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age; was first sent to prison at the age of 13, and has since spent there 25 years. Of the 10 females 1 is white. 76 were sentenced for stealing; 4 for murder; 4 for manslaughter; 5 for assault with intent to kill; 5 for burglary; 6 for horse stealing, and 3 for arson. 263 were Americans, and 86 foreigners; 86 were temperate; 152 could not read or write; 56 could only read; 10 received a good, and 2 a classical, education. For punishment during the year, 1,223 stripes were inflicted, and 47 days of confinement in cells were passed. Earnings of the prison for the year, $ 45,198.22; expenses, $ 40,659.98; excess of earnings, $4,538.28.
Willis P. Bocock,
Jonathan B. Stovall,
Auditor of Public Accounts,
William L. Jackson, 2d Aud. and Sup. of Literary Fund, "
Stafford H. Parker,
Clerk of the House of Delegates and Keeper of the Rolls, $150 per week during the session, and $200 annually for keeping the rolls.
Shelton C. Davis,
Government for the Year 1855.
Term ends. Salary. Jan. 1, 1856, $5,000 Lieut. Gov. and Pres. of Senate, $8 per day [during the session of the Legislature. Jan. 1, 1856, $1,500
Jan. 1, 1857,
Board of Public Works.
Clerk of the Senate, $100 per week during session.
Archibald Graham, President, July 1, 1855, ($1500 per annum, and travEdward J. Armstrong, 1857,
Thomas J. Boyd,
elling expenses, not to ex-
William R. Drinkard, Secretary.
The Governor and Lieutentant-Governor are elected by the people for four years, and at the same election the Attorney-General is elected for four years. The Secretary, Treasurer, and Auditor are elected by joint vote of the General Assembly for two years. The members of the Board of Public Works are elected by the people for six years, one every two years. The House of Delegates consists of 152 members, elected biennially from single districts, apportioned upon the basis of the white population. The Senate, apportioned upon the basis of population and taxation combined, consists of 50 members elected for four years, one half every two years, from single districts. The sessions of the legislature are biennial;
no session can last more than 90 days, except by a vote of three fifths of all the members; and then it shall not be extended more than 30 days.
For the administration of justice there are established County Courts, Circuit Courts, District Courts, and a Supreme Court of Appeals. The County Courts are held monthly in each county, by not less than three nor more than five justices. These justices are thus chosen by the people. Each county is divided into districts, and each district elects four justices for the term of four years. These justices elect one of their own number to attend each term of the court.
The voters in each circuit elect a
The State is divided into 21 circuits. judge for eight years, who must be thirty years old and reside in the circuit. Two Circuit Courts are held annually in each county by each judge. These 21 circuits form 10 districts, and these 10 districts form 5 sections. The voters of each section elect a judge of the Court of Appeals, who must be 35 years old and reside in his section. The judges of these five sections constitute the Court of Appeals; any three of whom may hold the court, which has jurisdiction, except in certain specified cases, where the matter in controversy is not less than $500 in value. This court sits at Richmond from January 5th to March 5th, from April 1st to May 14th, from October 15th to December 15th, and at Lewisburg on the 2d Monday in July, the term to last ninety days if necessary.
District Courts are held once every year in each district, by the judges of the circuits constituting the section, and the judge of the Supreme Court for the section, any three of whom may hold the court.
The Court of Appeals and the District Courts appoint their officers, but in the Circuit and County Courts the officers of the court are elected by the people.
Court of Appeals.
Salary. Cir. Name of Judge.
2,000 15. Edward B. Bailey,
Term ends. Salary. July 1, 1860, $2,000
2,000 17. George W. Hopkins,
2,000 19. Matthew Edmiston,
2,000 20. George W. Thompson,
Public Debt, October 1, 1854.
Amount of outstanding registered stock,* five and six per cent.,
Annual interest thereon,
Of this sum $ 1,153,606.50 are held by the State for the literary fund.
The contingent debt consists of liabilities of the State on account of the guaranties of the Commonwealth to bonds of corporations for the purposes of internal improvements; it amounts to $3,906,874.
By the report of the 1st and 2d Auditor, March 30, 1853, the productive stocks of the State, exclusive of those held by the Board of the Literary Fund, amounted to $8,011,668.66, i. e. their income was equal to 6 per cent. upon $ 8,011,668.66. In addition to this, the report of the Senate Committee upon finance and claims shows stocks now unproductive to the amount of $5,899,958.53. At the session of 1853, the legislature lent the aid of the State largely to works of internal improvement.
Chief Items of Receipts, Oct. 1, 1853. Tax on licenses, 1853,
General Assembly of 1852-53,.
11,681 37 University of Virginia,
133.00 Public guard (Richmond),
52,495.54 Contingent fund,
4,050,486 87 Subscriptions and appropriations
Loans to internal improvement
ments, . Premiums on loans,
Interest on loans to sundry accounts,
Principal Items of Expenditure.
Lots improved and unimproved,
White males of 21 years of age,
Slaves 12 years and upwards,
Horses, mules, asses, and jennets,
Cattle, sheep, and hogs,
Pleasure carriages, stage coaches, &c.,
Temporary loans to do., .
Dividends paid to old James River $994,104.83 Company stockholders,
114,584.42 Interest on guaranteed bonds, .
186,687, at 40 cents,
8,892, at 100"
262,028, at 60 361,431 3,607,993 29,860
Statement of Taxes on all Accounts for 1853, to be collected in 1854.
*This stock is known in the market as "Inscription Stock."
No. Value. Aggregate Value. Taxes.
$ 160,180 73 107,692.79 75,000 00
$ 17,142,361 00
Pianos and harps, .
Plate and jewelry,
Household and kitchen furniture,
Moneys, securities, &c.,
Capital in manufacturing or mining,
Moneys, bonds, or other evidences in court,
Capital of incorporated joint stock Cos. other than banks of circula-
Toll bridges and ferries,
Over extensions by commissioners and fractions,
Taxes of 1852 omitted,
Estimated delinquents and overcharges,
377,807.00 2,450,287.25 102,543,571.87
4,412.11 338,030,31 1,397,047.08
Estimated net taxes,
In regard to taxation and the contracting of debts and the payment of the State debt the constitution provides as follows:
"The yeas and nays shall be taken on all tax and appropriation bills. No incorporated company shall be released from its liability to the State, nor shall the faith of the State be pledged for the debts of any company. Seven per cent. of the State debt existing January 1, 1852, shall be annually set apart as a sinking fund to redeem said debt. No loans shall be contracted irredeemable for a period of over 34 years. Whenever a debt is contracted, there shall be set apart, annually, for 34 years, a sum exceeding by one per cent. the aggregate amount of the annual interest agreed to be paid thereon at the time of its contraction, which sum shall be a part of the sinking fund. Stocks held by the Commonwealth may be sold, but the proceeds must be applied to the payment of the public debt."
Schools.-The returns are very imperfect. They show, as regards primary schools, in 140 counties and 6 towns, 1,853 commissioners; in 129 counties and 3 towns, 3,934 schools; in 100 counties and 1 town, 55,271 poor children; in 129 counties and 4 towns, 32,072 poor children sent to school. Amount expended for tuition of poor children at common and other schools, including books and all other expenses, $69,404.14; average attendance of poor children in the year, 54 days; average cost per annum of each poor child, about $2.16. The returns as to district free schools are from only 10 counties and 2 towns. Number of districts, 261; of schools, 276; general average salaries of teachers in 7 counties and 2 towns, $224.75; number of children at school during the year in 10 counties and 2 towns, 13,176; average annual cost of these pupils, $5.92; local funds from taxes, contributions, &c., $63,293.52; amount applied from school quotas, $6,519.80; teachers' salaries and all other expenses, $ 68,265.30; tuition in 6 counties and 1 town, $ 36,065.53; when not otherwise stated, the above returns are from 10 counties and 2 towns.
THOMAS BRAGG, of
James T. Marriott, Council of State. - William K. Lane, of Wayne Co.; Whitmel Stallings, of Gates Co.; Archibald Henderson, of Rowan Co.; Wilson S. Hill, of Guilford Co.; Columbus Mills, of Rutherford Co.; Perrin Busbee, of Raleigh; and Robert S. French, of Robeson Co.
Pay, $3 per diem while in service, and $3 for every 30 miles' travel.
XIII. NORTH CAROLINA.
Government for the Year 1855.
Governor (term of office, from Jan. 1, Salary.
Frederic Nash, of Hillsborough,
James R. Dodge, of Morgantown,
of Rockingham Co., Treasurer,
Clerk of the Treas. Dep.,
Speaker of the Senate.
Speaker of the House of Commons.
Clerk of the Senate.
Clerk of the House.
Superior or Circuit Courts.
Judges. Salary, $1,950 each.
Circuit Solicitors. of Rockingham. W. N. H. Smith, of Murfreesboro'. of Greensboro'. G. S. Stephenson, of Newbern. of Salisbury. M. W. Ransom, of Warren Co. of Salisbury. Cadwallader Jones, of Hillsborough. of Hillsborough. Robert Strange, of Fayetteville. of Newbern. William Lander, of Lincoln Co. of Raleigh. Aug. W. Burton, of Cleaveland Co. The Supreme Court holds three sessions in each year; two in the city of Raleigh,- to wit, on the second Monday in June and the last Monday in December, and one at Morgantown, on the first Monday of August, for the western part of the State; and continues to sit at each term until all the business on the docket is determined, or continued upon good cause shown. It has power to hear and determine all cases in law or equity, brought before it by appeal, or by the parties. It has original and exclusive jurisdiction in repealing letters-patent, and also has power to issue all writs necessary and proper for the exercise of its jurisdiction.
The judges of the Supreme and the Superior Courts are elected by joint