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38

CHARACTER AND OWNERSHIP OF PROPERTY.

losses during the war, it was prob- ordinary pursuits of the people; in ably nearly that in 1790. Personal New York and other colonies even property would run about a third the administration of law was susmore. All things considered the per pended to a grave extent on account capita was large and was evidence of of the divided allegiance of the peoa condition of general industry and ple, some to the king and others to the prosperity.

patriot cause. There was left little Real estate was principally in farm- record of the status and accumulaing properties, small farms in the tion of property in that period. A North, extensive manors in New considerable number of men were enYork, and Maryland, and big planta

listed in the Continental army; as tions in Virginia and elsewhere in many as 157,000 were called for by the South. Residential properties in Congress in 1776. The number actuthe few cities constituted a rela- ally in the field at any one time was tively small proportion of the real less than that, but a large proportion ostate. Personal property was made of the entire population was in the up entirely of live-stock, implements fighting ranks, and thus withdrawn of agriculture, household furnishings from gainful occupations. This was and utensils, clothing, jewelry, money, the principal reason why property ships, and products of the land. did not increase in value between 1770 Banks were not known; stocks and and 1783; but to this must be added, bonds of railroads and other indus- as another prime cause of the stagtrials had not arrived; manufactur- nation, the almost entire suspension ing as means of investment and profit of foreign commerce. was not to come for half a century. A majority of the wealthiest peo

During the Revolution there was ple in all the colonies were of the little progress in material develop- official class, or merchants whose inment. The field of military opera- terests were more or less allied to or tions' was extensive; not a single col- dependent upon the government. ony escaped. Property losses, outside Naturally, most of these remained a few localities where the military loyal to the crown when the colonies forces were most in action, were not revolted. When the patriot cause large. But the people everywhere was successful, the Loyalists fled to were so involved in the struggle for Canada and to England, leaving their liberty that other affairs were con- estates to be confiscated by the vicsiderably neglected. The local ani- . tors. But they carried some personal mosities between the patriots and the property with them. It has been esLoyalists were of such vírulent char- timated that the Loyalists of New acter that they broke up many of the York carried away with them nearly

VALUATION OF ESTATES.

39

a million in hard money.* Not less lution, we have somewhat more defithan that amount was taken from the nite figures as to amount and value of other colonies. Some of the estates property, particularly of real estate. left behind were valued at nearly Then there were in the United States £100,000; that of James de Lancey, 163,746,688 acres of land valued at for example, was worth £93,639. Eng. $479,293,203, and dwelling houses land undertook to compensate these valued at $140,683,984, making a loyal supporters for their losses and total for real estate of $619,977,247. in the final adjudication in 1788, 5,072 There were 276,695 dwelling houses individuals presented claims amount- and the number of slaves was 393,ing to £8,026,045. These figures 219. The acreage was divided among give at least a suggestion of the the States as follows: New Hampvalue of property held by part of the shire, 3,749,061; Massachusetts, 7,wealthiest class of the colonists of 831,628; Rhode Island, 565,844; Conthat time.

necticut, 2,649,149; Vermont, 4,918,Estates of the rich in Pennsylvania 722; New York, 16,414,510; New Jerand in Virginia were valued at from sey, 2,788,282; Pennsylvania, 11,959,£10,000 upward. An estate of 838; Delaware, 1,074,105; Maryland, £50,000 was exceptional. The Watts 5,444,272; Virginia, 40,458,644; North house in New York, a fine city man- Carolina, 20,956,467; South Carolina, sion, was worth £2,000 sterling. Mary 9,772,589; Georgia, 13,534,154; KenPhilipse inherited from her father, tucky, 17,674,634; Tennessee, 3,951,Frederick Philipse, an estate worth 357.* It will be observed that by far £20,000. Annual incomes of substan

the greatest proportion of land owned tial citizens ranged from £500 to was in the seven Southern States, £5,000.

over 111,000,000 acres, as compared Authorities have differed regard- with less than 51,000,000 in the nine ing the amount of specie in the col- States of the North. onies in the Revolutionary and post- The assessed valuation of property Revolutionary periods. One worker including real estate and slaves in

Blodgett — calculated that in 1774 the several States in 1788 was as folthere was about $4,000,000, and Lord

lows: New Hampshire, $23,175,046; Sheffield's figures for 1775 were about Massachusetts, $83,992,469; Rhode $9,500,000.

Island, $11,066,358; Connecticut, $48,Coming to the close of the Revo- 313,434; Vermont, $16,723,873; New

York, $100,380,707; Delaware, $6,* Thomas Jones, History of New York During the Revolutionary War, vol. iii., p. 246.

234,414; Maryland, $32,372,291; † Lorenzo Sabine, Biographical Sketches of the Loyalists of the American Revolution, vol. i., p. * Timothy Pitkin. A Statistical View of the

Commerce of the United States, pp. 417–419 (2d | Adam Seybert, Statistical Annals,

ed., 1817).

.

112.

p. 551.

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40

VALUATION OF ESTATES.

North Carolina, $30,842,372; South New York, 1885); C. C. Coffin, Old Times in the

Colonies (New York, 1880); Adam Seybert, StaCarolina, $17,465,012; Tennessee, $6,

6

tistical Annals (Philadelphia, 1818); James Cur134,108; Virginia, $71,225,127; New tis Ballagh (ed.), Economic History, 1607-1865,

vol. v., in The South in the Building of the Jersey, $36,473,890; Pennsylvania,

Nation (12 vols., Richmond, 1909); A. Burnaby, $102,145,900; Georgia, $12,061,138; Travels in America (London, 1755) ; John Fiske, , Kentucky, $21,408,090; total, $619,- Old Virginia and Her Neighbours (Boston,

1897);

J. A. Doyle, The English Colonies in 977,247. These were the figures

America (New York, 1882); F. J. Chastellux, taken by Congress as a basis for Travels in North America (2 vols., London, taxation in 1789.*

1787); W. B. Weeden, Economic and Social History of England (2 vols., Boston, 1890); J. J.

Lalor (ed.), Cyclopedia of Political Science, * Thomas Jones, History of New York Duriny Political Economy, and of the Political History the Revolutionary War and of the Leading Events of the United States (3 vols., Chicago, 1881); in the other Colonies at that period (2 vols., New Peter Force, Tracts Relating to the AmeriYork, 1879); Lorenzo Sabine, Biographical can Colonies (4 vols., Washington, 1836-46); Sketches of the Loyalists of the American Revolu- T. A. Glenn, Some Colonial Mansions and Those tion (2 vols., Boston, 1864); George Bancroft, who Lived in Them (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1899– History of the United States of America (5 vols., 1900).

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CHAPTER II.

1764-1789,

INDUSTRIES: AGRICULTURE: LABOR.

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Increase in population stimulates industries Effect of English policies on industries Shipbuilding in New

England — Number and tonnage of vessels built — Timber production -- Textile industries — Introduction of machinery and the factory system - Various articles manufactured in the colonies — Increase in iron manufactures and textiles after war Laws passed in England to harass American industry – Congress vested with power to regulate trade — Tariff bill of 1789 stimulates home industries — Northern and Middle States non-agricultural — South supreme in agricultural pursuits — Tobacco leading crop in South — Cotton production — Sugar - Rice — Hemp and flax — England prohibits exportation of machinery - Invention and improvement of machinery in America - Labor largely individual Spinning-jenny introduced Cotton factories established - Slave labor in the South — Mechanical inventions revolutionize labor conditions.

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Industries.

the country had been drawn upon Before 1770 the colonies had at

only to a moderate degree. Comtained to a position where they real- paratively narrow strips of land ized that, were it not for the restric- along the seaboard had been taken tions which the mother country up for cultivation. Acres of timber sought to place upon their commerce within sight of the shipping ports and industries, they were even then still waited for the axe and the sawcapable of being economically and in- mills. Iron mining had barely indidustrially an independent people. cated the wealth that was in store beThe enormous natural resources of neath the surface of the earth. AlGROWTH OF COUNTRY STIMULATES INDUSTRIES.

41

ready shipbuilding was going on at a if they would remain free and pace that held out promise that

prosperous Englishmen. MomenAmerica might soon outrun any tarily industry could not advance other part of the world in this line of under these conditions. In the South, industry.

agriculture continued; in New York, The growth of population — to the trade was not ruined altogether, but approximate number of between in New England and elsewhere, 2,000,000 and 3,000,000 — and the in- manufactures sank into neglect. creased demand for the things that But amid all this stress, the indusmake for comfort, refinement and

trial and commercial future of the luxury in living, had encouraged in- country was not lost sight of. The vention and had stimulated activity people lived, labored, and did busiin every line of manual labor, in ness in an atmosphere of discontent trade, and in commerce. For more

and resentment at the impositions of than a century England had persist- the mother country. Parliamentary ently sought to place burdensome laws and ministerial exactions to the restrictions upon colonial industry contrary notwithstanding, manufacand commerce, but this unstates- turing went on, crippled to be sure, manlike policy had an effect wholly but not killed; foreign trade was contrary to that anticipated by its maintained surreptitiously; obnoxiauthors. To a very considerable ex

ous restrictive laws were sturdily tent, the infant industries — agricul- ignored; and throughout this preture, manufacturing and commerce — Revolutionary period industrial and were thus seriously hampered. The commercial development went on people were forced to purchase in surely and lustily though slowly. London most of the manufactured

Home industries were maintained in articles used in the family or in the face of all discouragement when trade; they were compelled to send

the time came for the inevitable sepatheir raw material and their agricul- ration from the mother country; it tural products to England alone, was in these industries that the latent foreign trade being forbidden to strength was found which made it them.

possible to carry on the struggle to a But this experience had educated successful conclusion. them in a hard school and in a very Despite all discouragements, shippractical way. They had come to a building and the commerce which full realization of the material and naturally grew therefrom continued irreconcilable divergence in the eco- to engross the attention of the New nomic interests of the two countries Englanders and to a lesser extent the and of the necessity of achieving Southern colonists. In 1769 the numindependence

in these respects, ber of vessels built in the several

42

SHIPBUILDING; PRODUCTION OF TIMBER.

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50

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colonies and the amount of their ton- was nearly ruined by the war. For nage were:

example, the town of Newburyport

Vessels Tonnage in Massachusetts, which built 90 vesNew Hampshire

45 · 2, 452 Massachusetts

137 8,013 sels in 1772, sent only three off the Rhode Island

39 1, 428 stocks in 1778. Other shipbuilding Connecticut

50 1, 542

places showed a like falling off. The New York

19 955 New Jersey

4 83 shipyards were kept going only by Pennsylvania

22
1,469

the building of a few privateers or Maryland

20 1,344 Virginia

27 1,269

small frigates for Congress, but North Carolina

12 607 these made glorious records for South Carolina

12 789

themselves. After the war had Georgia

2

ended, there was prompt and subTotal

389 20,00.1

stantial recovery of this industry.

American shipbuilders again began The tonnage of vessels built in to demonstrate their superior skill. 1770 was 20,610, and in 1771, 24,068.

In 1789 the registered tonnage In 1772 the number of vessels built American built vessels only — of the was 182, with an aggregate tonnage United States amounted to 123,893 out of 26,544; of this number 123, which of a total tonnage of 201,562; in 1790, had a tonnage of 18,149, were built the corresponding figures were 346,in New England. At this time about 254 and 478,377, and in the following 50 vessels were built annually and year the registered tonnage had insold to Great Britain. Massachu- creased to 669,921. setts owned nearly one vessel for Timber production was as fruitful every one hundred of its inhabitants. a cause of contention between the Many were also built in that colony people and the officers of the crown on contract and for sale. At the in 1764 and thereafter as it had been time of the Revolution Philadelphia throughout the preceding one hunled the country in naval architecture. dred years and more. England was Raft-ships, constructed for carrying still in pressing need of timber for

, great loads of timber and designed to shipbuilding and other purposes, and be broken up when the voyage was

of naval stores, while the demand for ended, originated in the shipyards of timber from other lands, particularly that city.

Four of the thirteen the West Indies, Portugal and Spain, frigates ordered by the Congress in was an additional incentive to lum1775 were built there. During the bering activity. This was especially war Maryland was active in fitting true of Massachusetts, New Hampout cruisers and South Carolina was shire, and Maine, where most of this her close rival in that work.

business was carried on. Shipbuilding, . North and South, Textile industries, more than any

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