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spirit could not die: it is immortal: it still lives and breathes and throbs with ardent aspiration, in the bosoms of such as, casting off the chains of antiquated error, of respected because moss-grown absurdity, acknowledge no law but right, love no institutions but those embracing something of reason's beauty, bow at no altar but the shrine of truth. "History," says Dionysius Halicarnassensis, "is philosophy teaching by example." A character such as we have been contemplating is not without its lesson, which we proceed to consider.

It is a generally received opinion in the philosophic world, that matter tends to inertia and mind to action; but like most generally received opinions, this favorite axiom is entirely unfounded and false. I say like most, for I am satisfied that no better reason can be adduced against the truth of any doctrine, than that it is universally believed. At the expense of a digression we will briefly justify our paradox, so far as it applies to this case.

Matter has really, as D'Holbach has amply proved and illustrated, in his profound "Systeme de la Nature," a constitutional tendency to move. That great pervading spirit of the universe which is the manifest or latent cause of all phenomena; which Newton, the high-priest of nature, has shown to be alike the bond of atoms and of worlds; which the philosopher names attraction, and the poet love; is constantly, by its unseen omnipotence, impelling all matter to seek all matter; and were it not for countervailing influences of the same agency, in different modifications and directions, the atoms of the universe must converge to a point, and being of infinite parvitude would constitute one simple, unextended monad, as now one complex and spacefilling. Matter, then, always tends to motion-indeed, is always moving; for, being connected with all other matter,

when one particle, even the least molecule, is moved, the relative position of every other particle is altered; or, we may say without impropriety, that the motion is reciprocal and the universe moves-for all motion is relative, not absolute; space being but extension without limit or measuring point. This principle may be pushed further to a grand ultimatum, as ought all principles, and as they will be sought to be, by the genuine philosopher. All negatives are equally positives, and all positives relatively negatives; and they can be no otherwise regarded when we are careful to remember, what we are ever liable to forget, that infinity has not a starting point on the one hand nor a goal on the other. Had this great undeniable truth been known and ever borne in mind by dispu tants, that finite knowledge is always and can but be relative, defining only the comparative positions of things, nover essential existences, most of the innumerable contentions, both in physic and metaphysic, that have so confounded rather than enlightened men, the vain logomachies of science, would have slept unborn, although nature. has constituted our mental eyes with different intensities and diversely colored lenses, so that objects can but appear differently to different individuals, according to the personal medium of each.

To return matter, as we have seen, is motive: all matter moves when the repose of an atom is disturbed, and we surely see motion in matter daily. But even were a body at rest, it could only be so through the combined influence of opposing forces. Now, these cannot neutralize each other, as we are sometimes told, for it is a general axiom, non ens becomes not ens nor ens non ens; therefore force cannot destroy force, but antagonizing attractions produce a resultant compound motion, equivalent to a re

lative rest. All matter, then, is in constant motionindeed, can only exist in motion; it forming with heat and some others, a class of qualities as inseparable from material being as extension or solidity. I suggest these qualities would be more properly considered as elements. It may be objected that attraction is a spirit acting upon matter, and not one of its attributes; but this cannot be admitted, since of matter we can pretend to know nothing about its substratum. We are only acquainted with its qualities, and we necessarily attribute to it what we invariably find in it. Attraction falls in the category of these inseparables.

One word on the other part of the proposition. All that we know of mind is deduced from its operations, by attentively observing which we find that it never moves except when acted upon by something external to itself, whether through the senses alone, as Locke and Condillac would persuade us, or by means also of some other and more spiritual mean of communication, as seems highly reasonable to suppose, it matters not. The fact is so plainly evident from the slightest view of any man's mental operations, that it is rather surprising that it has not been more commonly observed, and affords another most convincing proof that mind is so disposed to inertia that it is almost universally considered preferable to adopt the notions of others, however erroneous and however easily discovered to be so, than to take the delightful trouble of thinking for ourselves. This is man's intellectual nature, and accordingly we find men everywhere and through all time the willing dupes of sophistry, and slaves to other men's opinions. Fearing to rebel against the tyrannical dominion of old maternal whims, which have been carefully instilled into the infant mind as of hallowed authori

ty, they have chosen rather to submit reason, imagination, faith and every other faculty of the understanding, together with every moral sense and social sentiment, to the unexamined chain of established prejudice, frequently as corroding as it is gilded by the assiduous hand of a deadening education, and as fragile to a struggling soul, rebellious with its love of freedom, as it ought to be galling, rather than make the painful effort to arouse the slumbering intellect to generous action in the holy cause of right, liberty and truth. Such has been so commonly the patient endurance of mankind, that when, as in the case before us, some daring genius has arisen in his conscious might to burst the cursed bonds of what is popularly and of course improperly termed education, to breathe the pure atmosphere of untrammeled thought, to luxuriate in the fresh fountain of nature's uncompounded affections, it speaks to others in an unaccustomed voice, with an accent of imperative power, and exhilarating sweetness: "If thou wouldst be wise, free, and happy, learn the grand secret of firm self-reliance: trust none other than thine own arm confide only in thy own heart: else shalt thou find too late, in some trying hour, that thou hast leaned for thy support upon a piercing reed or hung upon a rope of sand." It was self-confidence that inspired Bacon to question the value of Aristotle's logic after its almost undisturbed reign of centuries; to institute a novum organum, and by thus effecting a complete revolution in philosophy, to enrol his name in the temple of immortality, as the brightest' though the meanest of mankind.' It was an unshaken reliance on the resources of his own mind, that sustained Washington when the storm was loud and the night dark,' and other weaker men were tempted to des pair. Did his heart sink? "Perhaps," beautifully re


marks an anonymous reviewer, "perhaps it did, like a tempest-beaten ship, sink till it rested on the rocks of eternal justice and his own good sword, and it could fail no further." It was undeviating action on the same high principle, that raised the hero of an hundred generations from his humble Corsican habitation to the palace of Europe, and taught the world to wonder equally at the sudden transitions in his condition, the almost incomprehensible magnitude and perfectly miraculous success of his resolutions. He who would emulate great examples, who burns to be an actor of noble deeds, an originator of undying thoughts, a writer of living words, whose glow shall be unquenched by the chill, dimming breath of time, must trust himself and be so far uninfluenced by others as not to fear the frown of bigoted sensoriousness, the scorn of insolent ignorance, or the ridicule of senseless prejudice. This is the lesson in which we are instructed by Diogenes. Across the still, deep chasm of the tomb, and the oblivious abyss of more than two thousand years, a stirring voice, borne on the air that spirits breathe, comes booming on the spirit's ear, bidding us by his life of brave, God-like independence, by his example of dauntless, deathless perseverance, "be just and fear not."

Son of America, descendant of those noble bloods who, when liberty had been almost driven from earth, gave trembling kings a new proof,

"That man has yet a soul and dares be free;"

would you be a worthy son of honored sires? a useful member of community-not a dead, sinking weight on society and would you leave, departing, some memorable impress on the scroll that tells to after-times of human actions, thoughts and feelings? Remember and improve

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