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ballot of both houses of the General Assembly, to hold office during good behavior. Their salaries cannot be diminished during continuance in office.

Salary of a solicitor, $20 for each court which he attends, and fees for conviction. The Attorney-General is solicitor for the third circuit, and receives, in addition, $100 for each term of the Supreme Court which he attends.

The Superior Courts of Law, and the Courts of Equity, are held twice each year in every county of the State. There are seven circuits, of about ten counties each, which the judges ride alternately, never visiting, however, the same circuit twice in succession. The judges of these courts have complete equity jurisdiction.


For the Two Years ending October 31, 1852. Receipts and Expenditures of the Public Fund. Receipts for the year ending October 31, 1851,




1852, .

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Aggregate receipts for the two years,
Expenditures for the year ending October 31, 1851, .
66 1852,



Balance in the Treasury due public fund, Nov. 1, 1852,
Receipts and Disbursements of the Literary Fund.
Receipts for the year ending October 31, 1851,





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Balance in Treasury, Nov. 1, 1852, due this fund,
Add balance due this fund,

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366,342.76 249,254.45

Government for the Year 1855.



Balance due this fund, November 1, 1852,

$ 10,566.91 118,192.67 $128,759.58 36.286.46 $165,056.04

Add balance due public funds,

Total balance,

The State owns stocks in railroads and other internal improvement companies to the amount of $600,000.

JOHN L. MANNING, of Sumter,

James H. Irby,

of Lawrence,






State Debt. - On the 1st of November, 1852, the debt of the State upon which interest was payable amounted to $1,230,000. During the last session of the Legislature, a further debt of $2,140,000 was authorized to be created by the issue of bonds, as follows: $65,000 for the Neuse and Tar River Railroad; $75,000 for the Seaboard and Roanoke Road; $2,000,000 for the North Carolina Railroad.


Deaf and Dumb. The building for the North Carolina Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb was commenced April 14, 1848. The Institution is in Raleigh, near the State-House. The grounds have an extent of four acres.

Lunatic Asylum. — The Legislature, at a late session, imposed a tax of one cent and three quarters on every $100 worth of land, and five and a quarter cents on every taxable poll per annum, for four years, to raise a fund for building a lunatic asylum. The tax will yield about $80,000 in the four years.

Governor, (term ends De- Salary. cember, 1854), House-rent and $3,500 Lieutenant-Governor.

Benjamin Perry,
J. D. Ashmore,
William J. Laval,
E. P. Jones,
William F. Ervin,
R. G. M. Dunevant,
C. M. Furman,
R. F. W. Allston,
James Simons,
W. E. Martin,

of St. Paul's Parish, Secretary of State,

of Columbia,
of Charleston,
of Greenville,
of Williamsburg,

Adjutant and Inspector-General,
Pres. Bank of the State of S. C., 3,000
President of the Senate.
Speaker of the House.
Clerk of the Senate,
Clerk of the House,

J. T. Sloan,
The Governor is elected by the Senate and House of Representatives
jointly, to serve for two years, and is not re-eligible until after the expiration
of four years. In case of his death, or removal from office, the Lieutenant-
Governor acts as Governor.

J. B. O'Neall,
D. L. Wardlaw,
Edward Frost,
T. J. Withers,
J. N. Whitner,

T. W. Glover,

Robert Munro,

of Charleston,
of Georgetown,
of Charleston,
of Charleston,

Legislature. Assembles at Columbia, on the fourth Monday in November, annually. Representatives (124 in number) are chosen for two years, on a mixed basis of population and taxation. Pay, $3 a day, and 10 cents for every mile of travel. The Senate consists of 45 members, who are elected for four years; one half chosen every second year. Pay of Senators the same as that of Representatives.

Henry M'Iver,
Simeon Fair,


The judges and chancellors are elected by joint ballot of both houses. They hold their commissions during good behavior, and receive a compensation which can neither be increased nor diminished during their continuance in office. Repeated attempts have been made to limit their tenure to 65 or 70 years, but without success. A judge or chancellor may order a special court, and a chancellor may hear cases, by consent, at chambers.

Chancellors in Equity.

Job Johnston,
of Newbury,
Benjamin Faneuil Dunkin, of Charleston,

G. W. Dargan,

of Darlington, of Edgefield,

F. H. Wardlaw,

Judges of the General Sessions and Common Pleas.

of Newbury,

of Abbeville,

of Charleston,

of Camden,
of Anderson,

Treasurer, Lower Division,
Upper Division,


Isaac W. Hayne, of Charleston, Attorney-General,
Solicitor for Eastern Circuit,

W. J. Hanna,



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Appointed. 1830,









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Salary. $3,000











1,100 and fees. 900 and fees.

900 and fees. 900 and fees.

T. N. Dawkins,
M. L. Bonham,
J. S. G. Richardson, of Smithville, State Reporter, 1851,

900 and fees.
900 and fees.

Law Court of Appeals, and Equity Court of Appeals. — The former, consisting of all the law judges, for hearing appeals from the courts of law, and the latter, of all the chancellors, for hearing appeals from the courts of equity, are held in Columbia on the first Monday in May and fourth Monday in November. These courts are also held in Charleston on the second Monday in January, for hearing and determining appeals for the Districts of Georgetown, Horry, Beaufort, Colleton, and Charleston.


At Charleston, T. J. Gantt. At Columbia, A. Herbemont. Courts for the Correction of Errors, consisting of all the judges in law and equity, to try constitutional questions, or questions where the law and equity courts are divided, and which are referred thereto by either of the courts, are held at such times, during the sitting of the Court of Appeals, as the chancellors and judges may appoint.

Courts of Common Pleas and General Sessions. These courts have original jurisdiction in all civil cases where legal rights are involved (except in matters of contract where the amount is $20 or under), and in all criminal cases affecting free white men; and appellate jurisdiction in all appeals from Magistrates' Courts, and in appeals from the Court of Ordinary in all cases except in matters of account. They are held in each and every district of the State twice in each year. The times of holding the court for Charleston District are the first Monday in May, to sit six weeks, and the fourth Monday in October, to sit four weeks. Daniel Horlbeck, Clerk for Charleston District.

Solicitor for Northern Circuit,
66 Southern 66

Courts of Equity take cognizance of all matters belonging to a court of equity, as contradistinguished from a court of law. A term is held by one chancellor, annually, in each district, except Charleston District, where two terms are held; viz. on the first Monday in February, to sit six weeks, and on the second Monday in June, to sit four weeks.

City Court of Charleston.— An inferior court of limited jurisdiction both in civil and criminal causes. William Rice, Recorder.

Ordinary's Court. — Each district has its own Ordinary. The principal duties of the Ordinary are to grant letters of administration; probate of wills; examine executors and administrators' accounts, &c. His office is the proper depository of wills and other papers relative to the administration of estates. An appeal lies from his determination, in matters of account, to the Court of Equity, and, in all other cases, to the Court of Common Pleas. M. T. Mendenhall, Ordinary for Charleston District.

Magistrates' Courts have exclusive jurisdiction in matters of contract of and under twenty dollars.

Court of Magistrates and Freeholders, for the trial of slaves and free persons of color for criminal offences.

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Total receipts during the year ending September 30th, 1853, .
Balance, October 1, 1852,

Total means,

$381,430.90 276,674.40


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Artillery expenses,

Arsenals and military schools,


Principal Items of Expenditure.

Deaf, dumb, and blind,
Free schools,

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Charleston and Georgetown Harbor, 1,100.40 proof building,

41,844.00 Transient poor,

Contingent accounts,
Catawba Indians,

1,500.00 Contingent Fund,

Defence of the State,

37,310.00 Military contingencies,.

Delegates to Nashville Convention,

162.00 South Carolina College Chapel, .
6,822.41 Orphan at College,

Indemnity for slaves executed, $4,932.66 Jurors and Constables, 336,920.59 Legislative certificates, Libraries,

38,354.00 Paupers at Lunatic Asylum,
1,223.65 Improvements to Lunatic Asylum,
Public buildings,

Public printing,.

Due depositors,

Bills payable,
Other debts,

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State Debt.- The debt of the State is as follows:

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$1,425.00 Quarantine Regulations,
30,100.00 Salaries of public Officers, .

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The aggregate funds of the bank on the 1st of October, 1853, were,

From this deduct bank liabilities, viz. :


6,591.94 State House and grounds, and fire

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Due Treasury,.

Due Treasury for Sinking Fund, redemption of 5 & 6 per cent. stock, 740,189.26

Net profits in 1853,


State Treasury for loan under act for rebuilding Charleston,

Due banks,

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Three, five, and six per cent. State stocks,


$170,237.71 1,743,367.93

Six per cent. stock and five per cent. sterling bonds, fire loan,

Amount of absolute debt, .

$1,913,605.64 101,463.26

Annual interest thereon,

The State has a contingent debt of $1,051,422.09, being the amount of surplus revenue received from the United States. There is also a temporary indebtedness to the Indians, Free Schools, and the Bank, of $229,588.02. With all this indebtedness, there is still a balance in favor of the State, of productive property owned by the State, of $2,310,052.74.

State Bank.-The profits of the bank for the year ending September 30, 1853, were, deducting $29,075.90 to meet doubtful and bad debts, $330,000. From this amount there has been paid $ 52,093.56, for interest on the debt in Europe; also the interest on the 6 per cents (fire loan), amounting to $48,869.44; and the sum of $229,037 was. transferred to the sinking fund.


Property of the State, September 30, 1853. Bank of the State of South Carolina, for capital,

for sinking fund,


for the current fund,

Shares in Railroad Companies in the State,
Balances due by tax-collectors, sheriffs, &c.,
Hamburg bonds,


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135,252.10 1,122,460.73

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20,951.98 3,688.23








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The taxes for the year 1853 were as follows:- Upon 378,307 slaves, $226,984.20; on 2,929 free negroes, $5,858; on merchandise, $20,426.44; on faculties, professions, &c., $8,884.62; on town lots, 57,588.08; on $ 17,145,320 acres of land, valued at $ 10,207,591, $40,830.35; arrears, &c., $ 1,204.18. Total, $ 361,775.87.

Free Schools. Number of schools in 1849, 1,023; number of teachers, 1,019; number of scholars, 9,122. The Legislature appropriates $ 75,000 annually to free schools. Governor Manning, in his message of November 28, 1853, says, that "under the present mode of applying it, that liberality is really the profusion of the prodigal, rather than the judicious generosity, which confers real benefit." He recommended "the establishment of a Board of Education and the appointment of a Commissioner of Public Instruction, whose duty it shall be to gather facts with regard to this State, and thoroughly inform himself upon the systems of such other governments as educate their people best, and report the result of his labors to the Board, who together shall digest a plan, to be submitted to you for ratification or rejection."

State Lunatic Asylum, Columbia. —J. W. Parker, Superintendent. The number of patients, Nov. 5, 1851, was 127. Received during the year, 46; whole number, 173. Dis. charged during the year, cured, 30; and 8 died; leaving in the Asylum, November 5, 1852, 135, of whom 72 were males and 63 were females; of the 135, 73 were paupers, and 62 pay patients; January 1st, 1835, there were in the asylum 51 patients, received since, 545, in all, 596, of whom 260 have been discharged, cured, 70 have been removed, and 12 died. The receipts during the year were $ 28.539.28; the expenditures, $ 23,894.48.


Government for the Year 1855.

HERSCHEL V. JOHNSON, of Milledgeville, Governor (term of office

expires November, 1855),

E. P. Watkins,

John B. Trippe,
Ezekiel S. Candler,
Pleasant M. Compton,

Lewis Zachary,
Jesse H. Campbell,
John D. Stell,
H. McC. Moore,
John E. Ward,
W. T. Wafford,
S. T. Chapman,

of Henry Co.,
of Putnam Co.,
of Carroll Co.,
of Baldwin Co.,
of Athens,
of Newton Co.,
of Floyd Co.,
of Fayette Co.,
of Sumter Co.,
of Chatham Co.,
of Cass Co.,
of Chatham Co.,

Keeper of the Penitentiary.
Commissioner of Deaf and Dumb.
President of the Senate, $8 a day.
Secretary of the Senate, 500
Speaker of House of Rep., $8 a day.
Clerk of House of Rep.,
State Printer.


The pay of members of the Legislature is $5 a day. The Legislature meets biennially. The last Legislature met in November, 1853.


Supreme Court.

Ebenezer H. Starnes,
Joseph H. Lumpkin,
Henry L. Benning,
Robert E. Martin,
Thos. R. R. Cobb,

Secretary of State,

State Librarian.

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Term ends.




Salary. $3,000









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