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VEMBER 18TH, 1861, TO FEBRUARY 1ST, 1862.

Halleck's Assumption

of Command.

MAJOR-GENERAL Henry fugitive slaves who are admitted within our lines. Wager Halleck arrived in In order to remedy this evil, it is directed that no St. Louis November 18th, such persons be hereafter permitted to enter the lines of any camp, or of any forces on the march, 1861, to assume the department command. and that any now within such lines be immediately Orders indicating his field of labor and auexcluded therefrom. thority (issued November 9th) assigned to his department the States of Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Arkansas, and that portion of Kentucky west of the Cumberland River. This was Fremont's De

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By order of Major-General Halleck.

"Assistant Adjutant General."

This, though professedly a military mandate, was a declaration of policy. It

Order Number


partment of the West," shorn of some of its western extension. The General reached at once banished the " inevitable negro" from St. Louis to receive at General Hunter's the field by bayonetting him back into slavhands the somewhat disorganized forces re-ery-thus reassuring slave owners that, so turned from the Springfield advance. A council of Generals of divisions was convened at once. The retreat from Springfield had thrown open the State to rebel invasion, and Halleck learned, in a few days' time, that he had a most momentous work on hand to save the southern and central sections from devastation. He entered upon his labors with a calm energy at once indicative of self-reliance and a thorough mastery of his situation. Among his first orders was that afterwards called the "celebrated number three"-the text of which read:



"I. It has been represented that important information respecting the numbers and condition of our forces is conveyed to the enemy by means of

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far as the Department of Missouri was concerned, their "property" was to be driven back to them in event of its escape to the Federal lines. Construed even by the light of military propriety, it was impolitic. Scarcely a general or regimental officer in the field but confessed his indebtedness to fugitives from slavery for valuable information. Indeed, most of the valuable information came from these unhappy creatures, who would do and dare any peril to reach the Union lines. The very word "fugitives” implied their wretched estate--they were fleeing from a worse tyranny than those loyal whites who fled for protection to the Federal arms. Why were they banished? Did some of the blacks make wrong reports, owing to their ignorance and credulity? If, for the

want of intelligence of a few the many were | Southern Confederacy would seem too much to suffer, why was not the rule enforced like a bad bargain for the Confederates. against the white fugitives-many of whom, [See Appendix, page -, for the "Convenit was notoriously true, conveyed very exag- tion" by which the State was given away to gerated and untruthful information? It was the Confederates. It is one of the precious a proscriptive and unnecessary edict, and documents of the year illustrative of the off one which the commanding General soon hand manner in which a few individuals sold had good reason to regret. The sentiment States and disposed of places like any other of loyalty was against it-the sentiment of private property.] Prior, humanity was against it-the sentiment of therefore, to his march law was against it; and it was but a dead northward Price issued letter from the date of its issue. The Presi- from Neosho a proclamation-his last and dent qualified Fremont's notes of freedom, most powerful appeal to the people for their but he did not qualify Halleck's order. He co-operation in the effort to drive the "inwas, at that particular moment, under the vaders" from the State. We quote, as indiinfluence of the potion administered by the cative of its tenor and tone: Border State politicians.*

The Rebel Advance.

Price's Neosho Proclamation.

"When peace and protection could no longer be enjoyed but at the price of honor and liberty, your chief magistrate called for fifty thousand men to drive the ruthless invaders from a soil made fruitful by your labors, and consecrated by your homes; and to that call less than five thousand


The rebels pressed north with the double intention of reaching the Missouri river above Jefferson City and of striking into Kansas. This movement was ordered from Neosho and Spring- responded. Out of a male population exceeding field in three divisions—the right wing, under General McBride, 6000 strong, resting on Stockton, in Cedar county; the left wing, 5000 strong, under General Rains, holding a position at Nevada, Vernon county; the centre, 5000 strong, commanded by Price in person, was, at that date (Nov. 25th) near Montibello, Vernon county. General McCullough having refused to co-operate in this crusade, had retired previously, to the Arkansas Valley for supplies and winter quarters. This left the entire responsibility with Price. The issue proved the Texan ranger to have been the wiser soldier, since one month later beheld Price fleeing in haste with his disordered ranks, to seek rest and shelter in the bosom of the Ozark hills. The ex-Governor, however, had another wish than military success to persuade his movements. He could not abandon the State with his forces, for then the transfer of the Commonwealth to the

* Come to

two hundred thousand men, one in forty only step-
ped forward to defend with their persons and their
lives the cause of constitutional liberty and human
rights. * * Where are those fifty thousand
men? Are Missourians no longer true to themselves?
Are they a timid, time serving, craven race, fit only
for subjection to a despot? Awake, my country-
men, to a sense of what constitutes the dignity and
true greatness of a people. *
us, brave sons of Missouri, rally to our standard. I
must have fifty thousand men. I call upon you iz
the name of your country for fifty thousand men.
Do you stay at home to take care of us and your
property? Millions of dollars have been lost be
cause you stayed at home. Do you stay at home
for gratification? More men have been murdered
at home than I have lost in five successive battles.
But where are our Southern rights'
friends? We must drive the oppressor from our
land. I must have fifty thousand men. Now is the
crisis of your fate-now is the golden opportunity
to save the State-now is the time of your political
salvation. The time for enlistment for our brave


* Halleck himself soon qualified it. See his orders band is beginning to arrive. Do not hold their pato Asboth, Appendix, page


To explain the causes of his "secession" from Price, McCullough was cited to Richmond, His backward movement had taken place upon Fremont's occupation of Springfield. It was this which gave rise to the charge preferred against Fremont that he was being duped by the rebel leaders, who wished to draw him on into Arkansas.

tience beyond endurance-do not longer sicken their hearts by hope deferred.' They begin to inquire, where are our friends? Who shall give them an answer! Boys and small property holders have in the main fought the battles for the protection of your property, and when they ask, where are the men for whom we are fighting? how shall I, how can I, explain? Citizens of Missouri! I call upon you, by


every consideration of interest, by every desire of | 4th, occurred these warlike safety, by every tie that binds you to home and citations:


Halleck's Decisive


country, delay no longer; let the dead bury their 66 Commanding officers of disdead, leave your property to take care of itself;tricts, posts and corps are directed to arrest and commend your homes to the protection of God, and place in confinement all persons in arms against merit the approbation and love of childhood and the United States, or who give aid, assistance or womanhood by showing yourselves men, the sons encouragement to the enemy. of the brave and free, who bequeathed to us the sacred trust of free institutions. Come to the army of Missouri, not for a week or a month, but to free your country.

"Strike till each armed foe expires!
Strike for your altars and your fires!
Strike for the green graves of your sires!
God and your native land!'"

And much more in the same strain. This patriotic cry for help was accompanied by the articles of agreement referred to above, by which the Southern Confederacy became responsible for the pay of all troops called into, or who voluntarily enlisted in the service.

The General's rhetoric succeeded less

than his bayonets in influencing any but ragabonds to enter his ranks. It is to be doubted if any army of twenty thousand men ever was gathered whose lists embraced more worthless fellows than that which Price commanded during his second campaign in Central and Western Missouri.

Governor Jackson's


"All property belonging to such persons which can be used by the army, will be taken possession of for that purpose, and all other property will be examined by a board of officers and sold according to army regulations.

"All persons found in disguise as pretended loyal citizens, or under other false pretences within our lines, giving information to or communicating with the enemy, will be arrested, tried and shot as spies.


Persons now employed or enlisted in the service of the so-called Confederate States, who commit hostility, will not be treated as prisoners of war, but punished as criminals, and be shot or less severely punished, according to the rules of war.

"In consequence of large numbers of Union fami

lies and non-combatants having been plundered and driven from their homes in a destitute condition, and thousands of such persons are now finding their way into this city, the Provost Marshals are directed to ascertain the condition of persons so driven from their homes, and under the military law of retaliation, quarter them in the homes and feed and clothe them at the expense of avowed secessionists, who, although they do not themselves rob and plunder, give aid and encouragement, abet and countenance the acts of their fellow-rebels."

We should, in this connection, also refer to the commingled proclamation, address and appeal published by Governor Out of this order (General Order No. 13) Jackson in a New Madrid journal, Dec. 16th. grew numberless complaints, recriminations It repeated his thrice published "views" of and appeals. Though just, in a military affairs, and recited the history of the six sense, it was not faithfully enforced. Secesmonths campaign in a strain of congratula- sionists were arrested to some extent, but tion calculated to inspire the hopes of a good soon found their way to liberty again, doubly time coming to his cause. The object of this embittered by their "persecution." Persons document was to induce his six months men enlisted in the cause of the Confederacy were to remain in the army-to reenlist in the Con- not treated as criminals and shot, probably federate service for the war, which he prom- under fear of the lex talionis, which the Conised should be but a brief and glorious strug- federates, from practice, knew well how to gle. He also authorized the State Guard execute. Some levies were made upon the to reorganize and to enter the Confederate secession sympathisers of St. Louis to sustain lists. His appeal for troops ran the gamut the refugees, but not to the extent demanded of terms from imprecation to prayer. He had by the wants of those suffering loyalists. tronsferred the State to the Confederacy- Against this General Ornow he would transfer his constituents if he der and another especially could. It was like the wail of an Irish "wake" aimed at marauders, bridge —the cry of one for the dead. burners and guerrillas, General Price protestHalleck's orders were numerous and im-ed, threatening retaliation. Under guise of portant. In a series published December communications on the subject, he succeed

Price's Protest and

Price's Disposition.

ed in getting three or four spies within the | ties north of the Missouri
Federal lines, until, at length, Halleck re- river, and simultaneously
plied: "No order of yours can save from
punishment spies, marauders, robbers, incen-
diaries, guerrilla bands, &c., who violate the
laws of war." Yet, though the country
swarmed with these "irregulars," none were
dealt with according to orders: not a cut-
throat was hung, not a guerrilla shot, not a
bridge burner made to taste the halter. At
this time Tennessee dungeons and gallows
were crying aloud with the blood of Tennes-
see citizens; yet, the Confederate authorities
had the effrontery to characterize Halleck's
orders as “inhuman," while a bloody retalia-
tion was threatened for his "monstrous pro-
cedure." General Price but practiced the
dissimulation common to almost every Con-
federate leader from Jefferson Davis down to
Colonel Wigfall.

to burn railway bridges, rolling stock and
stations. This was to occur on the 20th of
December when the entire rebel force was to
assume the offensive and defensive on the
line of the river, with the ultimate design of
foraging for supplies in Kansas and Iowa. It
was a boldly conceived enterprize but im-
practicable owing to the superiority of Hal-
leck in men and supplies. A number of
valuable bridges were burned on the North
Missouri and on the Hannibal and St. Joseph
railways, and some rolling stock destroyed.
The rapidity of Halleck's combinations, how-
ever, arrested the general destruction de-
signed by the ambitious Price.

Order Closing the


An order issued December 13th, closed the Missouri and Mississippi rivers to commerce, except under military surveillance. An immense contraband transportation was carried on by means of the rivers and their tributaries, and Halleck at once addressed himself to its suppression. The fleet of gunboats then gathered at Cairo and St. Louis, gave him a sharp police, and soon the rebels found it hazardous business to communicate with their sympathising friends in St. Louis and up the Missouri. Up to that date much provisions, clothing, medicines and not a small quantity of arms found their way down the Mississippi, chiefly by means of small boats pulled down-stream in the darkness, or under the shadows of the shores.

Price concentrated his Price's Disposition. forces at Osceola, early in December. Halleck's disposition was such as to hold the rebel there. The Confederates took up a camp position five miles from the town, leaving General Rains with his division in the place. All through the western and central counties the enemy swarmedtheir plundering and murdering propensities preferring the "detached service," of which Price himself was chief administrator. He arranged, as one means of carrying out the objects of his campaign, to "raise" the coun

Halleck's Counter

December 13-15th, General Prentiss in command at St. Joseph, moved down toward Lexington, where the rebels then were in occupation, and from which point Price's army drew enormous supplies in provisions, clothing and men-the counties contiguous voluntarily contributing, it is said, more to sustain the Confederate cause than all the rest of the State. With Prentiss' movement General Hunter co-operated. His forces were so disposed as to concentrate north or south of Lexington as might be required. A dispatch dated Tipton, Dec. 16th, said: "Yesterday orders were received here for all the forces at this post to hold themselves in readiness to march at a moment's notice. At the same time General Pope, commanding the Department of Central Missouri, at the head of nearly all the troops in winter quarters at Otterville, marched westward towards Warrensburg, for the purpose, it is generally believed here, of cutting off General Price, whom our scouts reported making forced marches to reach Generals Slack and Stein, now in the intrenchments at Lexington. Every body is on the qui vive for startling and good news, as universal confidence is felt in the ability and bravery of General Pope and his army."

The point of interest again became Lexing. ton. It was soon diverted to a point about twenty miles to the south of the river, in the vicinity of Warrensburg, whither Pope had moved to plant himself between Price and

Pope's Advance from


the river. Pope disposed his forces with ingenuity and manœuvred them with consummate skill. Strong detachments were left at Laurine bridge, Georgetown, Sedalia, and at a point twelve miles southwest of the latter place-dispositions made to blockade all the avenues of communication between Price's camps-then at Rose Hill and Clinton, north of the Grand river branch of the Osage, and at Osceola and Lexington. Pope's main body pushed on toward Clinton, but he shrewdly diverged from the Clinton road thirty miles from Sedalia, bearing to the west for the purpose of cutting in between Clinton and Rose hill. But, to lure out Price, a cavalry force of two hundred and fifty men under Major Hubbard, drawn from the First Missouri, pressed on to Clinton. Only the enemy's pickets were found there, and Hubbard dashed on, driving in the out guards until he had gone twelve miles beyond Grand river toward the Osceola (main) camp. He then turned northward again, securing his prisoners (sixty in number) and a considerable quantity of supplies, horses and arms. This bold dash into its very lines greatly excited the Osceola camp; but Price did not come out as hoped. He only prepared for retreat.

The Pursuit from

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toward Clinton, hoping to bag more of Price's supplies and recruits. About one hundred of the unwary were secured, together with several wagons of stores.

Pope now directed his march to Warrensburg, from whence he proceeded eastwardly to a point about half way to Knob Noster, where the Clear Fork creek crossed the direct Warrensburg and Sedalia road. There he arrived on Thursday, Dec. 19th, to learn from his scouts that the heavy supply train of which he was in pursuit was at Milford, only seven miles away, on the north side of the Blackwater river nearly opposite the mouth of Cedar Fork creek.

The Capture at

From Milford two roads diverge-one to Warrensburg and one to Sedalia. Pope at once dispatched two bodies of cavalry, under Colonel Davis and Major Marshall, to approach the town by both roads. Colonel Jefferson C. Davis took the Warrensburg route, and just before dark came dashing up to the Blackwater. Davis, with a battalion of the Iowa cavalry, passed from the approaching road, designing to ford the river by swimming if necessary, in order to reach and surprise the enemy's right; while the remainder of his forces-composed of companies B, C and D of the Fourth cavalry, regulars under command of Lieutenant Amory, pressed on over the narrow bridge. The rapid evolutions of the regulars anticipated Davis' movements. They crossed over at high speed to send consternation into the rebel camps; and Davis came up (having fail

The main body of Pope's two brigades, after diverging from the Clinton road, struck out for Chilhowe, a point between Rose hill and Clinton. The Federal cavalry rode over the surrounding country, picking up great numbers of men and a large quanti-ed to ford the stream owing to its deep and ty of stores traveling south from Lexington for Price's camp. The enemy's force at Rose hill, about twelve hundred in numbers, becoming informed of Pope's approach suddenly fled-taking a direct road to the south; nor did they restrain their weary soles until the Osage was passed at a point south of Johnston. Pope dispatched the regiments of Colonels Brown and Foster, with a strong force of cavalry, and a section of flying artillery in pursuit; but the rebels were too fleetfooted-they all escaped. The pursuit was discontinued at Johnston-the cavalry and artillery returning direct to Chilhowe, while Colonel Foster, with the infantry, passed up

swift current) to find the whole affair settled: Amory had received the surrender of the camp and contents. This prize was found to consist of Colonels Robertson and Alexander, Major Harris, Lieutenant-Colonel Rob inson, seventeen Captains, thirty Lieutenants, one thousand three hundred and forty privates, one thousand stand of arms, one thousand horses and mules, sixty-three wagonloads of supplies, besides rations, small arms, saddles and extra clothing claimed by the privates.

A writer from the scene of action, said of these really admirable operations: "During the six days' absence of this expedition

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