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though clearly your own. Better give your path to a dog than be bitten by him in contesting for the right. Even killing the dog would not cure the bite."

28 Difficulty with Miss Todd. The letter to Stuart and the following correspondence with Joshua Speed are interesting in connection with the facts of Lincoln's life at that time. In Springfield he met Miss Mary Todd of Kentucky who was visiting her sister, Mrs. Edwards, the wife of a member of the legislature. They became engaged but there were many disagreements and Lincoln grew depressed almost to insanity. The marriage was set for the first of January 1841 but it did not take place. After the breaking of the engagement Lincoln's melancholy grew profound and his correspondence during this period gives an idea of that black depression which at periods throughout his life took possession of him.

29 Sold slaves. Although the slaves noticed on Lincoln's return from his visit to his friend Speed's Kentucky home were cheerful, Lincoln had seen at the age of nineteen the reverse side of the picture. On returning from a trip to New Orleans he very generally expressed his indignation at the scenes in the slave market of that city and is quoted by his cousin, John Hanks, as declaring that there and then he conceived an undying horror of the system.

30 Letter to Joshua Speed. Speed was for four years Lincoln's room-mate at Springfield and was always his considerate and consistent friend, the most intimate he ever knew. Speed surrendered this correspondence to Lincoln's biographer, W. H. Herndon, with a good deal of hesitancy and erased several names. The Speeds were a Kentucky family and Joshua's brother John was appointed by Lincoln attorney general of the United States in 1864.

Lincoln's views on temperance. The feeling against intemperance which led Lincoln to join the Washingtonian

temperance society of Springfield lasted throughout his life. Mr. Nicolay says that in the five years spent with the president at the White House he "never saw him take a glass of whiskey and never heard of his taking one." Colonel John Hay adds to this that he never saw him use tobacco. On the other hand his moderation towards drunkards sometimes annoyed zealous reformers. The speech here quoted was not popular with some temperance people because of his observation that hard drinkers may be in heart and head the equals of their more sober brothers. When a committee called during the war to ask the president to abolish the use of liquor in the army adding that the recent defeats were undoubtedly the judgment of God for the drunkenness of the soldiers, Lincoln replied that this was a little unreasonable on the part of the Lord, since the southerners drank a great deal worse whiskey and a great deal more of it. With this remark he dismissed the committee.

45 Duel with Shields. This duel with Shields, which never came off, has interest both sentimental and humorous. James Shields was an Irishman, small of stature but belligerent of spirit. He was one of Miss Todd's many admirers but this did not prevent the young lady, with one of her friends, from ridiculing him in a local paper. Shields in great anger demanded the name of the writer and Lincoln claimed the authorship of the objectionable lines. He may indeed have urged on the young women to the prank. Shields promptly challenged him. Lincoln had choice of weapons and chose broadswords as described. Considering the extreme disparity in their height and reach of arm the absurdity of this is evident. The little Irishman, nothing daunted, accepted the terms and the pair met. It is related that while they waited for the seconds to measure the ground Lincoln, with assumed absent mindedness, rose from the log on which he sat, drew his sword, felt its edge with his thumb,

and pulling himself up to his full height of six feet four inches chopped off a twig at an almost incredible distance above his head, watching Shields the while with a humorous twinkle in his eye. But his undersized antagonist did not withdraw until friends interfered and refused to let the farce go farther. James Shields afterwards served his country as senator from two states and rose to be a general in the Mexican war and the civil war. As for Lincoln the duel drew him and Miss Todd together again and their marriage followed 4 November 1842. The duel story was used against him politically and Lincoln grew sensitive about the subject.

47 Letter to Martin Morris. At this time Lincoln was contesting the nomination for congress with E. D. Baker, "the Prince Rupert of battle and debate," whose eloquence had already won him fame in Illinois and was destined to give him national reputation. Neither Lincoln nor Baker received the nomination in 1843 for it went to a dark horse," J. J. Hardin, but Baker served in congress from 1848 to 1849, became Republican senator from Oregon in 1861 and introduced Lincoln at his first inauguration. He was killed at Ball's Bluff 21 October 1861.

47 Literary aspirations. Lincoln, in his log cabin home, read what books he had-"Esop's Fables," "Robinson Crusoe," "Pilgrim's Progress," a History of the United States and Weems' "Life of Washington." Later he laid his hands on Shakespeare and Burns and eagerly read them. Emerson has likened his quaint way of illustrating his points with little stories to the manner of Æsop; possibly his early reading had left this impress on his style. He had a taste for poetry of a rather morbid sort such as his favorite "Oh why should the spirit of mortal be proud." He greatly enjoyed portions of Byron's works while on the other hand he delighted in Tom Hood and revelled in the work of

"Petroleum V. Nasby" (D. R. Locke). In the backwoods he had scribbled verse but it is not recorded that he wrote poetry after the attempts here given. Critics have laid stress on the musical quality of his style and R. W. Gilder gives as example of his "unconscious verse "the lines from the second inaugural which run:

Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray

That this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away.

49 Wife and children. The second son referred to was christened Edward Baker; he died in 1850. Lincoln's other children were: Robert Todd born in 1843; William Wallace born in 1850, died at the White House in 1862; and Thomas born in 1853, died in 1871. Robert Lincoln was secretary of war under Presidents Garfield and Arthur and minister to England under Harrison; he has been a candidate for the nomination to the presidency. He is now (1903) living in Chicago where he is president of the Pullman company. Lincoln's wife survived him many years. She died in Springfield 16 July 1882. She seemed never fully to recover the shock of her husband's assassination and during the later years of her life, though her memory remained excellent and her powers of conversation unimpaired, she developed curious eccentricities. She never went into the sunlight but would sit in broad day in a darkened room lighted dimly by candles. She accumulated too a vast number of gowns which she never wore or intended to wear and in other ways showed a mind deranged.


Business letter to Herndon. W. H. Herndon became Lincoln's law partner in 1845 and so continued through Lincoln's life. In later years he became the biographer of his famous associate. In reference to the latter's directions regarding the money it is interesting to note that at this time Lincoln was still paying off what he called his na


tional debt" contracted fourteen years before during the partnership of Lincoln and Berry in store-keeping. Berry drank himself to death shortly after their failure and the men to whom the store had been sold never paid the money, but Lincoln shouldered the debt, overwhelming to a penniless young frontiersman, and eventually paid it off in spite of the fact that financial ethics were at that time and place rather loose. In this fashion he earned his sobriquet of "honest Abe" and various little anecdotes are told to show his scrupulous uprightness and almost exaggerated honesty. Lincoln was never a good business man. His life-long friend Judge Davis says of him that he apparently had no idea how to make money outside of his profession and never attempted to do so.

52 Speech on Mexican war. The Mexican war, in which Lincoln found himself opposed to the president, arose out of the question whether the southern boundary of the newly annexed country of Texas was at the Nueces or the Rio Grande. In January 1846 President Polk had sent an expedition under General Taylor to the Rio Grande and had there caused the erection of Fort Brown. The Mexicans affirmed this not to be Texan territory and an expedition was sent against the fort. Polk's message to congress set forth that Mexico "had shed American blood upon the American soil." Lincoln, then in his first congressional session, presented resolutions demanding to be told the "particular spot on which the blood of American citizens had been shed and claimed that the boundary question was so unsettled that the president's act in sending the Fort Brown expedition amounted to aggression. These "spot resolutions" were widely discussed. He held steadily to his position in spite of its unpopularity.

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57 A. H. Stephens. Alexander Hamilton Stephens of Georgia, whose oratory so moved Lincoln, played an im

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