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Alabama Penitentiary.— At Wetumpka. Whole number in confinement, Oct. 1, 1852, 156, 152 males, 4 females. Received during the year, 93. Whole number during the year, 249. Discharged by expiration of sentence, 23; by pardon, 24; escape, 5; death, 5; error, 1; in all, 58; leaving in prison Oct. 1, 1853, 191, all males,-190 white, and 1 free colored. 13 were convicted of murder in the first degree; 17 in second degree; 8 of manslaughter; 14 of assault with intent to kill; 11 of negro stealing; 17 of horse stealing; 5 of robbing the mail; 10 of robbery; 41 of larceny. There were 16 under 20 years of age; 81 from 20 to 30; 56 from 30 to 40; 21 from 40 to 50; 11 from 50 to 60; 5 from 60 to 70; 1 from 70 to 80. 23 are natives of Alabama; 25 of Georgia; 24 of South Carolina; 11 of Tennessee; 67 of other States; and 41 foreigners. 18 are imprisoned for life; 4 for 20 years; 34 for 10 years; and 103 for 5 years and under.

Provision was made by the Legislature of 1851 and 1852 for establishing a State institution called "The Alabama Insane Hospital," and an appropriation was made towards the erection of buildings. Also, $5,000 were appropriated for "organizing and sustaining an institution for the deaf and dumb."

The sum of $ 10,000 was set apart to aid the State geologist in the discharge of his duties.

L. Julienne,

M. M. Smith,

F. L. Swann,

Robert Joselyn,


Government for the Year 1855.

Term expires. Salary. Jan., 1856, $3,000 Nov., 1855,






JOHN J. MCRAE, of Clark Co., Governor,

W. H. Muse, of Tishemingo, Secretary of State,
C. F. Hemmingway, of Carroll, State Treasurer,
Madison McAfee, of Holmes, Auditor of Public Accounts,

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High Court of Errors and Appeals.

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Keeper of the Capitol and Librarian,
Keeper of the Penitentiary,
State Commissioner,



Term ends. Salary. 1855, $ 3,000 1857, 3,000 1,200 Fees.

Cotesworth P. Smith, of Woodville, Presid. Judge, 2d Dist.,
Elias S. Fisher, of Yalobusha, Judge, 3d Dist.,
David C. Glenn, of Jackson, Attorney-General,
C. R. Clifton,


The jurisdiction of the High Court is appellate exclusively. There are two terms each year in Jackson, commencing on the first Monday of April and October. The court may continue in session as long as business requires, and may order a special term, or adjourn to meet at any time. The judges are also authorized to meet annually on the third Monday in June, in the town of Oxford, to receive the written and hear the oral arguments of causes from the third district, provided the State is not a party. The reporter is elected by the Legislature. The reports are to be called the "Mississippi Reports," and are to be printed, bound, and published in the State of Mississippi. The common law form of pleading has been abolished, and a system somewhat similar to that of chancery or civil law adopted.

The Superior Court of Chancery, held at the Capitol at Jackson, is in law considered always open. The Chancellor is authorized to hold the same at such times and for such periods as business may require, upon giving three weeks' notice in the newspapers. The District Chancery Courts have concurrent power and jurisdiction, within their respective districts, with the Superior Court of Chancery, where the amount in controversy does not exceed $500,000, and have the same power as the Chancellor of the State, both in term time and in vacation. Special terms of the District Chancery Courts may be holden by the Vice-Chancellors, respectively, by giving thirty days' public notice.

The Circuit Court has original jurisdiction in civil cases in which the sum in controversy exceeds $50. For each of the seven circuits, a judge and attorney are elected, every four years, from November, 1849. It has also exclusive criminal jurisdiction.

There is also a Probate Court, with a judge and clerk for each county. The Probate Court in most of the counties has a term of from two to six days each month. The Probate Clerk is also Register of Deeds. Superior Court of Chancery. Chancellor, Clerk.

Charles Scott,
John T. Simms,

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To seminary fund,

To two per cent. fund,


of Jackson,

District Chancery Courts.



District or Circuit Courts.

District Attorneys.

Thomas Y. Berry. 5
John E. McNair. 6
Charles E. Hooker. 7
George Wood.

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The total receipts into the Treasury from Jan. 1, 1850, to Dec. 11, 1851, were $221,200.21, of which $134,646.14 were from the tax of 1850. The disbursements during the same period were $223,637.15, showing an excess of disbursements over receipts of $2,436.94. A report of the State Treasurer, dated Feb. 16, 1852, shows that there was due on that date:To the sinking fund,

$95,152.22 Amount brought up,
79,662.57 To Chickasaw school fund,
8,502.88 To three per cent. fund,


Northern District,
Southern District,
Middle District,




Robert C. Perry.
Francis M. Rogers.
Hugh R. Miller.

Salary. $2,600

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District Attorneys.

R. S. G. Perkins.
Isham Harrison.

482,818.65 $ 34,107.57


Common Schools. There is no uniform Common School system for all the counties. Each township has a school fund arising from the lease of lands granted by Congress for common school purposes, -- every 16th section in each township having been so granted. These lands are leased for various periods, but mostly for ninety-nine years. The money thence arising is loaned annually at not less than 8 nor more than 10 per cent. per annum

interest. This interest is the amount applied to tuition, &c. annually from the township fund. There is also a county fund, arising from fines, forfeitures, licenses, &c., which is distributed in those townships that are destitute or have but a small school fund. The school sections in some townships are worth many thousand dollars, and in others only a few hundreds. Hence great inequality in the funds of the townships, and the necessity of the above method of distributing the county funds.


Government for the Year 1855.

Term ends.


Jan., 1858, $4,000
Lieut.-Gov. & Pres. of Senate, $8 a day,
[during the session of the Legislature.

of Baton Rouge, Secretary of State, Jan., 1856, 2,000
Priv. Sec. to Gov.,






PAUL O. HEBERT, of Iberville,


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A. S. Heron,
Thomas B. R. Hatch,
C. E. Greneaux,
Samuel F. Marks, of West Feliciana, Auditor of Accounts,
Louis Bringier,
of New Orleans, Surveyor-General,

S. M. Westinore, of New Orleans, Adj. and Insp.-General, 1856,
L. J. Sigur,
of New Orleans, Register of Land-Office, "250&fees.
John N. Carrigan, of Point Coupee, Superintend. of Education,“
George W. Morse, of Natchitoches, State Engineer,
J. Claxton Taylor, of Baton Rouge, Assistant Engineer,

Henry Droz,

of New Orleans, State Librarian, The Governor and Lieutenant-Governor are elected by a plurality of votes, and for four years. The Governor is ineligible for the four years succeeding his term of office. The Secretary of State is elected by the people for four years, and the Treasurer for two. Senators, 32 in number, are elected for four years; one half every two years. Representatives, not less than 70 nor more than 100 in number, are chosen for two years. The Legislature meets annually. The pay of senators and representatives is $4 a day. The sessions are not to last more than 60 days: acts passed after 60 days are invalid.


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The chief justice of the Supreme Court is elected by the people of the whole State, and for 10 years: the four associates are chosen for the same period, but in districts. Their compensation is established by the constitution. The Court is in session in New Orleans from the first Monday in November to the end of June. It has appellate jurisdiction when more than $300 is in dispute, when the legality of any tax or of any fine imposed by a municipal corporation is in question, and in criminal cases, on questions of law alone, when death, hard labor, or a fine of $300 is imposed. The attorney-general and the district attorneys are elected by the people for four years; the former by the State at large; the latter in their respective districts. The inferior judges, clerks of court, justices of the peace, sheriffs, and coroners are chosen by the people.

* Lieut.-Gov. W. W. Farmer.died of yellow-fever, October 29, 1854.

Thomas Slidell,
A. M. Buchanan,

A. N. Ogden,
C. Voorhies,
James Campbell,
Wm. L. Randolph,
Isaac E. Morse,
Eugene Lasere,
Robert Taylor,
Duncan S.Goodwin, of Alexandria,
of Monroe,


of Opelousas,

Henry H. Bry,

Supreme Court.

of New Orleans, Chief Justice, April, 1863, $6,000 Associate Justice,














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Districts. Judges.
1. John C. Larue,
James N. Lea,






Districts. Judges.


of Natchitoches,

of New Orleans,


Thomas H. Kennedy,

M. M. Reynolds,

D. Augustin,

J. B. Cotton,

B. S. Tappan, Attorney,

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-- - 1st District.

District Courts of New Orleans:
Term ends. Salary.
1857, $3,500

D. Scully,


H. Derbes,


W. J. Castell,


W. C. Auld,

3,500 W. A. Nott,
3,500 S. Newberger,
John P. Freret, Sheriff.

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Attorney-General, 1856,
Clerk in New Orleans,


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Other District Courts.
Louis Lombard.

C. D. Dreux.

E. Legendre.
J. J. Roman.
Robert G. Beale.
W. F. Kernan.
Geo. H. Penn.

P. A. Roy.

James Nolan.

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Districts. Judges.

Attorneys. 11. Edward Barry, W. H. Hough.

12. R. W. Richardson,

R. J. Caldwell.

13. Ralph Cushman,
14. Thos. C. Nicholls,
15. L. J. Dupré,

J. H. C. Barlow.
S. H. McGill.
P. O. Hardy.

16. Chichester Chaplin, W. J. Hamilton.
John Young.
18. Henry M. Spofford, George Williamson.

2. Octave S. Rousseau,

3. Victor Burthe,

4. Albert Duffel,

5. Jas. L. Cole, 6. Wm. B. Robertson, 7. James L. Sterling, 8. G. W. Watterston, 9. Thomas J. Cooley, 10. Alonzo Snyder. Education. The constitution provides that "free public schools shall be established throughout the State; the proceeds of lands granted for the purpose, and of lands escheated to the State, shall be held as a permanent fund, on which six per cent. interest shall be paid by the State for the support of these schools." The yearly sum of $250,000 is appropriated for the support of the free schools of the State, and is derived from the levy of a tax of one mill on the dollar, and from the imposition of a poll-tax of $1 on each white male inhabitant of the State. The School Fund, January 1, 1854, amounted to $387,728.68,- being $343,972.57 of capital and $ 43,756.11 of accrued interest. There is besides the Seminary Fund, which at the same date was $ 140,527.96,- being $122,071.64 of capital, and $18,456.32 of interest. But these now are funds of account only, and consist merely of a debt of the State to the fund. The number of school districts in the State, September 30, 1849, was 521; number of schools in operation, 704; number of children in the State between 6 and 16, 53,716; average attendance for the year, 22,927. 20,262 children did not attend school. The average period of tuition was 6 months and 13 days. Amount expended for teachers' salaries, $195,389; expended for building, renting, or purchasing school-houses, $134,689,000. By the Superintendent's Report in January, 1854, it appears there were 52,457 educable children between 6 and 16 years of age in the State in 1853. The amount paid to teachers out of the State apportionment for the year was $29,908.15. The school report contains no other school statistics than these of any general use.


Total receipts into the Treasury for the year ending Dec. 31, 1853, $2,148,467.65
Balance, December 31, 1852,


Total revenue for the year,

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Disbursements for the same period,

Balance in the Treasury, December 31, 1853,


The sources of income are direct taxes, sales of public lands, and licenses of trades and professions. The principal items of expenditure are the public debt, schools, executive and judiciary; erection of public buildings, Charity Hospital, deaf and dumb, orphans, the Penitentiary, &c.

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Principal Items of Expenditure.

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District attorneys,

Chief Sources of Income. $ 10,603.18 Ordinary revenue, general fund, $490,514.07 Expenses in criminal prosecutions, 15,384.51 Sale of Bonds, 750,000.00 To owners of slaves convicted, Free public schools,

1,500.00 343,626.43



State Library,


Dividends Bank Stock,

Interest from debts due,

11,070.09 Printing and advertising,



7,325.86 Do. for constitutional convention,
2,061.15 State census,

General government, Mexican war,
Sale of slaves out of depot,
Sales internal improvement lands,
Sales swamp lands,

17,272.03 Commissions to collectors,
209,170.96 Deductions to collectors,

Road and Levee Fund, .

5,765.73 Compensation to assessors, 340,075.49 Interest,

Mill tax,

Poll tax,

38,683.00 Pensions,



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Appropriations for charities,

Premiums to builders of vessels
in the State,

15,036.66 Revision of Statutes,

Contingent expenses of Executive,
Legislature, compensation and
contingent expenses,

Advancement of medical educa-
128,023.21 tion in the State,
86,390.08 Repayment of loans,



State Debt. -The State debt, properly so called, amounted January 1, 1854, to $2,069,000.00
Add to the State's indebtedness for the property banks,
Second Municipality of New Orleans,











Total State debt,

8,620,128 00 $10,689,128.00

Free Banks. - Up to December 31, 1853, two banks had been organized under the Free Banking Law, the Bank of New Orleans and the Southern Bank. The amount of notes countersigned and issued to them was $ 829,000, and city and State securities to that amount were lodged with the auditor.

Louisiana Penitentiary. - Baton Rouge. Prisoners in confinement Jauuary 1, 1853, 273; received during the year, 107; in all, 380. Discharged by expiration of sentence, 78; by pardon, 6; by death, 13; in all, 97; leaving in prison January 1, 1854, 283, 186 whites, 82 colored men, and 15 colored females; and of these 77 were slaves. 44 were convicted of murder; 22 of manslaughter; 2 of poisoning; 20 of assaulting or stabbing white men; 2 of inveigling slaves; 5 of negro stealing; 7 of horse stealing; 1 of aiding slave to escape; 68 of larceny; 6 of burglary; 27 of robbery. 45 were natives of Louisiana; 129 of other of the United States; and 109 were foreigners. The services of the prisoners are let out by


Deaf and Dumb. — Buildings have been erected for this institution at Baton Rouge, and thirteen pupils were admitted up to March 1, 1853. The State paid $ 10,305 for the education of deaf and dumb children in 1853.

Insane Asylum.-The State has erected a building for a State Lunatic Asylum at Jackson, and in 1853 paid $ 8,000 for the support of an Insane Asylum there.

Charity Hospital at New Orleans. — During the year 1853, 13,759 patients were admitted into the Hospital; 10,733 were discharged, and 3,164 died. Of the patients admitted, 12,333

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