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MATERIAL for the preparation of this volume has been very complete. Upon almost every chapter head there has been only too much of official documents, statements, letters, views, &c., put forth. Having reserved ample time for the production of this, the second of our three octavos, we have been able to reduce the chaos of witnesses to something like order, and to produce a narrative which we feel willing to trust to the world as the historical estimate that time must affix to the events of the Great Rebellion. It is true we have been only one year removed from these events; but, when the reader considers that the omnipotent press and the vanity of men are both exalted to a degree of communicativeness never before attained, he will realise that we have had ample means of information upon most points of historical interest. Very few are the secret archives which the agents of the press and the inquisitiveness of Committees have not explored in a twelve months' travail for facts. If new evidences do transpire, to modify the views and estimates herein embodied, it shall be our endeavor so to revise the text as to render it a correct interpretation of affairs.

Victor Hugo, in his wonderful word-picture of Waterloo, says: “There is a certain moment when the battle degenerates to the combat; when it individualizes itself, and disposes of the whole in details, which, as Napoleon remarks, 'belong to the biography of the regiment rather than to the history of the field'. The historian, hence, has the privilege of generalization. He can catch only the ensemble of the conflict; nor, is it permitted the narrator conscientious for the truth, to eliminate more than the outward form of the frightful shape (cloud) called a battle.” We have sought, in our exposition of campaigns and battles, to paint the whole—all that the future will be concerned in—avoiding those particulars of detail which must have cumbered the narrative and have confused the reader's perceptions. We can afford to leave to others the work of writing the biographies of regiments : our province is to present the history of the War for the Union in its more comprehensive and general sense. In a few instances—where the heroism of men came out clear against the battle-cloud like a signet of glory-we have permitted the pen to trace the picture in detail. Such episodes serve to intensify the general impression which it is the historian's task to produce, and, hence, are admissible.

We may repeat our thanks to correspondents for favors which have added materially to our data. We owe little to the Departments at Washington, but much to friends at lieadquarters, who, in the midst of onerous duties, could find time to answer our not always easily appeased demands for facts. Yet, after all, to the omnipotent, omnipresent daily journals do we owe most thanks. Their subtle agencies, spread everywhere over the vast field of operations—insinuating themselves into the Departments, into Bureaus, into camp and staff councils-usurping the double office of witness and judge in the discharge of their duty-official and personal expositors—are now and ever must remain the historian's resources when all others fail.


NEW YORK, April 1st, 1863.





CHAPTER I. The Inauguration of Abraham

Lincoln as President. His In-
augural Address. Its reception
in the several sections of the
Union. State of Public Feel.


II. The Press for Place. Fort Sum.

ter to be Abandoned. Effect of

the Announcement. TheConfed.

erate Commissioners at Wash-

ington. Their First Communi.

cation.' Mr. Seward's “ Meme

orandum" Reply. Attitude of

the Border States in March.

The Confederate States threat-

en to Coerce them. Richmond

in March. Reign of Terror Ini.

III. The Congress of the Seceded

States. Coercion of the Border
States. Virginia's Interest in
Slave · Breeding. Permanent
Constitution of the Confederate
States. The Tyranny Practic.
ed in its Adoption by Conven.
tions. Votes on its Adoption.
Condition of the Border States
during March. Congratulations

over the Fall of Sumter...... 21

IV. The Action of the State Conven-

tions during March.......... 25

V. Extra Session of the United States

Senate ....


VI. Lincoln's Cabinet on the Evacua.

tion of Fort Sumter. The Pres.

ident's Course. Condition of

Fort Pickens. Lincoln's Mes.


CHAPTER VI.—Continued,

sengers to Fort Sumter. State
of Public Feeling. The “Amer.
ican Society for Promoting Na.
tional Unity." Southern Con.
tempt for Northern Men. A

Specimen of Disunion False.

hood. Its Moral............ 55

VII. The Secret Hope in the South

for Peace. Governor Pickens'

Message of Congratulation.

Confidence in a Peaceful Issue.

Alexander H. Stevens' Apos-

tolate. His “ Exposition" of

the Organic Law of the New

Slave Confederacy........... 60

VIII. The Secret Preparations in New

York for Reenforcing Pickens
and Suinter. Large Naval
Force called into Commission.
List of Vessels and Officers.
Excitement Throughout the
Country. The South to Resist
Supplies being thrown into
Sumter. The Confederate Com-
missioners' Last Communica-
tion. The Military Called Out
in Washington. Response of
Public Sentiment to the now

Evident Policy of the Adminis-



IX. The Bombardment of Fort Sumter 74

X. President Lincoln's Proclamation

Calling for Seventy-five Thou.

sand Troops. Responses of the

States. The Carnival of Pat.




CHAPTER I. Proofs of the Design to “Coerce"

the United States. Davis' Call

for More Troops. The Priva-

teer Proclamation. Lincoln's

Counter-Proclamation of Block-

ade and Piracy. On to Wash.
ington! Virginia's Movements.
Letcher's Treason. His “ Re-
cognition" of the Southern Con.
federacy. The Virginia Ordi.

nance of Secession,... 87

II. Washington in Danger. States'

Patriotism. The Record of

Massachusetts. March of her

Troops. The assault in Balti-

more. State of Public Feeling.
Correspondence with the Presi-
dent. Occupation of Anna-
polis .....


III. Disloyal Attitude of the Border



IV. State of Feeling in the North.

Consolidation and Fraterniza-

tion of all Classes in Support of

the Administration. Words of

Douglas, Caleb Cushing, Ex-

President Pierce, General Cass,

Everett, and others, to the Peo-
ple. The Commercial Com.
munity. Its magnanimous De-
votion to the Cause of the Union.
The Chamber of Commerce
(New York) Resolutions. The
Churches of the North. Extra-
ordinary Spectacle of Flags on
Church Spires. Action of Va.
rious Denominations. The

Reign of Patriotism..... 101

V. Major Anderson in New York.

Excuse for not Reenforcing him.

Fort Pickens Safe. Particulars

of its Reenforcement. The Har.

per's Ferry Destruction and

Evacuation. The Norfolk (Gog.

port) Navy-Yard Destruction.

Particulars of the Affair. Move.

ment of Troops upon Annapo.

lis. Operations of the “Union

Defense Committee.” Wash.


CHAPTER V.-Continued.

ington Safe. Reception of the

New York Seventh.......... 109

VI. Maryland in the Throes of the



VII. Extraordinary Session of the Con-

federate Congress, Davis' Mes-
sage. Its Perversions and Pur-
poses. The Act Declaring A
“ State of War." Special Leg-
islation. Virginia Adopted into

the Confederacy. The Occupa-

tion of her Soil. Its Purpose.

The Confederate Currency Sys-



VIII. Military Activity of the South.

Governor Pickens' Address.
Governor Moore's Call to Arms.
Disappointment and Chagrin at

the Desertion of their Northern

Friends. Defiance of the North.

Defamation of Northern Sol.

diers. Shocking Falsehoods

Concerning the President.

Troops Moving into Virginia

from the South. The Women

of the Confederate States..... 136

IX. Military Movements in the North.

Enormous Coutributions of
Funds by Legislatures, Cities,
&c. Governor Curtain's Mes.
sage. The President's Procla-
mation for Three Years' Troops.
The Blockade Enforced. The
Military Departments Created.
Scott's Plan of Proceeding.
The Cairo Camp. Movement
of Troops. Doings of Butler in


X. Virginia...


XI. The Crisis in Tennessee. A Dark

Page in History. The Seces-

sion in North Carolina and Ar.



XII. The Crisis in Missouri. Her AC-

tion and Position Toward the

Federal Government up to the

Final Defection of Governor

Jackson, June Thirteenth.... 158

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VII. Halleck's Conduct of the Depart-

ment of Missouri-November


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