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overwhelming testimony offered by the Re- Douglas thought the admission was so clear that publicans of their entire and utter devotion he might include all the Republicans in it without to the Union in its integrity. They believed offense. In the course of his remarks he said that the best way to preserve the Union and save

the triumph of the Republicans had brought on disthe country from the calamities of present union, and God only knew what consequences were

to grow out of it. and future insurrection, was to stand by the

Howe inquired whether he understood that the Constitution, so wisely framed by the found- election of Mr. Lincoln, or somebody else, had ers of the Government—that amendments caused a dissolution of the Union. of it under compulsion would prove dis- Douglas answered: If he had succeeded in de astrous, unwise and wicked. Therefore, they feating the Republican party, thereby rendering it opposed the amendments proposed, pre-certain that the policy of that party would not be ferring to consider them when the revolu- carried into effect, the Southern people would have tionists were again citizens, instead of men rested in security, and the Union would not have in arms against their country.

been dissolved. The running debate which followed, as

Howe inquired, What policy? briefly reported for the press, was as follows: Republicans make war on the institution of slavery

Douglas replied: The sectional policy ; because the Douglas, in reply to Clark, Douglas on the Ro. said, no doubt the Senator from

as a great political and moral evil. publicans. New Hampshire entertained the

Howe denied that the Republicans are a sectional

party. They were in favor of maintaining the auopinion that, even if disunion was the result of a refusal to consider amendments, the Republicans thority of the whole people of the Union. would still refuse.

Douglas said that depended on what the Senator Clark said he could judge of amendments only meant by the word " sections.” The Republican when they were proposed; he should deprecate party was based on hostility to slavery wherever it

exists, (and, to the extent that where the Constitucivil war as earnestly as the Senator from Illinois. Douglas replied : Yet, when the question of war or

tion does not prohibit, interference.) amendment to the Constitution is proposed, he un

Howe, in the course of the debate, wished to derstood the Senator to be against all compromise. know, if the Douglas principles would have saved Clark said distinctly, he believed they could stand

the Union, and the Republicans had adopted them, on the Constitution better than anywhere else, and why there was not peace ? avoid war by taking that position. Propositions of

Douglas replied: Because the Republicans would compromise had demoralized the Union feeling ;

not acknowledge it, and kept the people in the

dark. for, failing to get those, persons had become disunionists. In further response to Mr. Douglas, he

The reference, by Mr. Douglas, to the said, the time is not far distant when the laws will question of Slavery in the Territories, which be enforced all over the Union, without the use of called out the Kentucky Senator, was as fol. bayonets.

lows: Douglas-Still, nobody can deny that seven States “ From the beginning of this have expelled the Federal authority.

Government down to 1859, Douglas vs. Brecken

ridge. Clark inquired whether the Post-office did not run slavery was prohibited by Conthe mails in those States yet ?

gress, in some portion of the Territories of the United Douglas believed it did, but with the leave and States, But now, for the first time in the history of permission of those States. Those through whose this Governmert, there is no foot of ground in America hands the letters go might open or violate them, where slavery is prohibited by act of Congress. Yon, yet no punishment could be inflicted.

of the other side of the Chamber, by the unanimous Clark-Suppose Congress shall clothe the Presi. vote of every Republican in this body, and of every dent with the power to collect the revenue on ship- Republican in the House of Representatives, have board? Could not this be done ?

organized all the Territories of the United States on Douglas supposed it could, but he had been the principle of non-intervention, by Congress, with speaking of the laws as they are. He regarded the question of slavery-leaving the people to do an this as an admission from the Republicans, that they they please, subject only to the limitations of the do not mean to collect the revenue till the laws are Constitution. Hence, I think the Senator from Ken. nhanged.

tucky fell into a gross error of fact as well as of law Clark did not wish the Senator to take the admis. when he said, the other day, that you had not abated sion as including anybody but himself.

one jot of your creed-that you had not abandoned

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your aggressive policy in the passed a law to protect Slave property in a Terri. Douglas vs. Brecken.

Territories, and that you were tory; Congress has never passed a law to protect ridge.

now pursuing the policy of ex- any kind of property whatever, in a Territory. * * cluding the Sonthern people from all the Territories Hence, every man, either from the North or South, of the United States. * * * There never has may go into the Territories with his property on been & time since the Government was founded, terms of exact equality, subject only to local laws; when the right of the Slaveholders to emigrate to and Slave property stands on an equal footing with the Territories, to carry with them their Slaves, and all other kinds of property in the Territories of the to hold them on an equal footing with all other United States. 'property,' was as fully and distinctly recognized in all

“ Instead, therefore, of not having either of the the Territories as at this time, and that, too, by the unani

terms prescribed by the Senator from Kentucky, mous vote of the Republican party in both Houses of the Southern States have them both. What cause Congress.

is there of complaint ? In view of these facts, I “ The Senator from Kentucky has told you that shall expect the Senator from Kentucky to go back the Southern States, still in the Union, will never to his native State, and, in that language of bril. be satisfied to remain in it unless they get terms liant oratory which I cannot repeat, from every hill. that will give them either a right, in common with top, in every valley, upon every smiling plain, reall the other States, to emigrate into the Territories, joice that old Kentucky has at last got justice and or that will secure to them their rights in the Terri. equality' in the Territories of the Union. So far as tories on the principle of an equitable division. legislation is concerned, the Southern States have These are the only terms on which, as he says, those got all they ever asked." Southern States now in the Union will consent to

Breckenridge replied, on remain. I wish to call the attention of that distin

Breckenridge vs.

Tuesday, to this section of guished Senator to the fact that, under the law as


Mr. Douglas' well-argued il now stands, the South has all the rights which he claims. First, Southern men have the right to emi speech. Recurring to the history of the grate into all the Territories, and to carry their Kansas bill, and his participation in its passSlave property with them, on an equality with the age, he said he had voted for it in the House citizens of the other States. Secondly, they have an of Representatives, and defended its princiequitable partition of the Territories assigned by ples as they were understood by Southern law, viz.: all Slave territory up to the thirty-seventh gentlemen, and a respectable number in the degree, instead of up to the parallel of thirty-six degrees Northern States. The friends of the measure thirty minutes a half-degree more than they claim. differed on one point-it was the question

“ The Senator was, therefore, mistaken, both in of Territorial power. He did the Senator las and fact, in supposing that the South has been from Illinois the justice to say that the latter excluded. He will not say that the Kansas-Nebras. had uniformly held that a Territorial Legiska bill excluded the South; he will not say that the

lature, during the Territorial condition, bad Compromise measures of 1850 excluded them ; nor can he say that the Territorial bills passed this year

the power to exclude Slavery. He (Breckexcinde them; for they are all on the same basis, enridge) entertained a different opinion. Eo far as the question of Slavery in the Territories is Failing to agree on that point, the friends concerned. Under the laws as they now

of the bill agreed to make it the subject of a stand, in every Territory of the United States, with- judicial decision, and not of legislative deout any exception, a Southern man can go with his termination. If any principles were settled, Elave property on equal terms with other property. 'he (Breckenridge) understood them to bo All persons and all property go into the Territories

these: first, that a Territorial question should of the United States subject to the local law. Con. be in submission to the Constitution of the gress has nothing to do with local legislation for United States; second, that the subject of che protection of persons and property in the Ter

Slavery was to be determined by a judicial ritories. All that Congress does is to organize the

decision ; and third, that all should acquiesce Territory, define the jurisdiction of the Territorial

in the decision when rendered. In his government, allow the people to elect a Legislature, and to make laws for the protection of their (Breckenridge's) opinion, a decision was renown persons and property. Congress has never dered in accordance with his views. All yet passed a law to protect cattle, horses, or mer. that he meant to declare was, that while he chandise in the Territories; Congress has never yet, was the friend of the Kansas bill, he never

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held to the authority and calculated to mislead. It seemed to him that Breckenridge us.

power of a Territorial Le- the Republican party was hardening and conDouglas.

gislature, pending the Ter- solidating every day, and one of the calamiritorial condition, to exclude property in ties of the time was its arraying itself in Slaves.

solid phalanx on its distinctive principles in The Senator from Illinois had committed the face of tremendous events. If it gives up a great error in saying the Republicans had a fort it does so with tears, and declares that ever abandoned any of their essential prin- it is done not for civil but for “military reaciples. Was it not strange that the Senator sons.” For the government, the most radica? alone was aware of such an important fact? and aggressive men have been selected. For Were Virginia and the obstinate Confederate the Cabinet, for foreign missions, for Senators States aware of this fact ? and, he might ask, and other officers, the most radical men have were the Republicans aware of it? It was been chosen. The Senate had been confirmglorious if it was true; would that it were ing every day men who have trampled the so! No man would hail it with more de- Constitution under their feet, and refused to light than himself. What was the evidence recognize the obligation to return fugitives of this great conversion? Some weeks ago from labor—men who have boasted, on the the Territories of Nevada, Colorado and Da- floor of the House of Representatives and cotah were organized by Congress without elsewhere, that they had been personally consaying anything in regard to African Slavery. cerned in running off Slaves. This evidence There was nothing in this to show that the looks in any other direction than that of Republicans have abandoned the “essential yielding any of the aggressive or distinctive principles” of their party. They did not features of the Republican party. This is the possess the power to put anti-Slavery pro- cause which had sundered this Confederacy, fessions into these bills. It was said by Re- and if not remedied would sunder it still publicans that they have no risk in the omis- more. sion. If they had supplied it, the President He charged that it was the purpose and could have vetoed the bills. The Repub- design of the Republican organization to exlicans were only anxious to have the Territo- clude, directly or indirectly, from every Terries organized, that they might have a share ritory, every citizen of every Southern State of the government property, and make ap- who desired to carry with him there his Slave pointments of officers, etc., and this was property. in other words, the Republicans heralded to the world to show that the Re- do not intend that Slave property shall be publicans have perfected principles of patriot- recognized in any Territory of the United ism and abandoned their “essential princi- States. These are the principles of the Reples,” and that the South have obtained publican party, and unless the people drive more than they ever asked for.. Ile would them from power they will carry their prin ask the Republicans here, whether they have ciples into execution. We have been looking abandoned any of the distinctive principles since the 4th of March on a disrupted Conof their platform ?

federacy. While seven States have been Collamer, of Vermont, answered the query: consolidating their power, and have been “Not that we are aware of.”

looking at the discontents in other States, Breckenridge said he those of the border had been earnestly enBreckenridge vs. Douglas.

would be no party to de- deavoring to bring about a reunion of the

ceiving his constituents. States. Yet, he deeply regretted to say, he There was no Republican who would say that had seen no evidence on the Republican his party had given up one word of the plat- side to meet these endeavors half-way. The form on which the present Administration Border Slave States cannot reunite this Con. was brought into power. Ile could have no federacy. The majority of the non-Slavepart in practicing a deception on the people holding States alone have the power to do of Kentucky. To say that the South hac' so, and he expressed the opinion with grief got more than it claimed, is premature and | but with a firm conviction, that, unless with

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in a short time the Republicans manifest a ' of Colorado, Nevada, and spirit to give the “equality" which the Bor- Dacotah had been organ- Douglas' Retort, der Slave States claim, the question will be ized on the basis of the solved in one of these ways: we may drift Kansas-Nebraska bill. All those Territories into civil strife, if the people are allowed no were organized on the principle of non-interopportunity to speak; if we have not civil | vention by Congress, leaving the people to strife, then a peaceful separation by treaty. decide the Slavery question as they pleased, If the Republican statesmen and their friends subject only to the limitation of the Constituremain firm, rigid, and determined, there can tion, and leaving the courts to ascertain what be no other result than to drive the Border the limitation is. This is all the South have Slave States into a union with the Confeder- ever asked. The Republicans have abanate States, in the belief that the government doned the Wilmot proviso and congressional represents the true principles of the old intervention, and repudiate congressional Federal system. If the Border Slave States prohibition of Slavery. The Senator would hold a Convention, which seemed probable, not deny that. He did not ask the Senator and the people of the non-Slaveholding from Kentucky to say that the Republicans States deem it their duty to reject such have abandoned all their essential prinpropositions as may be essential, then, the ciples. He did not ask him to do anything disruption of the Union will be inevitable to to promote their interests. He (Douglas) the extent of fifteen States, and at no distant did not believe in the political creed of day the new Confederacy will be the largest that party, and did not believe that the best on this continent.

interests of the country would be promoted To this Mr. Douglas an- by the exercise of their power; still, he preDouglas' Retort.

swered, evidently with the ferred the Union under a Republican Ad

design of forcing his old ministration to none at all. Inasmuch as it antagonist to the direct question of Union or was true that they have recognized the rights Disunion. He repeated his former points, of the South in the Territories, and have not and reaffirmed that the Slave-holding States attempted to repeal the Slave code of New had no complaint to make. They have got Mexico, this fact should be proclaimed by their just proportion and just rights in all every loyal Union man. He demanded that the Territories of the United States. He every fact and truth that could be uttered, could not conceal his surprise that the Sen- should be uttered by every man to allay secator from Kentucky denied all the positions tional strife, to calm the irritation in the he had assumed. The Senator, after saying Slaveholding States, and to restore reason in that, if the Border Slave States could not get order that we may hereafter succeed in seone of the propositions laid down by him, curing such constitutional guarantees as shall and having insisted that there was no hope prevent civil strife, and restore the Union. in this particular, remarked “that Kentucky, He then proceeded to show from the Inaugufrom mountain peak to mountain peak, and ral that Mr. Lincoln acknowledged the duty from every valley and smiling plain, would of Federal protection to Slave property, ring forth the cry of justice and equality." that it was the duty of Congress to pass laws His (Douglas") object was to demonstrate affording such protection, and that it is the that there was no cause for such action, and duty of the Federal officers to execute the that Kentucky had justice and equality in laws. Hence, the Senator from Kentucky the Territories, according to the tests pre- mistook when he said that there was no inscribed by the Senator himself, and that stance in which Federal protection would there is an equitable division on the line of not be afforded. thirty-seven, a half-degree further North than Breckenridge, being thus

Breckenridgo's Ro. Mr. Crittenden's proposition claimed. The pointedly assailed, again Senator from Kentucky had not attempted took the floor for reply. to disprove this. He was too prudent to He reiterated that he had seen no evidence of make the attempt. He knew the Territories the Republicans having abandoned their



principles. The Senator- | from power, in order that these questions Breckenridge's Re

who by turns had been the might be adjusted on constitutional principles,

eulogist and denouncer of Douglas retorted saying, the Republicans-said they had acted in a that, although Brecken- Douglas' Last Word. spirit of patriotic devotion to the whole coun- ridge would not go back try, and desired to give equal rights to all the and tell his constituents that the people of States; that they had particularly abandoned the Slave States stood in a better position their principles as to Slavery in the Territories. than ever, as regarded their rights in the He would not charge the Senator with the Territories, the fact still remained as he purpose to misrepresent him, but that Sen-|(Douglas) had stated it, and the desire of his ator called attention to two paragraphs in heart was that the people of Kentucky, and his (Breckenridge's) speech. He said that of every State in the Union, should be made he (Breckenridge) had declared that the aware of it. He, too, desired to put the Border Slave States could not remain in the Republican party out of power, but he would Union except on equal terms, or without an not foster unkind feelings in the South for equitable division, and that the South had party purposes.

He would tell the truth no right to believe that they would receive about the Republican party, even if it operthe protection and recognition they ask. ated to their credit. Now, the inference to be drawn from this Breckenridge suggested that Douglas now was, that he (Breckenridge) was in favor of ask the Republicans here the reason for precipitating Kentucky out of the Union. omitting, in the Territorial bills, any alluThe Senator from Illinois had given a slight sion to, or prohibition of, Slavery. Douglas twist to his language. He (Breckenridge) answered that, as already stated by himself, did say, on more than one occasion, that the they had so acted from patriotic considerdominant party had manifested, by the acts ations to prevent a further disruption of the of their representatives, that they will not

Union. He wanted to crush down every abolish Slavery in the States; that, as equal Disunionist in Kentucky. He wanted to States, they could not remain in the Union strengthen his (Breckenridge's) hands. The when the property of all of them was not to Senator had told them of his devotion to the be recognized or protected.

Union, and he (Douglas) wanted to save The Union was broken already, and, unless the country and the valuable services of the some energetic, manly efforts were made to Senator from Kentucky for the next six settle the question on broad national princi- years. And, he repeated, that he wanted to ples, the Union will be broken still further. strengthen his hands and the hands of every It could not be saved by persuading the peo- other man, and to show that Kentucky is ple that the Republicans have abandoned the safe, even under a Republican Administraprinciples to which they still adhere. Such tion, and to put down secession in every a declaration was calculated to produce ap- other State of the Union. prehension and injurious effect. President The yeas and nays were finally called on Lincoln recognizes a qualified property in a motion to lay the Douglas resolution of Sluve labor within the Slave States; but, at inquiry on the table. It resulted in yeas 23, the same time, he, in his Inaugural, recog- nays 11. So the resolution was tabled. nizes the enunciation of the Chicago Plat- Breckenridge then asked leave to offer the form, that the normal condition of all the following:

Resolved, that the Senate Territories is freedom, &c. This is the con

recommend and advise the re

Sundry Significant viction and principle of the majority on this moval of the United States floor, as well as of the President himself and troops from the limits of the Confederate States.'' his party. Was it not, therefore, belittling Clingman had also prepared one, covering to say that the Republicans have abandoned the same ground, which he offered, viz. : their essential principles, when all their ma- Resolved, That, in the opinion of the Senate, it is chinery is leveled against Slavery? He expedient that the President withdraw all Federal would be glad to see the Republicans driven I troops from the States of South Carolina, Georgia,


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