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Early educational institutions — University of North Carolina founded - Colleges founded in South Carolina,

Georgia and Maryland Dickinson College, Pa., and the University of Tennessee — Medical schools Secondary education — The Phillips Academies — Land grants for educational purposes — Thomas Jefferson's educational plans — Compulsory education – Education of females · Religious tolerance more manifest — Progress of the Episcopal Church — Congregationalists and other sects — Number of ministers and churches — Separation of Church and State — Scarcity of native literature in early colonial period — Early literature chiefly historical Principal contributions of the South — Libraries in New England — Historical literature in New England - Controversial sermons and tracts — The Mathers and John Cotton — Edwards and Franklin - Dutch literature — Printing introduced Newspapers - Political essays, pamphlets, etc.Number of books published — Early American Art.


lege was started in Virginia in 1766, The period immediately preceding and Dartmouth College began as an the breaking out of the war for inde- Indian missionary school in the wild pendence was not conducive to gen- woods of New Hampshire in 1770. eral attention to the cause of educa- About 2,500 graduates from Amerition. Aside from the ordinary pur- can colleges were living in the colsuits of life, the people were mostly onies in 1775. interested in the consideration of the When the war had been brought to great public issues of the hour and a successful conclusion, the cause of the impending conflict with the

education assumed a prominence in mother country. Primary education the minds of men second to the cause made some progress in nearly all the of freedom. In eight States colleges colonies, but it was progress of a were in existence, and presently there desultory character and not of great were movements looking to the estabextent. The movement for academies lishment of collegiate institutions in began in a small way and several other States. By its constitution of new colleges were established. The

December, 1776, North Carolina had College of Rhode Island, later to be expressed a purpose to found one or known as Brown University, was more universities, and now in Deceminstituted in 1762 and had one stu- ber, 1789, only a few days after the dent in 1765. Queens College, after adoption of the Constitution of the ward to be Rutgers, was started in United States the State chartered the New Jersey in 1764 and chartered University of North Carolina, in 1770. Hampden and Sydney Col- although it was not until six years



later that this university was opened mar schools and which were the foreto students. In South Carolina, im- runners of the high schools of more mediately that peace was assured, the modern times. The academy was esLegislature passed an act for estab- sentially a private institution, though lishing three colleges, and under the it sometimes received State help and provisions of this act the college at not infrequently became ultimately Charleston was started. In the same incorporated in the public school sygyear the State of Georgia gave a tem. The first incorporated academy charter to the University of Georgia. was founded in Philadelphia in 1753, In 1784 the University of Maryland through

through the efforts of Benjamin was chartered and, as parts of that Franklin. In Massachusetts there institution, Washington College at was no academy until 1788, when the Chestertown and St. John's College Phillips at Andover was started, at Annapolis were founded. With while about the same time Phillips Dickinson College in Pennsylvania in Academy at Exeter, N. H., was also 1783 and the University of Nashville started. In 1761 Lieutenant-goverin Tennessee in 1785, the list of col- nor Dummer of Massachusetts beleges opened in this period is com- queathed his mansion and 330 acres pleted. During the colonial period of land in Byfield for the establishthe collegiate institutions were dis- ment and support of a school, but it tributed along the Atlantic seaboard was not until 1782 that the academy from Massachusetts to Virginia. which bore his name was incorporThere was no marked change in this ated - the third in New England. Its respect until sometime after the close activity, however, preceded its incorof the Revolution, except that the poration and it was the influence establishment of Dartmouth in New which went out from it that led to the Hampshire and the University of founding of the two Phillips AcadNashville in Tennessee were the first emies and later, in 1784, that at slight indications of any considerable Leicester, Mass. movement of the population into the The other colonies were not slow in interior. Three medical schools, in fostering the cause of education durPhiladelphia, New York City and ing the post-Revolutionary period. Cambridge, Mass., and law

In Maine, then a part of Massachuschool, in Connecticut were started in setts, schools were in operation in this period, but their history belongs 1761, 1764, 1774, and 1779, and under to the next century.

the law of 1789 school districts were In the latter part of the century organized. In the

In the constitution of secondary education made its appea Vermont in 1777 it was ordered that ance in the academies, which were schools should be established in each established to supplement the gram- town. Schools in Delaware were

Vol. IV - 5






either private or church institutions. for the academies. In 1789 MassachuA school was opened in Wilmington setts passed a general school law in 1765 by the Friends and the after- which made the establishment of priward famous Presbyterian academy mary and general schools in all towns in Newark was established in 1767. and rural districts compulsory, and Delaware made its first land grant for in the same year New Hampshire deeducation in 1772, to the town of New creed that there should be grammar Castle for a school plot. North Caro- schools in all the towns of the State. lina, in addition to its public, private Vermont placed its first school law and church schools, had an academy on its statute books in 1782, establishat Wilmington in about 1760 and one ing the districts system. at Newbern in 1764. At the close of the In the earlier colonial period the Revolution, South Carolina had eleven education of women was comparapublic schools, three charitable gram- tively neglected. Household duties mar schools and eight private insti- rather than book learning were retutions. When the State constitution garded as the essentials for the sex. of Georgia was framed in 1777, it pro- Girls depended mostly upon home invided that schools should be erected struction for whatever education they in every county of the State and sup- received. Neither the ported at the general expense of the schools nor those for secondary eduState. In 1783 the same State enacted cation afforded or were designed to a law providing that the governor afford accommodations for them. might grant 1,000 acres of vacant land There were exceptions to that rule, for the establishment of a school in however. In Boston, New York, and each county, and this was the begin- other cities there were a few private ning of the poor-school system of the day and boarding schools for girls, State. In Virginia in 1779 Thomas and in 1749 the Moravians at BethleJefferson introduced his plan for ele- hem, Pa., established a school for mentary, secondary, and higher edu- girls that in subsequent years became cation in free schools and for the en- one of the most flourishing female suing two decades persistently seminaries in the country. pressed his views, but without favor- It was close upon the beginning of able results. In New York State legis- the Revolution before any considerlation was begun in 1786, when it was able attention was given to this ordered that in each new township matter, and even then the movement laid out from the unappropriated was very feeble. It began in Massalands one section should be reserved chusetts. In 1766 the town of Medfor the gospel and schools " and ford voted that the girls might be one “ for promoting literature.” Spe

." instructed “ two hours in a day after cial appropriations were also made the boys are



arrangements were made in some of sulted in the introduction of new dethe towns to teach the girls in the nominations of differing faiths and summer months when the boys were varying methods of church organizaso engaged in other pursuits that tion. In this wide diffusion of diverthey had no time to attend school. gent views, the early Puritanism and Thus Dorchester in 1784 and Glouces- the later Episcopalianism had lost ter in 1790 arranged; the resolutions their hold upon the people. Church of the latter town explained that this and State had not yet reached the measure was instituted because the point of actual and complete sever. females are a tender and interest“

ance, but that end was approaching ing branch of the community, but and was already manifest. Tolerhave been much neglected in the ance was everywhere more manifest Public Schools of this town." In on the part of the older churches. But Norwich, Conn., the girls were ad- on the part of the people there was mitted from 5-7 A. M." and in New not that devotion to or respect for reLondon in 1774 they were taught in ligion which had characterized the the summer months, also from 5 to 7 preceding century. The policies of the in the morning. Boston in 1790 and generation, the consideration of the Northampton, Mass., in 1788 voted to impending struggle with the mother admit girls to the schools in the sum- country, were engaging men's minds mer months. *

and religion was neglected.

Although the Episcopal was the Religion.

first Protestant Church on the AmeriAs the Revolutionary period

can continent, and was especially faopened, religious conditions in the

vored by the civil government in sevseveral colonies had become substantially fixed. The influx of emigrants land, New York, and the Carolinas),

eral of the colonies (Virginia, Maryof various nationalities in the pre

it did not attain to a marked degree ceding half century and more had re

of prosperity in the colonial period. * E. G. Dexter, A History of Education in the When the Revolution began, it had not United States (New York, 1904); Elsie Clews,

more than eighty ministers north and Educational Legislation and Administration of the Colonial Governments, in Columbia University

east of Maryland, and many of these, Publications (New York, 1899); Charles F. outside the large cities and towns, Thwing, A History of Higher Education in

were supported by

by the English America (New York, 1906); J. B. McMaster, A History of the People of the United States 17 Society for the Propagation of the

( vols., New York, 1884–1910); John Fiske, Old

Gospel in Foreign Parts and had Virginia and Her Neighbours (Boston, 1897); Richard G. Boone, Education in the United States,

been under such support for one hunin the International Education series, vol. ii., dred and fifty years. In Virginia and (New York, 1889); P. A. Bruce, Economic His.

Maryland there were about one huntory of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century (New York, 1896).

dred and fifty ministers, and in the



Carolinas very few. The Church was largely on known figures, gives the then decidedly unpopular by reason number of ministers as 1,441 and the of its affiliation with the Church of number of churches 1,940, divided as England and the general adherence follows: Congregational, 575 minisof its ministers to the royalists' side ters, 700 churches; Baptist, 350 minisin the pre-Revolutionary period. ters, 380 churches; Episcopalian, 250 After the Revolution, however, it ministers, 300 churches; Presbyentered upon a new career of pros- terian, 140 ministers, 300 churches; perity. In 1785 all the American Roman Catholic, 26 ministers, 52 Episcopal churches were united in one churches; Lutheran, German Rebody and the first American bishops formed and Reformed Dutch, each, 25 were ordained in England by the ministers, 60 churches; Associate, 13 Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1792 ministers, 20 churches; Moravians, 12 the Church had four bishops and ministers, 8 churches. At that time, about two hundred ministers.

the population of the colonies did not New England continued to be the exceed 2,500,000 free persons. There principal seat of the Congregational was no bishop either in the Protestant denomination. With the exception of Episcopal or the Roman Catholic Rhode Island, the Congregationalists church and no school of theology. were more numerous than any other The Methodists did not exist as a religious 'sect; in all New England body distinct from the Episcopal and in Massachusetts and Connecticut Church and had no ordained minthey were more in number than all isters.* others combined. In the other colo- When the Revolution came to its nies, the Church was little known. The end, the churches were not in a healthQuakers, the Baptists, and the Pres- ful condition. The demoralization of byterians everywhere divided the re

war had adversely affected them and ligious field with the communions it was not until after the opening of earlier founded. This period was par- the next century that spiritual conditicularly noted for the marked ad- tions showed much improvement. . vance of Presbyterianism in its mem- But one thing of importance characbersip and influence, the development terized the period; that was the disof the Lutheran and the Reformed

tinct severance of the relations before Dutch churches, and the beginning of existing between Church and State. Methodism.

The majority of the people were It is not possible to ascertain the either attached to denominations disexact number of ministers and tinct from the established or semichurches in the country when the col- established churches, or were entirely onies decided to separate from England. A careful estimate, based

* Robert Baird, Religion in America, p. 120.

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