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in having & co-operation with our Border sister | But, if we become divided—if schisms arise—if disSlave States, if the worst come to the worst, that sensions spring up-if factions are engendered-if as we are all co-operationists, we are now all for party spirit, nourished by unholy personal ambi. independence, whether they come or not.”

tion, shall rear its hydra head, I have no good to The speaker then con- prophesy for you. Without intelligence, virtue, Mr. Stephens' Expo

integrity, and patriotism on the part of the people, gratulated the Southern

no republic or representative government can be people that the revolution

durable or stable. had been bloodless, and promised so to be

“We have intelligence, and virtue, and patriot-a statement which he felt constrained to ism. All that is required is to cultivate and permake, in order to throw the responsibility of petuate these. Intelligence will not do without hostilities upon the Federal authorities, and virtue. France was a nation of philosophers. These thus to render the cause of the South just in philosophers became Jacobins. They lacked that the eyes of the conservative classes. He said: virtue, that devotion to moral principle, and that

“ I was not without grave and serious apprehen- patriotism which is essential to good government. sion, that, if the worst came to the worst, and cut. Organized upon principles of perfect justice and ting loose from the old Government would be the right-seeking amity and friendship with all other only remedy for our safety and security, it would powers—I see no obstacle in the way of our upbe attended with much more serious ills than it has ward and onward progress. Our growth, by acces. been, as yet. Thus far we have seen none of those sions from other States, will depend greatly upon incidents which usually attend revolutions. No

whether we present to the world, as I trust wo such material as such convulsions usually throw shall, a better government than that to which they up, have been seen. Wisdom, prudence, and pat belong. If we do this, North Carolina, Tennessee, riotism have marked every step of our progress and Arkansas cannot hesitate long; neither can thus far. This augurs well for the future, and it is Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri. They will neces. a matter of sincere gratification to me that I am sarily gravitate to us by an imperious law. We made enabled to make the declaration. Of the men I met ample provision in our Constitution for the admission in the Congress at Montgomery (I may be pardon- of other States; it is more guarded, and wisely so, ed for saying this) an abler, wiser, a more conser

I think, than the old Constitution on the same vative, deliberate, determined, resolute and patri- subject, but not too guarded to receive them as fast otic body of men, I never met in my life. Their

as may be proper. Looking to the distant future, works speak for them; the provisional govern

and perhaps not very distant either, it is not beyond ment speaks for them; the Constitution of the the range of possibility, and even probability, that permanent government will be a lasting monument

all the great States of the North-west shall gravi. of their worth, merit, and statesmanship.

tate this way, as well as Tennessee, Kentucky, Mis“ Bat, to return to the question of the future: souri, Arkansas, &c. Should they do so, our doors What is to be the result of this revolution ? Will

are wide enough to receive them, but not until everything, commenced so well, continue as it has they are ready to assimilate with us in principle.” began? In reply to this anxious inquiry, I can

As to the prospect of an open rupture with only say, all depends upon ourselves. A young the North, and civil war, he said: man starting out in life on his majority, with health, The prospect of war is, at least, not so threat. talent, and ability, under a favoring Providence, ening as it has been. The idea of coercion may be said to be the architect of his own fortunes. shadowed forth by Mr. Lincoln in his Inaugural, His destinies are in his own hands. He may make seems not to be followed up, thus far, so vigorously for himself a name of honor or dishonor, according as was expected. Fort Sumter, it is believed, will to his own acts. If he plants himself upon truth, soon be evacuated. What course will be pursued integrity, honor, and uprightness, with industry, toward Fort Pickens and the other forts on the Gulf, patience, and energy, he cannot fail of success. is not so well understood. It is to be greatly desired So it is with us; we are a young Republic, just en. that all of them should be surrendered. Our object tering upon the arena of nations; we will be the is peace, not only with the North, but with the world. architect of our own fortunes. Our destiny, under All matters relating to the public property, public Providence, is in our own hands. With wisdom, liabilities of the Union, when we were members of it, prudence, and statesmanship on the part of public we are ready and willing to adjust and settle, upon men, and intelligence, virtue, and patriotism on the principles of right, equality, and good faith. the part of the people, success to the full measure War can be of no more benefit to the North than to of our most sanguine hopes, may be looked for. I us. The idea of coercing us, or subjugating us, is

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utterly preposterous. Whether do so. The Constitution makes Ur. Stephens' Expo- the intention of evacuating Fort no such provision. A General

Mr. Stephens' Expo Sumter is to be received as an Convention of all the States evidence of a desire for a peaceful solution of our has been suggested by some." difficulties with the United States, or the result of

Without proposing to solve the difficulty, necessity, I will not undertake to say. I would fain he barely made the following suggestion : hope the former. Rumors are afloat, however, that

“That as the admission of States by Congress un. it is the result of necessity. All I can say to you,

der the Constitution was an act of legislation, and therefore, on that point is, keep your armor bright

in the nature of a contract or compact between the and your powder dry.

States admitted and the others admitting, why should “ The surest way to secure peace is to show your

not this contract or compact be regarded as of like ability to maintain your rights. The principles and

character with all other civil contracts--hable to position of the present Administration of the United

be rescinded by mutual agreement of both parties ! States—the Republican party-present so puz

The seceding States have rescinded it on their part. zling questions. While it is a fixed principle with

Why cannot the whole question be settled, if the them never to allow the increase of a foot of slave

North desire peace, simply by the Congress in both territory, they seem to be equally determined not to part with an inch of the “accursed soil." Notwith branches, with the concurrence of the President, standing their clamor against the institution, they giving their consent to the separation, and a recog.

nition of our independence? This he merely offerseem to be equally opposed to getting more, or letting go what they have got. They were ready to ed as a suggestion—as one of the ways in which it fight on the accession of Texas, and are equally might be done with much less violence to construc

tions of the Constitution than many other acts of ready to fight now, on her secession. Why is this?

that government. The difficulty has to be solved in How can this strange paradox be accounted for?

some way or other-this may be regarded as a fixed There seems to be but one rational solution, and that is, notwithstanding their professions of humanity, they are disinclined to give up the benefits they With this exposition the Confederates derive from slave labor. Their philanthropy yields were willing to rest their case. Sustainto their interest. The idea of enforcing the laws has ing its views, they went into battle, the but one object, and that is a collection of the taxes

aggressors and assailants; defending its asraised by slave labor, to swell the fund necessary to sumed prerogatives, they wasted their best meet their heavy appropriations. The spoils are blood and treasure. That the sentiments what they are after, though they come from the proclaimed were repulsive to the spirit of labor of the slave. He alluded to the difficulties and

every civilized people in Christendom did not embarrassments which seemed to surround the

affect Southern polity and purpose: to own question of a peaceful solution of the controversy

a “nigger” was the end and aim of every rewith the old government. How can it be done? is perplexing many minds. The President seems to

volutionist. The Confederate Constitution think that he cannot recognize our independence, was to secure and perpetuate that "inestinor can he, with and by the advice of the Senate, / mable privilege to every logal Southerner.”










THE “War for the yard, the steam frigates Minnesota, Mississippi, Great Naval Move.

Union" may be said to and Colorado, and the brig Bainbridge, were

have been opened, on the being hurriedly refitted. Commodore Stringpart of the Federal Government, by the ham, it was understood, would assume commovements in New York harbor early in mand of the Southern Squadron,* making April. The activity apparent in the Brook- the Minnesota his flag-ship. lyn navy-yard, in putting vessels into com

* This Squadron, and its service, were determined upon mission, was followed (April 4th) by the ap

as early as March 25th, at which date the orders went forth propriation of the Collins ocean steamers for the commissions and rendezvous. It was composed as Baltic and Atlantic to Government service.

follows: Soon the California steamer Illinois was add

Commander-in-Chief-Flag-Officer Silas I. Stringham. ed to the number. All of these large and Second in Command-Flag-Oficer G. J. Pendergrast. swift vessels were loaded with extraordirary expedition with heavy cargoes of provisions,

Captain-G J. Van Brunt.

Commander-Case. munitions, forage, and horses, while quarters

Lieutenants-Worden, Wainwright, Badger, Johnson, Foswere prepared on the Baltic for a regiment ter, Mitchell, Wilson. of troops. The steam frigate Povhatan, of Chief Engineer-Franklin Johnson. eleven guns and three hundred men, was

Captain-Henry A. Adams. called into commission, and in three days'

Lieutenant and Executive Oncer-J. R. M. Mullany. time was turned from “ordinary” into sail- Lieutenants-George P. Welsh, Wm. H. Murdagh, Robt ing condition. She put to sea on the morn- F. R. Lewis, L. H. Norman. ing of April 6th, as convoy to the Atlantio.

Acting Master--Wm. P. McCann.

Surgeon-11. G. Delaney. The Harriet Lane, steam revenue cutter, of five guns and ninety-six men, had already Captain—John Marston. put out of the Narrows, followed by the Lieutenants--First, Alexander Murray; Second, John S steam tugs Uncle Ben and Yankee. The

Maury; Third, James H. Rochelle; Fourth, Chas. H. Greene

Fifth, Thomas 0. Selfridge. steamer Water Witch, at the Philadelphia

Surgeon-Thomas Dillard. navy-yard, was put in commission April 5th. All these vessels acted under sealed orders, Captain-Chas. H. Poor.

Executive Officer-Lieutenant J. D. Todd. and the public could only surmise as to their

Lieutenants-W. W. Low, M. P. Jones, G. E. Belnap. destination. The steam frigates Roanoke and

Surgeon-John 0. C. Barclay. Wabash, the steam corvette Savannah, and the brig Perry, at the Brooklyn navy-yard, Captain-James Glynn. were being hurried into condition for com

Lieutenanta-Matthias C. Marin, Somerville Nicholson,

Samuel R. Franklin, William H. Ward, Charles A. Babcock. mission. At the Boston (Charlestown) navy

Surgeon-William Grier.





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The movement of troops | ment. Matters were managed with much
Movement of Troops. toward New York, from discretion, and the public could only conjec-

interior stations, added to ture the destination of the troops, trans-
the feverish excitement now existing in all ports, and vessels of war.
circles. Captain Barry's artillery and two The watchful friends of

Preparations of the
companies of the Second infantry reached the South, in the North,
Fort Lafayette on the morning of April 5th. gave full information of
A company of sappers and miners, and sev- these preparations; while the enterprising
eral companies of the Third infantry, were daily journals of the metropolis vied with
already in the fort. At Fort Hamilton four each other in details of proceedings, and in
hundred and ninety-one men were quartered, guesses at the truth. As a consequence, in-
ready for immediate duty. Colonel Harvey creased activity and excitement prevailed in
Brown, of the Second infantry, was in com- the Confederate States. Troops were thrown
mand, and, togother with Captain Foote and into Charleston and Pensacola, in large bod-
Lieutenant Almy, acted with unceasing vigi- ies – these positions being regarded as the
lance in expediting the orders of Govern-points menaced.

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Captain-William Walker.

Lieutenant Commanding--T. A. M. Craven.
Lieutenants-_James A. Doyle, J. C. Williamson, Albert Lieutenants-J. M. Duncan, J. E. Jewett, and A. E. K.
W. Smith, William N. Jeffers, William Mitchell, H. A. Benham.

Passed Assistant Surgeon-J. W. B. Greenhom.
Surgeon-Lewis W. Minor.

Engineers-First Assistant, J. A. Grier; Third Assistants,
Engineers, Joshua Follansbee, W. B. Brooks, Marshal P.

L. Campbell, 0. H. Lackey, and J. D. Lining.

Jordan, James W. Wittaker, Henry Snyder, E. F. Mayer, Jr.,
John K. Neill.

Lieutenant Commanding—John L. Davis.

Lieutenants-Charles H. Cushman, Thomas H. Eastman.

Engineers—First Assistant, Charles H. Loring; Second As-
Captain-Samuel Mercer.

sistant, Edward Scattergood; Third Assistant, Reynolis
Lieutenants-Egbert Thompson, Thomas C. Harris, and

George Brown.

Surgeon Joseph Wilson, Jr.

Chief Engineer-Harman Newell.

Captain Alexander Gibson.
Engineers--First Assistants, Wm. J. Lamdin and James

Lieutenants-C. H. B. Caldwell, James S. Maxwell, Alfred
F. Lamdin; Second Assistants, J. McElmell and John Purdy; Hopkins.
Third Assistants, William H. Gladding, E. Laws, and H. C. Assistant Surgeon-A. W. Sandford.


Lieutenant Commanding James Madison Frailey.
Captain-Samuel F. Hazard.

Lieutenant-James M. Bradford.
Lieutenants—Van R. Morgan, Beverly Kennon.

Past Assistant Surgeon-Francis M. Galt.

The transports and tugs chartered, up to April 8th, con-
Engineers-First Assistant, E. W. Manning; Third Assist- sisted of the following vessels :
ants, George H. Riley, Henry Wright, and David Smith.


Coatzacoalcos.. 1.000 Ocean Queen........ 1.500)

1.000 Yankee...

Lieutenant Commanding-Abner Read.


2,000 | Thomas Freeborn...... 320 Lieutenants—J. R. Eggleston, J. M. Stribling.



1,500 Total........ 9,720
Assistant Surgeon-Algernon S. Garnet.
Engineers,First Assistant, W. H. Cushman; Third Assist

The Home Squadron, at the date of April 6th, was distri

buted as follows :
ants, M. H. Plunkett, K. Wilson.

Minnesota...... Ready for commission at Boston.

Water Witch... Went in commission at Philadelphia, Apl. 5th.
Captain J. Faunce.

Powhatan..... Sailed from New York harbor, April 6th.
First Lieutenant-D. B. Constable; Second, H. 0. Porter; Brooklyn......Of Fort Pickens, March 23d.
Third, J. M. Thatcher; Fourth, Horace N. Gamble.

Crusader....... Sailed from New York, March 18th.
Surgeon-J. N. Campbell.

Cumberland ...Flag-ship, Norfolk, March 234.
Chief Engineer–J. R. Dryberg; First Assistant, Walter

Falmouth...... Moored at Aspinwall.
Scott; Second, C. G. Dale; Third, F. F. Pulsifer.

Mohawk .. Sailed from New York, March 18th.

Macedonian.... Vera Cruz, March 25th.
Lieutenant Commanding-James H. Strong.

Pawnee........At Washington, March 27th.
Lieutenants-Alphonse Barbot, E. T. Sheddon, C. C. Car- Pocahontas..... Norfolk, March 20ih.

Sabine... Off Pensacola, March 23d.
Assistant Surgeon-Delavan Bloodgood.

St. Louis.......Off Fort Pickens, March 23d.
Engineers First Assistant, John S. Abert; Second Assist Supply......... New York for Gull, March 23d.
auts, E L Dick, Geo. D. Emmons, and Edward C. Patten. Wyandotte ....Off Fort Pickens, March 23d.



The Confederate Commissioners' last


Preparations of tho A dispatch from Charles- | diplomatic Commission of the Confederate Revolationists to ton, dated April 6th, read: Congress to the Federal Government at Resist.

** Reliable information has Washington. As stated [see page 18), the been received from the North, that reinforce Southern Commissioners ments are ordered to Fort Sumter, and will be ac- did not call for the reply companied by a squadron under command of Com- to their first communicamodore Stringham.

tion to the Department of State. The rea“Five thousand Southern men, in addition to sons, and the Commissioners' view of affairs those at present in the fortifications, are ready to in the interregnum, will appear in their letter take the field within twenty-four hours.

to Mr. Seward, of April 9th, which was at “ The ultimatum, siege or surrender, has not yet

once a plea and a declaration of hostility been sent to Major Anderson; but with the supplies sent to-day, he was notified by General Bean against the United States Government. It

read as follows: regard that they are the last, which is equivalent to a declaration of hostilities. This is positive.

WASHINGTON, April 9th, 1861. “ Troops have been ordered to rendezvous at “ Hon. Wm. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State points remote from Charleston, but within support

of the United States, Washington: ing distance, to watch the movements of the enemy. “ The Memorandum (see pages 16–17] Cated They move at once.

Department of State, Washington, March 15th, “Governor Pickens has all day been inspecting 1861,' has been received through the hands of Mr. the batteries, accompanied by a portion of his J. T. Pickett, Secretary to this Commission, who, Council and senior officers of the army. Everything by the instructions of the undersigned, called for it throughout was in a state of efficiency. Bloodshed

on yesterday at the Department. is inevitable, and if one drop is spilt, no one knows “ In that Memorandum you correctly state the when it will end.

purport of the official note addressed to you by the “A formal demand for the surrender of the fort undersigned, on the 12th ult. Without repeating has not been made, and may not be made at all. the contents of that note in full, it is enough to say

“For obvious reasons, the intentions of the Con- here that its object was to invite the Government federacy are involved in mystery.

of the United States to a friendly consideration of “ The excitement is intense, and everybody is in the relations between the United States and the fighting humor."

seven States lately of the Federal Union, but now All doubts as to the pur- separated from it by the sovereign will of their Lincoln's Arowal of his Policy.

poses of the Federal Ex- people, growing out of the pregnant and undeniable

ecutive were dispelled by fact that those people have rejected the authority the arrival, at Charleston, April 8th, of of the United States, and established a Government Lieutenant Talbot, as a messenger from the of their own. Those relations had to be friendly or War Department at Washington, to say that hostile. The people of the old and new Governan unarmed steamer would proceed to sup-stand to each other in the relation of good neigh

ments, occupying contiguous territory, had to ply Fort Sumter's garrison with provisions. bors, each seeking their happiness and pursuing The Lieutenant had previously arrived at their national destinies in their own way, without Washington (on the morning of April 6th) interference with the other, or they had to be rival as a messenger from Major Anderson, to say and hostile nations. The Government of the Con. that, supplies of fresh food from Charleston federate States had no hesitation in electing its having been cut off, the garrison would be choice in this alternative. Frankly and unreserved, forced to surrender at discretion, from starva- seeking the good of the people who had intrusted tion, if supplies were not thrown in, or the them with power, in the spirit of humanity, of the evacuation ordered. He returned, as stated, Christian civilization of the age, and of that Amerito Charleston to announce the determination canism which regards the true welfare and happiof his Government to provision the garrison,

ness of the people, the Government of the Confede. at all hazards. That reply sounded the toc undersigned to approach the Government of the

rate States, among its first acts, commissioned tho sin of war.

United States with the olive branch of peace, and Before proceeding with the narrative of

to offer to adjust the great questions pending bethe remarkable military events which quickly tween them in the only way to be justified by tho followed, we will here close the story of the consciences and common sense of good men who


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