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chusetts should be made to the Secretaries of those States respectively, stating the name and age of the proposed beneficiary, and the circumstances of his parent or guardian. In the State of Rhode Island they should be made to the commissioners of the funds for the education of the deaf and dumb, and in Vermont and Connecticut, to the Governor. In all cases, a certificate from two or more of the selectmen, magistrates, or other respectable inhabitants of the township or place to which the applicant belongs, should accompany the application. The time of admission is the close of the summer vacation, on the third Wednesday of September.

State Prison, Wethersfield. - Leonard R. Welles, Warden; R. Fox, Physician; Charles` C. Burr, Chaplain. The whole number of convicts, April 1, 1853, was 181. During the year ending March 31, 1854, 75 were received, and 65 discharged; leaving in confinement, 191. 41 were discharged by expiration of sentence, 9 were pardoned, and 15 have died. Of those remaining in prison, 182 are males (145 white, and 37 colored), and 9 are females. Of the 191 prisoners, 14 were committed for murder, 10 for manslaughter, 11 for arson, 12 for attempt to kill, 55 for burglary, 20 for theft, 9 for horse-stealing, 3 for adultery, 6 for rape, 11 for attempt at rape, 4 for passing counterfeit money, 3 for forgery. 23 were under 20 years of age, and 7 were over 60; 90 were between 20 and 30. 25 are under a life sentence. 95 are natives of the State, 36 are foreigners, and the nativity of 4 is unknown. The males are employed in making cabinet-work, cutlery, and shoes; and the females in washing, cooking, making and mending clothing, and binding boots. By an act of 1852, the labor of 20 convicts was let out for five years at 45 cents each per day, to be employed in the manufacture of school apparatus, and to be paid for in the same apparatus. There is a library belonging to the prison of about 1,000 volumes, which are circulated among the prisoners every week. Instruction in the rudiments of learning is also given them. There is a Sunday school connected with the prison. The receipts for the year were $18,268.39; the expenditures, $ 14,085.85.


Government for the Year 1855.


MYRON H. CLARK, of OntarioCo., Governor (term ends Dec. 31, 1856), $4,000 Henry J. Raymond, of New York, Lieutenant-Governor,

Elias W. Leavenworth, of Syracuse, Secretary of State,

James M. Cook,


of Ballston,
Elbridge G. Spaulding, of Buffalo,
Ogden Hoffman,
Leonard Lathrop,
John T. Clark,
Isaac Vanderpoel,
Benjamin J. Bond,
Daniel Lee,
Elijah Ward,
Victor M. Rice,
Joseph J. Chambers,
Daniel B. St. John,
Edward Hand,

Henry Fitzhugh,

Frederic Follett, of Batavia,
Cornelius Gardinier, of Fulton,
Norwood Bowne,

of New York, Attorney-General,
of New York,

of Albany,

of Albany,
of Albany,

of New York, Commissary-General,

Sup't of Public Instruction,
Dep. Superintendent,

of West Chester, Judge-Advocate-General,
of Albany,
of Albany,
of Albany,
of Albany,
of Oswego,

Sup't of Banking Department,

Deputy Superintendent,
Canal Commissioner,



$6 a day.



Deputy Attorney-General,
State Engineer and Surveyor,

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$5 per day.











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The Senate consists of thirty-two members, who are elected for two years, one from each senatorial district. The Assembly consists of one hundred and twenty-eight members, elected annually. The pay of Senators and Representatives is $3 per day for not over 100 days, and $1 for every 10 miles' travel.


1. Court for the Trial of Impeachments.

This court is composed of the President of the Senate (who is president of the court, and when absent the chief judge of the Court of Appeals presides), the Senators, or the major part of them, and the judges of the Court of Appeals, or the greater part of them. It is a court of record, and, when summoned, meets at Albany, and has for its clerk and officers the clerk and officers of the Senate. If the Governor is impeached, the Lieutenant-Governor cannot act as a member of the court. Two thirds of the members present must concur for conviction. The judgment of the court extends only to removals from or disqualifications for office, or both; the party being still liable to indictment.

2. The Court of Appeals.

This court has full power to correct and reverse all proceedings and decisions of the Supreme Court, or of the old Supreme Court and Court of Chancery. It is composed of eight judges, of whom four are elected (one every second year) by the people at large, for eight years, and four selected each year from the justices of the Supreme Court having the shortest time to serve. These selections are made alternately from the first, third, fifth, and seventh, and from the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth judicial districts. The judge (of the four chosen at large) whose term first expires presides as chief judge. Six judges constitute a quorum. Every cause must be decided within the year in which it is argued, and, unless reargued, before the close of the term after the argument. Four terms must be held each year, and every two years there must be one term in each judicial district. Each judge has a salary of $2,500 per annum. The court for 1854 is thus constituted :

Addison Gardiner,
Hiram Denio,

Term expires.

Dec. 31, 1855.




66 1861.

Selected from the Justices of the Supreme Court to serve until Dec. 31, 1855. Gilbert Dean, of Poughkeepsie. Schuyler Crippen, of Cooperstown. Augustus C. Hand, of Elizabethtown. Richard P.Marvin, of Jamestown.

Chosen by the People at Large.
Chief Judge

of Rochester,

of Utica,

Alexander S. Johnson, of New York,

Charles H. Ruggles, of Poughkeepsie,


Francis Kernan, of Utica, State Reporter.
Benjamin F. Harwood, of Albany, Clerk.
Russell F. Hicks, of Albany, Deputy Clerk. Salary, $1,200.
3. Supreme and Circuit Courts.

Henry P. Edwards, New York, Dec. 31, 1855
Wm. Mitchell, New York,


James J. Roosevelt, New York,
Robert H Morris, New York,
Thomas W. Clerke, New York,
Second District.

The Supreme Court has general jurisdiction in law and equity, and power to review judgments of the County Courts, and of the old Courts of Common Pleas. For the election of the justices, the State is divided into eight judicial districts, each of which elects four to serve eight years, with an annual salary of $2,500. In each district one justice goes out of office every two years. The justice in each district whose term first expires, and who is not a judge of the Court of Appeals, is a presiding justice of the court, and the clerks of the several counties serve as clerks. At least four general terms of the Supreme Court are held in each district every year. Every county has each year at least one special term, and two Circuit Courts. Any three or more of the justices (including one presiding justice) hold the general terms; and any one or more hold the special terms, at which are heard all equity cases, and Circuit Courts, which are held exclusively for the trial of issues of fact.

Justices of the Supreme and Circuit Courts.
Residence. Term expires. Justices. Residence.
First District.
Fifth District.
Wm. F. Allen, Oswego,
1857. Fred. W. Hubbard, Watertown,
1859 Daniel Pratt,
William J. Bacon, Utica,

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Salary, $2,000.
Salary, $2,000.




Samuel L. Selden, Rochester,


1857. Thomas A. Johnson, Corning,

Theron R. Strong, Palmyra,


1861. Henry Welles, Pennyan,

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Sixth District.
Schuyler Crippen, Cooperstown,
W. H. Shankland, Ithaca,
Hiram Gray, Elmira,
Charles Mason, Hamilton,
Seventh District.

Eighth District.


1855. Rich. P. Marvin,

1857. Levi Bowen,

1859. James Mullett, Buffalo,

1861. Benjamin F Greene, Buffalo,

* Appointed in place of Seward Barculo, deceased.

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4. County or Surrogates' Courts.

When the real estate, or all the defendants, or all the parties interested, are in the county, the jurisdiction of the County Courts extends to actions of debt, assumpsit, and covenant, when the debt or damages claimed are not above $2,000; to actions for injury to the person or trespass upon property, where the damages are not above $500; and to replevin suits, where the property claimed is not above $1,000. They have equity jurisdiction for the foreclosure of mortgages; for the sale of the real estate of infants; for partition of lands; for admeasurement of dower; for the satisfaction of judgments where above $75 is due on an unsatisfied execution; and for the care and custody of lunatics and habitual drunkards. The Surrogates' Courts have the ordinary jurisdiction of courts of probate.

5. Criminal Courts.


John Slossen,
Thomas J. Oakley,
Murray Hoffman,

These are the Courts of Oyer and Terminer and the Court of Sessions. The Courts of Oyer and Terminer, in each county, except in the city and county of New York, are composed of a justice of the Supreme Court, who presides, the county judge, and the two justices of the peace chosen members of the Court of Sessions. The presiding justice and any two of the others form a quorum. In the city and county of New York, they are composed of a justice of the Supreme Court, who presides, and any two of the following officers: judges of the Court of Common Pleas of the city and county; the mayor, recorder, and aldermen of said city. These courts are all held at the same time and place at which the Circuit Courts are held. Courts of Sessions are composed of the county judge and the two justices of the peace designated as members of the Court of Sessions, and are held at the same time and place as the County Courts.

Lewis B. Woodruff,
Daniel P. Ingraham,

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Robert G. Campbell, Clerk.

Alex. W. Bradford, Surrogate.
John J. Doane, Register.

Wm.W. Campbell,*
J. L. Mason,
John Duer,

Salary. Term expires. $3,500 Dec. 31, 1855. "" 1857. 1859.


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A. Oakley Hall, District Attorney.

Common Pleas. $3,000 Dec. 31, 1855.. Charles P. Daly, $3,000, Dec. 31, 1859. 1857. Robert B. Conolly, Clerk. Salary, $3,000. Term expires Dec. 31, 1857.



Marine Court.

Albert A. Thompson, Judge. Salary, $3,000. Florence McCarthy, Judge. Salary, $3,000. Alfred A. Phillips,




James M. Smith, Jr. Salary, $3,000.

Education. The amount of capital and annual revenue of the several funds appropriated to the purposes of education, for the year ending September 30, 1853, was as follows:

City Judge.

Sidney H. Stewart. Salary, $3,500.

* Judges Campbell, Mason, and Duer attend only to cases transferred from the Supreme Court.

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Common Schools. Of the funds devoted to education, what was exclusively the Common School Fund in 1853 may be stated as follows:Productive capital of the Common School Fund,


Amount from United States Deposit Fund which will produce $165,000, the sum annually appropriated therefrom, for the support of Common Schools, at six per cent. interest,

Amount from same fund which will produce at six per cent. $25,000 annually, that being the sum reserved by the constitution to be added annually to the capital of the School Fund,


416,666.67 $5,549,923.93

Making a total of

The annual interest on this sum, at six per cent., is $332,995. The balance of the income of the United States Deposit Fund is appropriated to the support of Colleges, Academies, the Normal School, Indian Schools, Teachers' Institute, &c. The income of the Literature Fund must, by the constitution, be applied to the support of Academies.

The whole amount of public money received from all sources by the Commissioners of cities, and town Superintendents, during the year ending July 1, 1853, was $1,623,376.50. Apportioned for teachers' wages, $ 1,273,426.49; for libraries, $49,499.39. Leaving a balance for contingent expenses, &c. of $302,450.62. The amount of taxes levied during the year, exclusive of the city and county of New York, for purchasing school-houses was $33,877.15; for building do. $203,118.33; for hiring do. $3,750.82; repairing do. $68,141.17; insuring do. $6,316.84; fuel, $92,248.35; books, apparatus, &c., $8,976.73. The amount paid for teachers' wages, besides public money, was $595,335.74. Aggregate expenditures for school purposes during the year, $ 2,469,248.52.

Statistics of the Common Schools for the Year ending July 1, 1853. Whole number of districts, the school-houses of which are situated within the town, 11,684. Number of whole districts in the State, 8,788. Number of parts of districts, 5,992. Returns were received from 8,655 whole and 5,717 parts of districts. Average length of schools in all the districts, 7.9 months. Volumes in district libraries, 1,604,210. 866,935 children were taught during the year. 1,150,532 were returned between 4 and 21 years of age. 182,795 pupils attended school less than 2 months; 179,407 attended 2 months and less than 4; 166,458, 4 and less than 6; 119,809, 6 and less than 8; 52,349, 8 and less than 10; 18,195, 10 and less than 12; and 3,255 attended school for 12 months. There are 1,680 colored children between 4 and 21 in the 28 colored schools reported. $3,745.49 of public money were received on account of colored schools, and, besides public money, $1,853.21 were paid for teachers' wages. Number of unincorporated, select, and private schools reported in the districts, 1,517. Average number of pupils therein, 36,844. There are, besides, schools for the instruction of Indian children in the several reservations. - About 250 attend the Normal School at Albany annually. In September, 1853, there were 273 pupils in the school, 85 males and 188 females. The whole number of graduates is 692, 361 males and 331 females. In this school in 1852-53, 16 Indian youth, 15 males and 1 female, were taught to prepare them for teachers among their own people. Nearly every county in the State is represented in this school. The miscellaneous library in 1852 consisted of 759 volumes and 127 pamphlets; that of text-books of 5,464 volumes. The expenses of the school for the year were near $ 14,862.73. Mr. Samuel B. Woolworth is Principal of the school.


Debt of the State. The general fund and railroad debt, at the close of the fiscal year ending September 30, 1853, was $6,355,654.37; the canal debt was $15,501,269.16; canal reve nue certificates under the law of 1851, $1,500,000; making an aggregate of $23,356,923.53. -on which accrues, annually, nearly $1,320,000 interest. There is also a contingent debt,

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