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number 61,088, value $2,211,755; value of neat cattle, $1,998,489; sheep, number, 171,325, value, $172,467; swine, number, 277,099, value, $291,687. Total valuation, $ 38,427,376.
Common Schools. It is provided by the constitution, that a Superintendent of Public Instruction shall be chosen by the people for three years, and that all lands granted by Congress to this State, all escheated estates, and such per cent. as may be granted by Congress on the sale of the public lands in Iowa, shall constitute a perpetual fund, the interest of which, and the rents of the unsold lands, shall be applied to the support of common schools. The Assembly shall provide for a school in each school district for at least three months in each year; and all moneys received for exemption from military duty, and for fines imposed by the courts, shall be appropriated to support such schools, or for the establishment of school libraries. The money arising from the lease or sale of public lands granted for the support of a university shall remain a perpetual fund to maintain such an institution.
Edward V. Whiton,
Term expires. Salary. WILLIAM A. BARSTOW, of Madison, Governor, Dec. 31, 1855, $1,250 James T. Lewis, Lieut-Governor, [A per diem while Legislature is in session.
Alexander T. Gray, of Green Bay, Sec. of State & Auditor,
Chief Justice, 1857, of Milwaukee, Assistant Justice, 1859,
of Mineral Point,
of Mineral Point,
of Prairie du Chien,
The judicial power of the State, as to matters both of law and equity, is vested in a Supreme Court, in Circuit Courts, in County Courts with probate powers and jurisdiction, and in justices of the peace. The Supreme Court, except the power of issuing writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, and the like, has appellate jurisdiction only, and in no case holds jury trials. It consists of one chief justice and two associate justices, whose term of office is six years, and salary $2,000 per annum. At present two terms of the court are held annually, at the seat of government. The State is divided into six judicial circuits. The judges are elected by the voters of each circuit respectively, and hold their office for six years, at a salary of $1,500 per annum. The Circuit Courts have original jurisdiction in all matters civil and criminal within the State (except in a few specified cases), and an appellate jurisdiction from all inferior courts. They have also power to issue writs of habeas corpus, quo warranto, and the like. Terms of the Circuit Courts are held at least twice in each year in every county.
A County Court is established in each county. The judge is elected by the voters of the county, and holds office for four years. This court has jurisdiction concurrent with the Circuit Courts in all civil actions arising within or without the county when the debt or damages claimed do not exceed $500, and exclusive appellate jurisdiction in all cases of appeal or certiorari, from justices of the peace. It has also probate powers and jurisdiction. Justices of the peace are elected in the several towns, hold office for two years, and have jurisdiction throughout their counties in civil matters when the debt or damages claimed do not exceed $100.
Wisconsin Institute for the Education of the Blind. — C. B. Woodruff, Superintendent. An institution for the education of the blind was organized in 1850, at Janesville. A tax of one fifteenth of a mill on every dollar of taxable property in the State is levied for its aid. It was opened August 1, 1850. The number of pupils, January 1, 1854, was 13, 7 boys and 6 girls. The expense of conducting the institution for the year was $2,421.88. The State in 1853 appropriated $ 1,500 towards its support.
Deaf and Dumb Institute, Delavan, Walworth Co.-L. Foot, Principal. The institution was established in 1852 A building has been erected 32 X 44 feet, and two stories high, as a wing of a larger structure to be hereafter built as may be required. There were in January, 1854, 14 pupils in attendance. There are about 175 deaf mutes in the State.
State Prison, at Waupun, Fond du Lac Co. - Henry Brown, Commissioner. Number of convicts, April 1, 1852, 15; received to Dec. 31, 1852, 16; in all, 31. Discharged, 3. Escaped, 1. In prison, Dec. 31, 1852, 27, of whom 2 were females. In prison in 1853, 64, of whom 5 were females.
Common Schools. By the report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, it appears that the capital of the School Fund, Dec. 31, 1853, was $1,141,804.28, of which the sum of $1,107,709.36 is drawing interest at 7 per cent., and will give $77,539 for distribution, or a fraction over 56 cents to each child in the State between 4 and 20 years of age. There is, besides, the University Fund, of $93,732.40, the income of which is applied for the benefit of the State University. For the year ending August 31, 1853, returns were received from 39 of the 45 counties in the State. Of the 421 towns in the counties heard from, all but 6 made reports. The number of school districts in the reporting towns was 2,072. 95,293 out of the 138,279 children residing in the counties, between the ages of 4 and 20, attended school. 1,534 children under 4 years of age, and 1,008 over 20, attended school. Average monthly wages of male teachers, $18.24; of female, $9.50. Average number of months kept by male teachers, 3.125; by female teachers, 3.57. $113,788.18 were expended for teachers'
wages, $1,646.99 for libraries, and $3,926.48 for other purposes. Number of volumes reported in libraries, 5,723. There are 74 school-houses of brick, 57 of stone, 995 of logs, and 1,069 framed, and all are valued at $ 289,346.89. The highest valuation of any school-house is $5,550, and the lowest $0.50.
Total receipts for the year ending December 31, 1853,
Total expenditures during the same period,
Balance in the Treasury, January 1, 1854,
The State debt is $ 100,000; annual interest, 8 per cent., thereon, $8,000.
Chief Sources of Revenue.
Chief Items of Expenditure.
Wm. C. Kibbe,
$93,621.51 Contingent expenses,
3,535 42 State prison,
1,414.00 Geological survey,
9,099.89 School fund income,
The aggregate value of the real and personal property in all except 15 counties of the State subject to taxation, for the year 1853, was $21,725,191.34. The six-mill tax upon this amounted to $130,353.12. In 1854 there were assessed 8,613,496 acres of land at the value of $51,803,532; village and city lots of the valuation of $6,384,182; personal property to the amount of $6,098,000; being in all, $ 64,285,714, upon which the 3.5 mills tax was $225,000. Births, Marriages, and Deaths.- For the year ending July 20, 1853, there were reported 884 marriages, 130 births, and 28 deaths.
Term expires. Salary. of Sacramento City, Governor, Jan. 1856, $10,000 of Stockton, Lieut.-Gov. & Pres. of Senate, $20 a [day during session of Legislature. J. W. Denver, of Sacramento City, Secretary of State, Jan. 1856, 3,500 Samuel Bell,
S. A. M. Means,
of San José,
of Mariposa, Sup't of Pub. Instruction,"
of Calaveras Co., Adj. and Q. M. Gen.,
Fees $1.50 per folio
[of 100 words.
The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and two associate justices. It has appellate jurisdiction where the matter in dispute exceeds $ 200, and where the legality of certain acts is questioned, and in certain criminal cases. The justices are elected by the people for six years, and are so classified that one goes out of office every two years. The senior judge in office is the chief justice.
Hugh C. Murray, of San Francisco,
Eugene H. Tharpe, of San Francisco,
Charles M. Creaner, Stockton,
The District Courts have jurisdiction in law and equity, where the amount in dispute, exclusive of interest, exceeds $200. The constitution provided that at the first election the judges should be chosen by the Legislature, but afterwards by the people, and for a term of six years. A county judge is elected in each county for four years, to act as judge of probate, to hold the County Court, and with two justices of the peace to hold Courts of Sessions for criminal business. Clerks of courts, district attorneys, sheriffs, coroners, &c. are elected by the people.
San Luis Obispo,
7,500 W. S. Sherwood,
7 per cent. bonds of 1851,
7 per cent. bonds of 1852,
State prison bonds, act of 1853,
The total debt of the State on the 20th of December, 1853, was as follows:3 per cent. bonds outstanding, Interest to date,
Chief Justice, Jan., 1856,
Comptrollers' civil warrants outstanding, December 20, 1853,
Total civil debt,
Amount of war debt, principal and interest,
Debt contracted for Indian expeditions,
Francisco, John Saterlee, Justice.
It is expected that the war debt and that contracted for Indian expeditions will be assumed and paid by the general government.
The receipts and expenditures of the State under the following heads for four years, from 1850 to 1853, are as follows:
Total expenditure, as above, in the four years was $ 2,215,855.62, averaging $ 553,963.90.
During the year ending June 30, 1852, the chief items of receipts and expenditures were as follows:
Chief Sources of Income.
Property and poll tax,
Foreign miners' licenses,
$227,288.07 Legislative, .
24,391.25 Printing, exclusive of that of Leg-
908.00 State Prison convicts in county
Principal Items of Expenditure.
1,002.53 Transportation of convicts,.
366,825.07 Translation of Spanish laws,
Executive, The taxable property in the State, and the taxes thereon for the year 1852, were as follows: - Number of acres of land, 6,719,442. Value, $10,763,010; improvements thereon, $2,976,219. Value of city and town lots, $11,977,069; improvements thereon, $10,163,631. Value of personal property, $ 21,102,391. Total taxable property, $ 56,982,320. Total State taxes on same, being 30 cents on each $ 100, $170,946.96. Poll taxes for 1852, $ 60,744.28. Total taxes, $238,397.39.
Common Schools. -The constitution provides for the election of a Superintendent of Public Instruction, to hold office for three years, and that the Legislature shall establish a system of common schools, to be taught at least three months in each year. By the same instrument, the proceeds of the public lands granted to the State for schools, the 500,000 acres granted to new States under the act of Congress of 1841, estates of persons dying without heirs, and such per cent. as Congress shall grant on the sale of lands in this State, shall be a fund, the interest of which and the rents of unsold lands are to be inviolably appropriat. ed to the support of common schools. The estimated amount of land to which the schoolfund is entitled from the 16th and 36th sections in each township, reserved for the use of schools, is stated by the United States Surveyor-General in California to be 5,201,244 acres. Add the 500,000 acres under the law of 1841, and the amount becomes 5,701,244 acres. The price per acre, by existing laws, is $2, which would give $ 11,402,488 for the school-fund. The fund, the interest of which is to be appropriated annually, now amounts to $463,360. January 1, 1854, the distribution was made of the income of the school-fund, and it amounted to $ 5.602 to each child returned as within the organized school districts. The Legislature has established a Board of Education for the State, consisting of the Governor, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, and the Surveyor-General; the Governor being the President, and the Superintendent of Public Instruction being the Secretary thereof. Each town, &c. elects three persons as commissioners of schools for the town, and a constable as a common school marshal. Provision is also made for County Superintendents.
State Prison. -The whole number of convicts, Dec. 30, 1853, was 242,-240 males and 2 females.
Insane Asylum, at Stockton. -$75,000 were paid in 1853 towards the erection of buildings for an Insane Asylum at Stockton. A brick edifice, 130 by 50 feet, and two stories high, and a frame structure 40 feet square, are now built. The Asylum has about 100 acres of land attached to it. Dec. 15, 1853, there were in the Asylum 101 patients, 91 males and 10 females.
State Marine Hospital, San Francisco. - Between July and December, 1853, 1,445 males and 42 females were admitted into the hospital, and for the support of 921 of these the city of San Francisco is responsible. Dec. 23, 1853, there were in the hospital 300 males and 11 females.