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Governor Letcher's

skirmish, found himself in and as many taken prisoners. A herd of catThe Expedition Against Huntersville. possession of the place. It tle was secured and driven into Romney, to

was, as reported, a heavy gether with all the wagons, stores and amsupply depot. Six buildings were filled with munition of the rendezvous. Colonel Blue stores, chiefly provisions—flour, beef, groce- did not persecute his neighbors of Union prories, forage, &c. These were all fired and de- clivities any more that season. The Federals, stroyed. The assailants retired the game in returning, disgraced their cause by firing afternoon, as the alarm had spread to other several houses on the way-an act for which posts and lhe rebels were hurrying up to Kelley was justly indignant, but for which save their precious possessions. They came no one was punished. too late—their winter food was in ashes, and

We cannot close this Staunton, thirty miles away, had to be resort- chapter of Western Virgi

Fulmination. ed to for supplies.

nia history without advertKelley's troops in Rom-ing to Governor Letcher's fulmination (JanuaExpedition Against Blue's Gap.

ney broke the ennui of ry 6th, 1862) against the Federal Adminis

picket and guard duty by tration for its “ unconstitutional” course in an expedition to Blue's Gap where Colonel recognizing the Western Virginia (Union) Blue had gathered a considerable body of Government, and for its other acts of violence “ bush whackers” who annoyed the country toward the “Mother of Presidents.” We much by their operations. The Federal force give the document in the Appendix. It is at consisted of the Fourth, Fifth, Seventh and once the Southern indictment of the AdminEighth Ohio, Fourteenth Indiana and First istration* and the Southern Declaration of Virginia, with two companies of cavalry, perpetual enmity of the North. Those who Danvers', and a section of Howard's battery, plead the cause of the South will find, in this in all about two thousand five hundred men message, the b ads of their discourse manuunder command of Colonel Dunning of the factured to ord er. We therefore append it, Fifth Ohio. It moved out just after midnight that none who wish to judge from a hearing January 6th. The night was very cold but of both sides of the question may be without the march was rapid and the vicinity of the the proper data. If we have, from our own Gap was reached just after day-break (7th). stand-point of loyalty to the Union—the The rebels were not entirely surprised, how- Union even before the Constitution, it may ever, for Dunning's advance skirmishers found be-severely judged the course of the Secesthem tearing up the flooring of the bridge sionists in Cabinet and Convention, it shall leading over the stream coming in through not be said we have made an exparte exposi. the Gap. The Fifth Ohio rushed on over tion of the questions involved. We have the bridge, secured Blue's house and obtain given (some readers will say to an immoderate ed a negro woman as guide to the enemy's extent) every“ representative" Southern stronghold up on the mountain. No delay document, and can hope for no fuller justifioccurred. The entrenchments on the hill were

cation of our views and inferences than will carried by assault—the Fifth Ohio doing the come from that class of dispassionate and work. The rebels stood for five rounds, then discriminating readers who first read everybroke and ran, as the Ohioans began to swarm thing the Southern leaders have to say in in over the embankments. The Fourth Ohio their own defense. was at hand to catch the flying ragmuffins, * The reader will remark a striking similarity beof whom thirty-five were secured-as hard tween this document and those emanating from the looking creatures as the mountains could opposition" Governors in the Northern States, produce, their ugliness only inferior to their elected in the fall of 1862. A sequent of the likeness ignorance. Blue's property was burned to would naturally be an assimilarity ofo sympathy as the ground. Forty of the enemy were killed well as of constitutional views.

66

CHAPTER IX

TIE ARMY

MCCLELLAN'S COMMAND IN CHIEF. OPERATIONS OF
OF

THE POTOMAC FROM NOVEMBER 18T, 1861, TO 1st,

1 86 2.

FEBRUARY

McClellan's Repudiation of Stone's Move.

ment.

ment.

MCCLELLAN, in his sub- waq, therefore, held closely McClellan's Repudiareport (Nov. 1st) to the along the Maryland line of tion of Stone's Move

Secretary of War regarding the river opposite, with the Ball's Bluff disaster, and referring to his headquarters at Poolesville and Darnestown, orders to General Stone of October 20th, ex- having an army quite sufficient to keep the pressly stated that he “did not contemplate enemy at bay until such time as McClellan's an attack upon the enemy or the crossing of advance should compel the enemy to concenthe river in force by any portion of General trate his entire strength to the south, to cover Stone's command.” This is confirmatory of his own menaced capital. This is the simour statement (see page 343] that Stone alone ple history of that long, inactive campaign was responsible for the movement in force in camps along the Upper Potomac. Why a over the river. In that report McClellan also portion of the “grand army” was not spared declares the advance upon Dranesville made to press down the Shenandoah valley, or why by McCall, October 19–20, was but a recon- Rosecrans was not so strengthened in the noissance, from which he was ordered to re- Kanawha valley as to threaten Richmond tire again to his old camp at Langley's, Oc- from the west, are among the unexplained tober 20th, and McCall so did retire, October matters of the fall of 1861. Bad roads and 21st. The gradual withdrawal of the enemy want of transportation were the excuses offrom McClellan's front was not followed by fered at the time by apologists; but, that exa corresponding evacuation of their positions cuse lost its popular effect when urged as the on the line of the river above Washington, sole reason for the loss of every campaign or and the General sought by his diversions heavy movement which ended disastrously to either to drive the rebels back from Leesburg our arms. and Harper's Ferry or to give them a chance The key to General Mc

Clellan's Supremato show if their intent was to try and retain Clellan's movements during the line of the Upper Potomac. The result the four months succeeding of the battle of Ball's Bluff was such as to in- bis installation as General-in-Chief is found duce a recall beyond the Potomac of all the in the mere fact of his appointment to that forces ordered forward to sustain Stone's position after what had transpired between movement, since it demonstrated the imprac- Scott, McClellan and the War Department. ticability of holding ground in face of the Under date of October 4th, 1861, the Generaladverse concentration indicated. The en-in-Chief, complained of McClellan's insubortrenchments thrown up at Leesburg indicated dination-citing evidences of glaring breaches the enemy's design to retain their positions of military usage and of the Articles of War. above Washington.

After citing the evidence Scott wrote: This retirement, and the falling back of “Has, then, a senior no corrective power over a Geary from Bolivar Heights after his gallant junior officer in case of such persistent neglect and action on the 16th of October, gave the Con- disobedience? The remedy by arrest and trial befederates the entire possession of the country fore a Gourt-Martial would probably soon cure the from Harper's Ferry to Leesburg. Banks evil; but it has been feared a conflict of authority

cy of Command.

a

near the head of the army would be highly enconr- ten of cavalry and twentyaging to the enemies and depressing to the friends two batteries

The Grand Army.

all field of the Union. Hence my long forbearance, and forces, exclusive of those manning the defenses continuing (though but nominally) in duty. I shall of Washington, which were numerous and try to hold out till the arrival of Major-General Hal: powerful erections, more or less elaborate in leck, when, as his presence will give me increased construction and occupying an arc stretching confidence in the safety of the Union and, as I am unable to ride in the saddle or walk, by reason of from Great Falls, ten miles above Washington, dropsy in my feet and legs and paralysis in the to the Accotink Creek, fifteen miles below the small of the back, I shall definitively retire from the city.* As the regiments were all then very army."

nearly up to the standard, (1010) the force There is a volume of history in this para- ready for the advance was above one hungraph. If McClellan was named to the posi- dred thousand. In this estimate it will be tion after the citations of a superior officer perceived the troops of Banks, Dix, Lander, charging him with insubordination, all au- Wool, &c., are not included, although each thority over him was at an end. He was of these commands performed its part of the supreme.

programme for pressing back the enemy. The Grand Army.

The position and strength These figures only represent the strength of

of the several divisions of the divisions represented in the first grand the Army of the Potomac when the forward review, Nov. 20th, in which seventy thousand movement upon Manassas was, apparently, splendidly equipped men participated. Not entered upon, were about as follows:

a day passed up to the 28th of January, 1862, I. General George A. McCall, at and opposite that accessions were not made to the arms of Great Falls, stretching down to Langley's; twelve all kinds above enumerated, until McClellan regiments infantry; one of cavalry; two full batte confronted the Confederate seventy thousan. ries.

in and around Manassas with twice seventy 11. General Wm. F. Smith, at and opposite Chain thousand of as superb soldiers as the world Bridge, with lines advanced to Miner's Hill: ten regiments of infantry; one of cavalry; two bat

ever beheld.

A reference to the SumIII. General Fitz-John Porter, with lines from Mi- mary, No. VI., will advise ner's Hill to Falls Church: thirteen regiments of in the reader of the several reconnoissances and fantry; two of cavalry; three batteries.

advances made during November, December IV. General Irvin McDowell, from Falls Church any January by McClellan's force. Slowly to líunson's Hill: eleven regiments of infantry; one as his troops pressed outwardly, by the very of cavalry; thrée batteries.

weight of numbers, the Confederates withdresy V. General Louis Blenker, from Munson's Hill to--first from Munson's Hill, then from Vienna, one mile south of Mason's Hill : eleven regiments then from Fairfax C. H. The advance from of infantry; one regiment of mounted riflemen; two

the northern wing of the army was, however, batteries.

VI. General Wm. B. Franklin, from Blenker's less marked. Up to Dec. 20th, when the lines to Springfield : twelve regiments of infantry; heavy skirmish at Dranesville occurred, the one of cavalry; three batteries.

division of McCall had not permanently adVII. General Sam'l P. Heintzelman, from Spring- vanced from the camp in front of the Falls. field to the Accotink and Alexandria road : seven That skirmish proved the enemy to be on the regiments of infantry; one of cavalry ; two batte- alert. Although the rebel force then engaged ries.

was but a foraging party under Stuart, from VIII. General Edwin V. Sumner, west bank of Centreville, the intervening fifteen miles of Potomac below Alexandria : twelve regiments of

country was daily scouted by them, while infantry; one of cavalry; three batteries.

beyond, in the “ Valley of Virginia,” their IX. General Erasmus D. Keyes, at and around Springfield (on the Orange and Alexandria rail- | cannonaded Dam No. 5 at their pleasure, and,

possession was almost undisputed. They road): seven regiments of infantry; one of cavalry; two batteries.

* See pages 342–43 for list of separate works con. Here were ninety-six regiments of infantry, stituting these defenses.

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teries.

McClellan's Advance.

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“ Eastern Counties

Jackson's Advance,

on the 20th, shelled it with great fury in , was one of those marked defects of the cemhopes of accomplishing its destruction, thus paign which no good authority has yet acto render impossible Federal communication counted for or excused. by the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. On the The “eastern counties" 17th Jackson marched from of Virginia, lying east of

Occupation of the Winchester to Martinsburg the Potomac, were invaded with five thousand men. At the latter place by orders from General Dix dated Nov. 13th. he was reenforced by about two thousand About four thousand troops under command seven hundred. He bore with him boats for of General H. H. Lockwood passed into Aca puntoon, proving that his purpose was to comac and Northampton counties on the 17th, cross the Potomac. He struck the river at by transports from Baltimore, and a permaa point three miles below Williamsport, where nent occupation made. The proclamation the cannonade of the dam above referred to prepared by General Dix was published and transpired. That furious waste of powder very freely disseminated. Its tone certainly and shell evidently covered the rebels' real was not like that of an enemy. We may design, which was a descent on Williamsport, quote:

"The military forces of the United States are about to secure the heavy store of flour and salt

to enter your counties as a part of the Union. They deposited there, as well as to lay hands on

will go among you as friends, and with the earnest the specie of the Washington County Bank. hope that they may not, by your own acts, be forced The rapid concentration, at that then much to become your enemies. They will invade no rights exposed place, of the regiments of Generals of person or property; on the contrary, your laws, Hamilton and Williams' commands, however, your institutions, your usages will be scrupulously prevented the passage of the rebels at Falling respected. There need be no fear that the quietude Waters; and thereafter the demonstration of any fireside will be disturbed, unless the disturbseemed to be confined to the destruction of ance is caused by yourselves. Special directions the dam. The artillery duel which followed , have been given not to interfere with the condition was of the most exciting nature. Best's and of any persons held to domestic service, and, in or. Knapp's batteries responded from the Federal der that there may be no ground for mistake or preside-the first against the enemy's position at

text for misrepresentation, commanders of regiments

and corps have been instructed not to permit any Falling Waters, and Knapp, with his two such persons to come within their lines." Parrott pieces, protecting the dam.

The most effective reassurance appeared to The forces above Wil- be in proclaiming that runaway negroes Lander's Operations.

liamsport were of Lander's should be bayonetted back to their masters. command. This gallant officer was placed in As Henry A. Wise's plantation was thus pro charge of the “ Department of Harper's Ferry tected in its “ property” the “invasion,” even and Cumberland,” created by General Order to that arch enemy of the Republic, was not 91, October 24th, with the design of cover- so serious a matter, after all. The malignant ing working parties on the Baltimore and return made for such clemency (see Letcher's Ohio railroad between these points. His Message, Appendix, page 524,] placed the troops were composed of Maryland and Vir- Federal authorities, viewed with reference to ginia volunteers—raw levies, but effective, for succeeding events, in a very absurd predicaunder his vigilant eye they soon became skil- ment; but, that was the policy then prevailful soldiers. Protecting their own property ing, East and West; the status of the negro they were doubly interested and so secured was not to be disturbed even though his the line of that road around Cumberland as bondage gave the greatest possible “aid and to render that point safe, though the general comfort to the enemy." There were nine want of energy in crowding the enemy back thousand slaves in the two counties to a white from the line of the river, from Williamsport population, before the rebellion, of about to Leesburg, really left Lander only a post thirty-three thousand; but many of the whites occupation at Cumberland. The failure to

were then in arms against the Union. Those occupy Leesburg, Harper's Ferry and the remaining outwardly welcomed the advent neck opposite Williamsport, in November, I of the Federal forces: covered by the ægis

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“ Fastern Counties."

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of such a proclamation, offices—State, county and municipal—by alleged Occupation of the

what had they to complain authority from the Commonwealth of Virginia, in

of or to fear? Lockwood disregard and violation of the declaration of the landed at Newtown, Maryland; then march-people of Virginia, represented in Convetion at the through to Horntown, then to Drummond-city of Wheeling, on Thursday, June 13, 1861, and

of the ordinances of said Convention, and of the town,

where the United States flag was found acts of the General Assembly, held by authority of flying before the Court House. The militia, said Convention. It is therefore ordered, by direcorganized under Letcher's orders, voluntarily tion of the President, that if any person shall beredisbanded; every Confederate flag and sym- after attempt within the State of Virginia, andor the bol of rebellion disappeared, and the occupa- alleged authority of said Commonwealth, to exer. tion proved a source of prosperity to the cise any official powers of a civil nature, within the people. To the rebels it was a sore aflliction, limits of any of the commands of the occupying since they drew from those two counties im- forces of the United States, unless in pursuance of mense supplies of cereals and forage. All the declarations and ordinances of the Convention commerce with the western shore was sus

assembled at Wheeling on the 13th day of June,

1861, and the acts of the General Assembly, held by pended; the light-houses along the river

authority of said Convention, such attempt shall be were relit; the Courts and County offices were

treated as an act of hostility against the United reopened; and, generally, affairs assumed a

States, and such persons shall be taken into military pleasant face. Lockwood, in his sub-procla- custody. Commanding officers are directed to enmation, dated Drummondtown, Nov. 23d, force this order within their respective commands. authorised the “judges, magistrates, and “ By command of other civil officers to continue in their several

• Major-General MCCLELLAN. offices and perform all and every function of

“L. Thomas, Adjutant-General.” the same conformably to the Constitution of It is to be regretted that partizan “politics” the United States, the law of Virginia, previ- with its baleful breath for power, ere long ous to the ordinance of secession,' except so

came forward to create a new State of Westfar as modified or changed by any subsequent ern Virginia, whose limits only extended on act of the Legislature sitting in Western Vir- the east to the western crest of the Alleghiaginia, and the laws passed by said Legisla- nies—thus leaving all that portion of Eastern ture, sitting in Western Virginia, subsequent Virginia occupied by our forces without a to the passage of said act of secession.” The civil loyal power for recognition. That only additional requirement was for the ofiice such a creation was unconstitutional is plain holders to take the oath of allegiance to the to any reader of the Constitution. It says United States.

(Art. IV. sec. 3.): Official AckeowledgeThis acknowledgement,

“New States may be admitted by the Congress ment of the Western by the Federal officers, of into this Union; but no new State shall be formed Vriginia Governinent. the authority of the West

or erected within the juri. diction of any oiher State,

nor any State be formed by the junction of two or ern Virginia Legislature, was in furtherance

more States--without the consent of the Legislaof the Executive policy in the treatment of

tures of the States concerned as well as of the Con. the case. It was a sound procedure, which

gress.” only had to be adhered to, to cloak all of

The wiser-nay, the shrewder-policy was Virginia with the vestment of loyalty when to recognize the Western Virginia Governthe State should all be redeemed. General ment as the State Government de facto of Order 99, dated Nov. 14th, and issued from Virginia, as was done in the above orders. headquarters, made public the administrative The subdivision of the State is another of the policy adopted. It read:

sins of commission for which the Federal ** HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,

Congress and President must answer. ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE, Nov. 14, 1861.

It is well here to look over the lines to see Complaint has been made to the President of the United States that certain persons within the how the enemy regarded affairs, in a military State of Virginia, in places occupied by the forces sense, at the close of the year 1861. That of the United States, claim to be incumbents of civil | they were both jubilant and depressed the

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