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POSTIARTER GENERAL'S DEFENBB
For the War Department...... 360,159,986 61 | On the 1st day of July, 1862, the
617,372,802 93 For the public debt
On the 1st day of July, 1863, the Redemption .... $2,883,364 11
public debt will be......
897,372,802 93 Interest on debt
Here was a debt whose magnitude placed contracted before
us beside the Old World nationalties in the 1st July, 1862... 29,932,69642
scale of“ promises to pay;" but it was reInterest on debt to
garded by our people with a feeling of confibe contracted af
dence. If the sums demanded were well ter 1st July, 1862 10,000,000 00
43,816,330 53 spent, the North would pour out its re
sources and its blood freely. Only restore Making an aggregate of estimated
the Union and the old-time prosperity, and expenditures of.......... ...... $476,331,245 51
a debt twice greater than that hinted at by “ On the other hand, the estimated receipts are
the Secretary would be readily mastered in From customs, lands
thirty or forty years.
The inexhaustable reand ordinary sour$45,800,000
sources of the soil, the matchless energy of From direct tax.... 20,000,000
the people, the new avenues to wealth conFrom internal duties,
stantly being discovered, rendered a public including income
debt of magnitude a national impetus in. tax 30,000,000
stead of a national incubus. In that respect
how republican America differed from mon. Making an aggregate of estimated
archial Europe ! receipts of..
The report of the Post
master - General possessed And leaving a balance to be pro
several points of permavided for of......
$379,531,245 51 “The whole amount required from loans may the test, he had deprived disloyal men of
nent interest. Making loyalty or disloyalty therefore be thus stated :
their contracts for mail transportation, and For the fiscal year 1862, under existing laws..
had denied disloyal journals the right to
$75,449,675 00 For the fiscal year 1862, under laws
circulate through the mails. In his action to be enacted.
200,000,000 00 upon these cases the Postmaster-General had For the fiscal year 1863, also under
been charged with an exercise of arbitrary laws to be enacted
379,531,245 51 and unconstitutional power; and a large
class of persons took umbrage at what they Making an aggregate of......... $654,980,920 61
deemed to be an infringement of the sacred“ The total may be stated in round numbers at
ness of contracts and the freedom of the six hundred and fifty-five millions of dollars.
press. “A tabular statement will accompany this re
In his own defense Mr. Blair assumed that port, showing somewhat more in detail the actual
it was positively unsafe to intrust the transand estimated receipts and expenditures of the
portation of the mails to a person who refinancial years 1861, 1862 and 1863.
fused or failed to recognize the sanctity of an “THE REBEL DEBT IN 1860, 1861, 1862 AND 1863.
oath, but to continue payment of public mo" It only remains, in order to complete the view ney to the enemies of the Government and of the financial situation, to submit a statement of their allies, was to give direct aid and comthe public debt as it was on the 1st day of July, fort to treason in arms. We could not thus 1860 and 1861, and will be, according to the esti- permit this branch of Government to contrimates now presented, at the same date in each of
bute to its own overthrow." He also gavo the years 1862 and 1863.
his reasons for “excluding disloyal public:“ The statement, in brief, is as follows:
tions from the mails. To await the results On the 1st day of July, 1860, the public debt was.
of slow judicial prosecution was to allow
$64,768,133 08 On the 1st day of July, 1861, the
crime to be consummated, with the expectapublic debt was..
90,867,828 68 | tion of subsequent punishment, instead of
Excitement in Con.
The Postmaster Gene
preventing its accomplish- These several reports ex-
interference. Of the cases appeared to give satisfacpresented for his action, upon the principles tion. But, Congress seethed and bubbled which he named, he had, by order, excluded with a commotion which portended an outfrom the mails twelve of those treasonable break against the President's policy of conpublications, of which several had been pre- ciliating those in arms against the country. viously presented by the Grand Jury as in- Mr. Lincoln clearly favored what was deemcendiary and hostile to constituted authority.ed to be a “conservative" course—that is, he While he did not claim the authority to sup- would not strike at Slavery as the source of press any newspaper, however disloyal and strength to those in arms; he would protect treasonable its contents, the Department all slave catchers from among those professcould not be called upon to give them circu- edly loyal, by enforcing the fugitive slave lation. It could not and would not interfere law; he would not decree the release of the with the freedom secured by law, but it could jail full of wretched negroes confined as and did obstruct the dissemination of that runaways” in the Washington jail; he would license which was without the pale of the not favor a decree of emancipation because Constitution and Law. The mails established of the rights of the loyal Border States; he by the United States Government could not, would, in fact, prosecute the war in such a upon any known principles of law or public way as to effect a restoration of the Union right, be used for its destruction. As well with the old guarantees to Slave property could the common carrier be legally required unimpeached. to transport a machine designed for the de- It is foreign to the nature of this work to struction of the vehicle conveying it, or an enter upon an examination of the questions inn-keeper be compelled to entertain a trav- of policy and of law which, after this date, eler whom he knew to be intending to com- (December, 1861,) became paramount themes mit a robbery in his house.” He found these of discussion. Clearly, the Slave institution views supported by the high authority of the had rights, and, as clearly the Republican late Chief Justice Story, of the Supreme Court members of Congress had conceded those of the United States, whose opinion he quoted. righits. * But, quite as conclusively was the
This was the patriotic if not conclusive fact, urged by what afterwards proved to be answer to the grievances of those anxious to a Congressional majority, that it was the visecure the dissemination of conspiracy and tal source, cause and sustenance of the rebelsedition under the guise of a stoutly assevelion—that the Slaves were loyal and had a rated "freedom of the press.” The fact that right to protection--that the old status of the the complainants were chiefly disloyal or States in insurrection could only be restored semi-loyal men did not impair the force of by their unconditional submission and pardon the Department's excuse for its procedure. for offences, the first of which was improbaYet, in spite of the good intent-perhaps of ble and the last impossible, except at a sacrithe actual propriety of the officer's course— fice of every Constitutional obligation for the the acts us alleged were arbitrary exercises punishment of sedition, conspiracy and treaof authority, depending for their justification son. The President, it may well be supposed, upon the voice of loyal men rather than upon was exceedingly perplexed as to what course any construction of law. It was unother of to pursue. As in the case of the first five those instances, occurring during the war,
* See Volume I. Congressional proceedings. We wherein the Executive branches of Govern.
may here indicate the vote on Dunn's resolution, ment clearly overreached precedent and tech- page 82 ; on Winter Davis' resolve, page 104; 00 nical construction in order to accomplish what | the resolves submitted by Mr. Seward to the Cointo them seemed necessary results. The ver- mitee of Thirteen, page 123; the final vote on Cor. dict of posterity doubtless will be less censo-win's resolve, pages 463–67; and finally and conclurious than that visited upon the offending sively to the vote on Sherman's resolution, page officers by the “opposition" of 1862.
GENERAL I ALLECK'S OPERATIONS.
Excitement in Con.
weeks of his reign, he left has, stood, and seemingly ever will stand, by it for circumstances to de- the interests of the South-human slavery,
termine his acts. He finally aristocratic privileges and all. In saying this ended by accepting the legislation of Con- we but repeat what it cannot be denied is gress; and, in enforcing its decrces of confis- one of the well demonstrated facts in Americation and emancipation, aroused that old can History. The South only reigned supreme spirit of democratic' opposition which ever/ when that opposition was in the majority.
I ALLECK'S CONDUCT
MISSOURI-NOVEMBER 18TI, 1861, TO F E B R U A RY 18T, 1862.
MAJOR-GENERAL Henry fugitive slaves who are admitted within our linea. Halleck's Assumption
Wager Halleck arrived in In order to remedy this evil, it is directed that no
St. Louis November 18th, such persons be hereafter permitted to enter the 1861, to assume the department command. I lines of any camp, or of any forces on the march,
and that any now within such lines be immediately Orders indicating his field of labor and au
excluded therefrom. thority (issued November 9th) assigned to
By order of Major-General Halleck. his department the States of Missouri, Iowa,
“ WILLIAM MCMICHAEL, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Arkansas, and
" Assistant Adjutant General." that portion of Kentucky west of the Cum
This, though professedly berland River. This was Fremont's “De
a military mandate, was a partment of the West,” shorn of some of its declaration of policy. It western extension. The General reached
at once banished the “ inevitable negro" from St. Louis to receive at General Hunter's the field by bayonetting him back into slavhands the somewhat disorganized forces re
ery-thus reassuring slave owners that, so turned from the Springfield advance. А
far as the Department of Missouri was concouncil of Generals of divisions was convened cerned, their “ property" was to be driven at once.
The retreat from Springfield had back to them in event of its escape to the thrown open the State to rebel invasion, and Federal lines. Construed even by the light Halleck learned, in a few days' time, that he of military propriety, it was impolitic. had a most momentous work on hand to save Scarcely a general or regimental officer in the southern and central sections from devas- the field but confessed his indebtedness to tation. He eniered upon his labors with a fugitives from slavery for valuable informacalm energy at once indicative of self-reliance tion. Indeed, most of the valuable informaand a thorough mastery of his situation. tion came from these unhappy creatures, who Among his first orders was that afterwards would do and dire any peril to reach the called the “celebrated number threo"-—the Union lines. The very word " fugitives” imtext of which read:
plied their wretched estate--they were flee" HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE MISSOURI St. Louis, Nov. 20th, 1861.
} ing from a worse tyranny than those loyal "GENERAL ORDERS, No. 3.
whites who fled for protection to the Federal “I. It has been represented that iinportant in arms. Why were they banished ? Did some formation respecting the numbers and condition of of the blacks make wrong reports, owing to our forces is conveyed to the enemy by means of their ignorance and credulity? If, for the
The Rebel Advance.
want of intelligence of a few the many were | Southern Confederacy would seem too much to suffer, why was not the rule enforced like a bad bargain for the Confederates. against the white fugitives—many of whom, [See Appendix, page —, for the “ Convenit was notoriously true, conveyed very exag- tion" by which the State was given away to gerated and untruthful information? It was the Confederates. It is one of the precious A proscriptive and unnecessary edict, and documents of the year illustrative of the off one which the commanding General soon hand manner in which a few individuals sold had good reason to regret. The sentiment | States and disposed of places like any other of loyalty was against it-the sentiment of private property.) Prior,
Price's Neosho Prohumanity was against it-the sentiment of therefore, to his march law was against it; and it was but a dead northward Price issued letter from the date of its issue. The Presi- from Neosho a proclamation-his last and dent qualified Fremont's notes of freedom, most powerful appeal to the people for their but he did not qualify Halleck's order. He co-operation in the effort to drive the “inwas, at that particular monient, under the vaders” from the State. We quote, as indiinfluence of the potion administered by the cative of its tenor and tone: Border State politicians.*
“ When peace and protection could The rebels pressed north no longer be enjoyed but at the price of honor and
with the double intention liberty, your chief magistrate called for fifty thou. of reaching the Missouri river above Jefferson sand men to drive the ruthless invaders from a soil
made fruitful by your labors, and consecrated by City and of striking into Kansas. This move
your homes; and to that call less than five thousand ment was ordered from Neosho und Spring responded. Out of a male population exceeding field in three divisions—the right wing, un
two hundred thousand men, one in forty only stepder General McBride, 6000 strong, resting on ped forward to defend with their persons and their Stockton, in Cedar county; the left wing, lives the cause of constitutional liberty and human 5000 strong, under General Rains, holding a rights. *
Where are those fifty thousand position at Nevada, Vernon county; the cen- men' Are Missourians no longer true to themselves? tre, 5000 strong, commanded by Price in per- Are they a timid, time serving, craven race, fit only son, was, at that date (Nov. 25th) near Mont- for subjection to a despot? Awake, my country. abello, Vernon county. General McCullough men, to a sense of what constitutes the dignity and
true greatness of a people.
Come to having refused to co-operate in this crusade,
us, brave sons of Missouri, rally to our standard. I had retired previously, to the Arkansas Val
must have fifty thousand men. I call upon you i ley for supplies and winter quarters.f This the name of your country for fifty thousand men. left the entire responsibility with Price. The Do you stay at home to take care of us and you issuc proved the Texan ranger to have been property? Millions of dollars have been lost be the wiser soldier, since one month later beheld cause you stayed at home. Do you stay at home Price fleeing in haste with his disordered for gratification? More men have been murdered ranks, to seek rest and shelter in the bosom at home than I have lost in five successive battles. of the Ozark hills. The ex-Governor, how
* But where are our Southern rights' ever, had another wish than military success
friends? We must drive the oppressor from our to persuade his movements. lle could not land. I must have fifty thousand men. Now is the abandon the State with his forces, for then crisis of your fate--now is the golden opportunity
to save the State-now is the time of your political the transfer of the Commonwealth to the
salvation. The time for enlistment for our brave * Halleck bimself soon qualified it. See his orders band is beginning to arrive. Do not hold their pato Asboth, Appendix, page
tience beyond endurance--do not longer sicken their + To explain the causes of his “secession” from hearts by • hope deferred.' They begin to inquire, Price, McCullough was cited to Richmond, His where are our friends? Who shall give them an an. backward movement had taken place upon Fre. swer! Boys and small property holders have in the mont's occupation of Springfield. It was this which main fought the battles for the protection of your gave rise to the charge preferred against Fremont property, and when they ask, where are the men for that he was being duped by the rebel leaders, who whom we are fighting? how shall I, how can I, exwished to draw him on into Arkansas.
plain? Citizens of Missouri! I call upon you, by
every consideration of interest, by every desire of 4th, occurred these warlike
“Commanding officers of dis. dead, leave your property to take care of itself ; tricts, posts and corps are directed to arrest and commend your homes to the protection of God, and place in confinement all persons in arms against merit the approbation and love of childhood and the United States, or who give aid, assistance or womanhood by showing yourselves men, the sons
encouragement to the enemy. of the brave and free, who bequeathed to us the
“All property belonging to such persons which sacred trust of free institutions. Come to the army
can be used by the army, will be taken possession of Missouri, not for a week or a month, but to free
of for that purpose, and all other property will be your country.
examined by a board of officers and sold according " •Strike till each armed foe expires !
to army regulations. Strike for your altars and your fires !
“ All persons found in disguise as pretended loyal Strike for the green graves of your sires !
citizens, or under other false pretences within our God and your native land!'"
lines, giving information to or communicating with And much more in the same strain. This the enemy, will be arrested, tried and shot as spies. patriotic cry for help was accompanied by
“ Persons now employed or enlisted in the serthe articles of agreement referred to above, vice of the so-called Confederate States, who comby which the Southern Confederacy became mit hostility, will not be treated as prisoners of responsible for the pay of all troops called war, but punished as criminals, and be shot or less into, or who voluntarily enlisted in the ser- severely punished, according to the rules of war. vice. The General's rhetoric succeeded less “ In consequence of large numbers of Union famithan his bayonets in influencing any but
lies and non-combatants having been plundered and tagabonds to enter his ranks. It is to be driven from their homes in a destitute condition,
and thousands of such persons are now finding their doubted if any army of twenty thousand men
way into this city, the Provost Marshals are directever was gathered whose lists embraced more
ed to ascertain the condition of persons so driven' worthless fellows than that which Price com
from their homes, and under the military law of remanded during his second campaign in Cen- taliation, quarter them in the homes and feed and tral and Western Missouri.
clothe them at the expense of avowed secessionists, We should, in this con- who, although they do not themselves rob and
nection, also refer to the plunder, give aid and encouragement, abet and Appeal.
commingled proclamation, countenance the acts of their fellow-rebels.” address and appeal published by Governor Out of this order (General Order No. 13) Jackson in a New Madrid journal, Dec. 16th. grew numberless complaints, recriminations It repeated his thrice published “views” of and appeals. Though just, in a military affairs, and recited the history of the six sense, it was not faithfully enforced. Secesmonths campaign in a strain of congratula- sionists were arrested to some extent, but tion calculated to inspire the hopes of a good soon found their way to liberty again, doubly time coming to his cause. The object of this embittered by their “persecution.” Persons document was to induce his six months men enlisted in the cause of the Confederacy were to remain in the army-to reenlist in the Con- not treated as criminals and shot, probably federate service for the war, which he prom- under fear of the lex talionis, which the Conised should be but a brief and glorious strug- federates, from practice, knew well how to gle. He also authorized the State Guard execute. Some levies were made upon the to reorganize and to enter the Confederate secession sympathisers of St. Louis to sustain lists. His appeal for troops ran the gamut the refugecs, but not to the extent demanded of terms from imprecation to prayer. He had by the wants of those suffering loyalists. tronsferred the State to the Confederacy- Against this General Orrow he would transfer his constituents if he der and another especially could. It was like the wail of an Irish “wake! aimed at marauders, bridge -the cry of one for the dead.
burners and guerrillas, General Price protestHalleck's orders were numerous and im- cd, threatening retaliation. Under guise of portant. In a series published December communications on the subject, he succeed.
Price's Protest and