua Platt (ap. 1845), Sir Samuel Martin (ap. 1850), Barons, £5,500 each.
Ecclesiastical Courts. - Vicar General, Travers Twiss; Principal of Court of Arches, Judge of Prerogative Court, Master of the Faculty Office, Sir John Dodson; Judge of Consistory Court, S. Lushington.
Admiralty Court. — Judge, S. Lushington; Queen's Advocate, Sir J. D. Harding; Admiralty Advocate, J. Phillimore.
Court of Session: Inner House. - 1st Division. Duncan McNeill, Lord Colonsay (b. 1794, ap. 1852), Lord President, £4,800. James Ivory, Lord Ivory; Patrick Robertson, Lord Robertson; Andrew Rutherford, Lord Rutherford, Judges, £3,000 each.
Inner House: 2d Division. - Rt. Hon. John Hope (b. 1794, ap. 1844), Lord President, £4,500. Sir John Archibald Murray, Lord Murray; Alexander Wood, Lord Wood; George Deas, Lord Deas; Judges, £3,000 each.
Outer House: Permanent Lords Ordinary.— John Cowan, Lord Cowan (b. 1798, ap. 1851); John Marshall, Lord Curriehill; Robert Handyside, Lord Handyside; Hercules Robertson, Lord Benholm; C. Neaves, Lord Neaves; £3,000 each. Right Hon. James Moncrieff, Lord Advocate, £2,500 and fees. James Craufurd, Solicitor-General, £1,000.
Court of Justiciary. — Lord Justice General, Duncan McNeill; Lord Justice Clerk, Rt. Hon. John Hope; Commissioners, Lords Cowan, Ivory, Wood, and Handyside.
There is no division of common law, equity, civil law, or admiralty; but the whole business, civil and criminal, original and appellate, is discharged by the Court of Session. For the transaction of civil business it is divided into two divisions, each discharging precisely the same functions. One consists of the Lord Justice General and three Puisne Judges; the other of
the Lord Justice Clerk and three Puisne Judges. The other five Judges sit separately, as Permanent Lords Ordinary. They pronounce judgment in the first instance; and this judgment may be carried for review before either of the inner divisions. The criminal business is discharged by the Lord Justice General, the Lord Justice Clerk, and four other Judges, who are appointed Judges of Justiciary under a separate commission.
Court of Chancery. — Rt. Hon. Maziere Brady (ap. 1853), Lord Chancellor, £8,000; Rt. Hon. T. B. C. Smith (ap. 1846), Master of the Rolls, £4,300.
Court of Queen's Bench. - Rt. Hon. Thos. Lefroy, Lord Chief Justice, £5,074; Hon. Philip C. Crampton, £3,725; Rt. Hon. Louis Perrin (ap. 1836), Rt. Hon. Richard Moore (ap. 1847), Judges, £3,688 each.
Court of Common Pleas. — Rt. Hon. James Henry Monahan (ap. 1850), Lord Chief Justice, £4,615; Hon. Robert Torrens, Rt. Hon. Nicholas Ball (b. 1791, ap. 1839), and Hon. J. D. Jackson (b. 1783, ap. 1842), Judges, £3,688 each. Attorney-General, Rt. Hon. Abraham Brewster; SolicitorGeneral, William Keogh, Esq., £4,612.
Court of Exchequer. — Rt. Hon. David R. Pigott (ap. 1846), Lord Chief Baron; Hon. Richard Pennefather, Rt. Hon. John Richards (b. 1790, ap. 1837), Rt. Hon. Richard W. Greene (ap. 1852), Barons, £3,688 each.
The Parliament of Great Britain consists of a House of Lords and a House of Commons. The present is the 15th Imperial or 5th Reformed Parliament.
House of Lords. -The House of Lords consists of Lords Temporal, who are Peers of the Realm, and whose honors, immunities, and privileges are hereditary, and Lords Spiritual, consisting of Archbishops and Bishops. All the members of the five orders of nobility of England, viz. dukes, marquises, earls, viscounts, and barons, who are 21 years old, and labor under no disqualification, have a right to sit in the House of Lords; and in addition to these, 16 representative peers from Scotland, 28 representative peers from Ireland, 2 English archbishops, 24 bishops, 1 representative Irish archbishop, and 3 representative Irish bishops.
House of Commons, Elected July, 1852.-The House of Commons consists of the representatives of the counties, cities, boroughs, and of the three universities of the Established Church in the United Kingdom. The representatives of counties are chosen by the proprietors and occupiers of land; those of the cities and boroughs by the mercantile and trading part of the community; and those of the universities by the doctors and masters of
Since the union with Ireland (January 1, 1801) the number of members had been 658, this number being retained on the passing of the Reform Acts. They are elected by the following constituencies:
But the English members have been reduced to 654 since the year 1844.
1780 1828 1848 John B. Sumner, D.D., Primate, Canterbury, 1788 1837 1847 Thomas Musgrave, D.D.
1786 1824 1828 Chas. James Blomfield, D.D.
1770 1831 1836 Edward Maltby, D.D.
1790 1826 1827 Chas. Richard Sumner, D.D.
1783 1820 1827 John Jackson, D.D.
1799 1847 1854
1824 1830 Christopher Bethell, D.D.
1784 1827 1827 Hugh Percy, D.D.
Robert John Eden, (Baron
James Henry Monk, D.D.
Chas. Thomas Longley, D.D.
Connop Thirlwall, D.D.
1783 1840 1841 Henry Pepys, D.D.
John Lonsdale, D.D.
1790 1841 1846 Thomas Vowler Short, D.D. John Graham, D.D.
Renn Dickson Hampden,D.D.
James Prince Lee, D.D.
Samuel Hinds, D.D.
The Bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester rank next to the Archbishops; the rest according to priority of consecration.
By net income is meant that of the bishopric. Some bishops hold other places of profit in the Church.
†The Bishop of Bath and Wells sits in the House of Lords as Baron Auckland.