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allusion to the creditable de to do it, not because I had any The President's Meg

The President's Meg. gree of discipline already at- doubt that the end proposed, the Bage.

sage. tained by our troops, and to collection of the debts, was just the excellent sanitary condition of the entire army. and right in itself, but because I have been unwilling The recommendation of the Secretary for an organ-to go beyond the pressure of necessity in the unusual ization of the militia upon a uniform basis is a sub- exercise of power. But the powers of Congress, I ject of vital importance to the future safety of the suppose, are equal to the anomalous occasion; and country, and is commended to the serious attention therefore I refer the whole matter to Congress, with of Congress. The large addition to the regular the hope that a plan may be devised for the adminarmy, in connection with the defection that has so istration of justice in all such parts of the insurgent considerably diminished the number of its officers, States and Territories as may be under the control gives peculiar importance to his recommendation of this Government, whether by a voluntary return for increasing the corps of Cadets to the greatest to allegiance and order, or by the power of our capacity of the Military Academy.

arms; this, however, not to be a permanent insti

tution, but a temporary substitute, and to cease as “ The Report of the Secretary of the Navy pre- soon as the ordinary courts can be reestablished in Bents in detail the operations of that branch of the peace. service, the activity nnd energy which have charac- “ It is important that some more convenient means terized its administration, and the results of meas. should be provided, if possible, for the adjustment ares to increase its efficiency and power. Such have of claims against the Government, especially in view been the additions, by construction and purchase, of their increased number by reason of the war, It that it may almost be said a Navy has been created is as much the duty of the Government to render and brought into service since our difficulties com- prompt justice against itself in favor of citizens, menced. Beside blockading our extensive coast,

as it is to administer the same between private insquadrons, larger than ever before asseinbled under dividuals. our flag, have been put afloat, and performed deeds which have increased our naval renown.

“ I ask attention to the report of the Postmaster “I would invite special attention to the recom- General, the following being a summary statement mendation of the Secretary for a more perfect organ

of the condition of the Department: ization of the Navy, by introducing additional grades “ The revenue from all sources during the fiscal in the service. The present organization is defect- year, ending June 30, 1861, including the annual ive and unsatisfactory, and the suggestions submit- permanent appropriation of $700,000 for the transted by the Department will, it is believed, if adopt- portation of free mail matter, was $9,049,296.40, ed, obviate the difficulties alluded to, promote the being about two per cent. less than the revenue for harmony and increase the efficiency of the Navy. 1860. The expenditures were $13,606,759.11, show

ing a decrease of more than eight per cent. as com. “One of the unavoidable consequences of the pared with those of the previous year, and leaving present insurrection is the entire suppression in many

an excess of expenditures over the revenue for the places of all ordinary means of administering civil last fiscal year of over $4,557,462.71. The gross justice by the officers and in the forms of existing revenue for the year ending June 30, 1863, is estilaw. This is the case in whole or in part in all the mated at an increase of four per cent. on that of insurgent States, and as our armies advance upon 1861, making $8,683,000, to which should be added and take possession of parts of those States, the i the earnings of the department carrying free matter, practical evil becomes more apparent. There are viz : $700,000, making $9,383,000. The total expenno courts nor officers to whom the citizens of other ditures for 1863 are estimated at $12,528,000, leav. States may apply for the enforcement of their law. ing an estimated doficiency of $3,145,000, to be supful claims against citizens of the insurgent States, plied from the treasury, in addition to the perma. and there is a vast amount of debt constituting such nent appropriation. claims. Some have estimated it as high as $200,

“ The present insurrection shows, I think, that the 000,000, due in large part from insurgents, in open extension of this District across the Potomac river, rebellion, to loyal citizens, who are even now mak. at the time of establishing the Capital here, was ing great sacrifices in the discharge of their patriot- eminently wise; and, consequently, that the relin. ic duty to support the Government. Under these quishment of that portion of it which lies within the circumstances I have been urgently solicited to es.

State of Virginia was unwise and dangerous. I sub. tablish by military power courts to administer sum- mit for your consideration the expediency of regain. mary justice in such cases. I have thus far declined | ing that part of the District, and the restoration of the original boundaries thereof try by the Federai forces, the The President's Mesthrough negotiations with the Indians will rapidly cease all

The President's Mes sage.

sage. Sta of Virginia.

hostile demonstrations, and re“The report of the Secretary of the Interior, with sume their former relations to the Government. the accompanying documents, exhibits the condition of the several branches of the public business “The execution of the laws for the suppression of pertaining to that department. The depressing in the African slave trade has been confided to the De. fluences of the insurrection have been especially felt partment of the Interior. It is a subject of congrat. in the operations of the Patent and General Land ulation that the efforts which have been made for Offices. The cash receipts from the sales of public the suppression of this inhuman traffic have been lands during the pas year have exceeded the ex. recently attended with unusual success. Five ves. penses of our land system only about $200,000. The sels being fitted out for the slave trade have been sales have been entirely suspended in the Southern seized and condemned. Two mates engaged in the States, while the interruptions to the business of the trade and one person in equipping a vessel as a country, and the diversion of large numbers of men slaver have been convicted and subjected to the from labor to military service, have obstructed set- penalty of fine and imprisonment, and one captain tlements in the new States and Territories of the taken with a cargo of Africans on board his vessel, northwest. The receipts of the Patent Office have has been convicted of the highest grade of offense declined in nine months about $100,000, rendering a under our laws, the punishment of which is death. large reduction of the force employed necessary to The Territories of Colorado, Dakota and Neva. make it self-sustaining.

da, created by the last Congress, have been organ. “ The demands upon the Pension Office will be ized, and civil administration has been inaugurated largely increased by the insurrection. Numerous therein under auspices especially gratifying when applications for pensions based upon the casualties it is considered that the leaven of treason was of the existing war, have already been made. There found existing in some of these new countries when is reason to believe that many who are now upon the Federal officers arrived there. The abundant the pension rolls and in receipt of the bounty of the natural resources of these Territories, with the seGovernment, are in the ranks of the insurgent army, curity and protection afforded by organized Govern. or giving them aid and comfort. The Secretary of ment, will doubtless invite to them a large immigrathe Interior has directed a suspension of the pay. tion when peace shall restore the business of the ment of the pensions of such persous, upon proof of country to its accustomed channels. I submit the their disloyalty. I recommend that Congress au- resolutions of the Legislature of Colorado, which thorize that officer to cause the names of such per evidence the patriotic spirit of the people of that sons to be stricken from the pension rolls.

Territory. So far, the authority of the United “ The relations of the Government with the Indian States has been upheld in all the Territories, as it is tribes have been greatly disturbed by the insurrec. hoped it will be in the future. I commend their in. tion, especially in the Southern superintendency terests and defense to the enlightened and generous and in that of New Mexico. The Indian country care of Congress. south of Kansas is in possession of the insurgents “I recommend to the favorable consideration of from Texas and Arkansas. The Agents of the United Congress the interests of the District of Columbia. States, appointed since the 4th of March for this The insurrection has been the cause of much suffer. superintendency, have been unable to reach their ing and sacrifice to its inhabitants, and, as they have posts, while the most of those who were in office no representative in Congress, that body should not before that time, have espoused the insurrectionary overlook their just claims upon the Government. cause and assume to exercise the power of agents by virtue of commissions from the insurrectionists. “ Under and by virtue of the act of Congress, en. It has been stated in the public press that a portion titled an act to confiscate property used for insur. of these Indians have been organized as a military rectionary purposes, approved August 6th, 1861, the foroe, and attached to the army of the insurgents. legal claims of certain persons to the labor and Although the Government has no official informa- services of certain other persons have become for. tion upon the subject, letters have been written to feited, and numbers of the latter, thus liberaied, the Commissioner on Indian Affairs by several pro- are already dependent on the United States, and minent chiefs, giving assurances of their loyalty to must be provided fo: in some way. Beside this, it the United States, and expressing a wish for the is not impossible that some of the States will pass presence of the Federal troops to protect them. It similar enactments for their own benefit respect. is believed that, upon the repossession of the coun- | ively, and by the operation of which persons of the

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The President's Mes



same class will be thrown upon law upon the same subject

The President's Mes. them for disposal. In such shall be proposed, its propri.

case, I recommend that Con-ety will be duly considered. gress provide for accepting such persons from such The Union must be preserved, and hence all indispen. States according to some mode of valuation in lieu sable means must be employed. We should not be probanto of direct taxes, or upon some other plan in haste to determine that radical and extreme to be agreed upon with such States respectively measures, which may reach the loyal as well as the that such persons, on such acceptance by the Gen. disloyal, are indispensable. eral Government, be at once deemed free, and that “ The Inaugural Address at the beginning of the in any event steps be taken for colonizing both Administration and the Message to Congress at the classes, or the one first mentioned if the other shall | late special session, were both mainly devoted to not be brought into existence, at some place or the domestic controversy out of which the insurrecplaces in a climate congenial to them. It might be tion and consequent war have sprung. Nothing now well to consider, too, whether the free colored peo- occurs to add to or subtract from the principles or ple already in the Uuited States could not, so far as general purposes stated and expressed in those docindividuals may desire, be included in such coloni- uments. The last ray of hope for preserving the zation. To carry out the plan of colonization, may Union peaceably, expired at the assault upon Fort involve the acquiring of territory, and also the ap. Sumter, and a general review of what has occurred propriation of money beyond that to be expended since may not be unprofitable. What was painfully in the territorial acquisition. Having practiced the uncertain then is much better defined and more dis, acquisition of territory for nearly sixty years, the tinct now, and the progress of events is plainly in question of Constitutional power to do so is no the right direction. The insurgents confidently longer an open one with us. The power was at first claimed a strong support from north of Mason and questioned by Mr. Jefferson, who, however, in the Dixon's line, and the friends of the Union were not purchase of Louisiana, yielded his scruples on the free from apprehension on the point. This, howplea of great expediency. If it be said that the ever, was soon settled definitely, and on the right only legitimate object of acquiring territory is to side. South of the line, noble little Delaware led furnish homes for white men, this measure effects off right from the first. Maryland was made to that object, for the emigration of colored men, seem against the Union; our soldiers were assaultleaves additional room for white men remaining or ed, bridges were burned, and railroads torn up coming here. Mr. Jefferson, however, placed the within her limits, and we were many days at one importance of procuring Louisiana more on political time without the ability to bring a single regiment and commercial ground, than on providing room over her soil to the capital. Now, her bridges and for population. On this whole proposition, includ- railroads are repaired and open to the Government. ing the appropriation of money with the acquisition She already gives seven regiments to the cause of of territory, does not the expediency amount to ab- the Union, and none to the enemy; and her people, solute necessity that without which the Government at a regular election, have sustained the Union by a cannot be perpetuated if the war continues ? larger majority, and a larger aggregate vote than

“ In considering the policy to be adopted for sup- they ever before gave to any candidate on any quespressing the insurrection, I have been anxious and tion. Kentucky, too, for some time in doubt, is careful that the inevitable conflict for this purpose now decidedly, and, I think, unchangeably, ranged shall not degenerate into a violent and remorseless on the side of the Union. Missouri is comparatively revolutionary struggle. I have, therefore, in every quiet, and I believe cannot again be overrun by the case, thought it proper to keep the integrity of the insurrectionists. These three States of Maryland, Union prominent as the primary object of the con. Kentucky and Missouri, neither of which would test on our part, leaving all questions which are not promise a single soldier at first, have now an aggreof vital military importance to the more deliberate gate of not less than forty thousand in the field for action of the Legislature. In the exercise of my the Union ; while of their citizens, certainly not beyt discretion, I have adhered to the blockade of more than a third of that number, and they of doubt. the ports held by the insurgents instead of putting ful whereabouts and doubtful existence, are in arms in force by proclamation the law of Congress enact against it. After a somewhat bloody struggle of ed, at the late session, for closing those ports. So months, winter closes on the Union people of also obeying the dictates of prudence as well as the Western Virginia, leaving them masters of their obligations of law, instead of transcending, I have country. adhered to the act of Congress to confiscate prop. “ An insurgent force of about fifteen hundred, erty used for insurrectionary purposes. If a new for months dominating the narrow peninsular re.

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gion, constituting the counties will direct, and no single mind The President's Mes.

The President's Mes of Accomac and Northamptor, can be allowed to control.

and known as the eastern It continues to develop that shore of Virginia, together with some contiguous the insurrection is largely, if not exclusively, a war parts of Maryland, have laid down their arms, and upon the first principles of popular governmentthe people there have renewed their allegiance to the rights of the people. Conclusive evidence of and accepted the protection of the old flag. This this is found in the most grave and maturely-conleaves no armed insurrection north of the Potomac, sidered public documents, as well as in the general nor east of the Chesapeake.

tone of the insurgents. In these documents, we find “ Also, we have obtained a footing at each of the the abridgement of the existing right of suffrage, isolated points on the Southern coast, of Hatteras, and the denial to the people of all right to partici. Port Royal, Tybee Island, near Savannah, and Ship pate in the selection of public officers, except the Jsland ; and we likewise have some general ac- legislative body, is advocated with labored argu. counts of popular movements in behalf of the Union ments to prove that large control of the Governin North Carolina and Tennessee. These things ment by the people is the source of all political demonstrate that the cause of the Union is ad. evil. Monarchy itself is sometimes hinted at as a vancing steadily southward.

possible refuge from the power of the people. “ Since your last adjournment, Lieutenant-Gene- “In my present position, I could scarcely be jus. ral Scott has retired from the head of the army. tified were I to omit raising a warning voice against During his long life, the nation has not been un- this approach of returning despotism. mindful of his merit; yet, on calling to mind how " It is not needed nor fitting here that a general faithfully, ably and brilliantly he has served the argument should be made in favor of popular insti. country, from a time far back in our history, when tutions; but there is one point with its connections few of the now living had been born, and thence not so hackneyed as most others, to which I ask a forward continually, I cannot but think we are still brief attention. It is the effort to place capital on his debtors. I submit, therefore, for your consider- an equal footing with, if not above labor, in the ation, what further mark of recognition is due to structure of Government. It is assumed that labor him and to ourselves as a grateful people.

is available only in connection with capital, that no“ With the retirement of General Scott came the body labors unless somebody else owning capital executive duty of appointing in his stead a General. somehow by the use of it induces him to labor. This in-Chief of the army. It is a fortunate circumstance assumed, it is next considered whether it is best that that neither in council nor country was there, so far capital shall hire laborers, and thus induce them to as I know, any difference of opinion as to the proper work by their own consent, or buy them and drive person to be selected.

them to it without their consent. Having proceeded The retiring chief repeatedly expressed his so far, it is naturally concluded that all laborers are judgment in favor of General McClellan for the po. either hired laborers or what we call slaves; and sition, and in this the nation seemed to give a unan- further it is assumed that whoever is once a hired imous concurrence. The designation of General laborer is fixed in that condition for life. Now there McClellan is, therefore, in a considerable degree, is no such relation between capital and labor as asthe selection of the country as well as of the Execu- sumed, nor is there any such thing as a free man tive; and hence there is better reason to hope there being fixed for life in the condition of a hired labor. will be given him the confidence and cordial sup- er. Both of these assuinptions are false, and all in. port thus, by fair implication promised, and without ferences from them are groundless. Labor is prior which he cannot, with so full efficiency, serve the to, and independent of, capital. Capital is only the country.

fruit of labor, and could never have existed if labor " It has been said that one bad General is better had not first existed. Labor is the superior of capthan two good ones; and the saying is true, if taken ital, and deserves much the brighest consideration. to mean no more than that an army is better direct- Capital has its rights, which are as worthy of proed by a single mind, though inferior, than by two tection as any other rights. Nor is it denied that superior ones at variance and cross-purposes with there is, and probably always will be, a relation each other. And the same is true in all joint oper between labor and capital, producing mutual bene. ations wherein those engaged can have none but a fits. The error is in assuming that the whole labor common end in view, and can differ only as to the of the community exists within that relation. A few choice of means. In a storm at sea, no one on men own capital, and that few avoid labor them. board can wish the ship to sink, and yet not unfre- selves, and with their capital hire or buy another quently all go down together, because too many few to labor for them. A large majority belong to



The President's Meg


neither class-neither work for proceed in the great task which events have de. others, nor have others working volved upon us.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN. for them. In most of the South- “ WASHINGTON, December 30, 1861." ern States, a majority of the whole people of all colors What will strike the reader's attention is are neither slaves nor masters, while in the North the kindly spirit which pervades this entire ern a large majority are neither hirers nor hired. message. In that respect what a contrast it Men with their families—wives, sons and daughters offers to the manifesto of revenge and baffled --work for themselves on their farms, in their ambition quoted on pages 430–33 !

Confihouses, and in their shops, taking the whole product dent, firm, sagacious and humane in terms to themselves, and asking no favors of capital, on the one hand, nor of hired laborers or slaves, on the and tone, it was but an exponent of the senother. It is not forgotten that a considerable num

timent which swayed the minds and animated ber of persons mingle their own labor with capital the hearts of the great mass of Northern -that is, they labor with their own hands, and also people. Mr Lincoln still retained the confibuy or hire others to labor for them; but this is dence of the people, to a flattering degree, only a mixed and not a distinct class. No principle and his words found a ready response in the stated is distinguished by the existence of this mixed hearts of his constituents. class.

If a division of this confi- Opposition to Federal

Policy. “ Again, as has already been said, there is not of dence followed, it was a necessity any such thing as the free hired laborer result of the changes brought forth by the being fixed in that condition for life. Many inde

vast responsibilities thrust upon the Presipendent men everywhere in these States a few years dent. What to do and what not to do, were back in their lives were hired laborers. The pro. dent, penniless beginner in the world, labors for questions which soon grew to portentous sig.

nificance. The Executive, in answering wages awhile, saves a surplus with which to buy tools and land for himself, then labors ou his own either, by action, necessarily encountered the account another while, and at length hires another opposition of those who differed from his new beginner to help him. This is the just and views. These differences grew, ere long, into generous and prosperous system which opens the political antagonisms; the inauguration way to all, gives hope to all, and consequent energy of the Emancipation and Confiscation acts and progress in the improvement of their condition called into existence a powerful party. With to all. No men living are more worthy to be trust

à rallying cry “the Union as it was- -the ed than those who toil up from poverty; none less Constitution as it is,” the opposition in effect inclined to take or touch ought which they have not honestly earned. Let them beware of surrendering stitutions and political force intact. Upon

proposed to restore the South with all its ina political power which they already pussess, and which, if surrendered, will surely be used to close that issue the President experienced the only the door of advancement against such as they, and material opposition brought to bear against to fix new disabilities and burdens upon them till all

his administration. of liberty shall be lost.

This issue was not undesirable. If regard“From the first taking of our national census to ed in its widest significance it was but a the last, are seventy years; and we find our popu- second phase of the rebellion. The first phase lation at the end of the period eigiit times as great was the act of war to sustain the independas it was at the beginning. The increase of those

ence of the Slave States: the second was the other things which meu deem desirable, has been attempt to perpetuate the political power of even greater. We thus have, at one view, what the Slave representation in the old Union.* In popular principle, applied to government, through the machinery of the States and the Union, has pro- * This will appear more fully by reference to a duced in a given time; and also what, if firmly fow statistics. South Carolina's representation in maintained, it promises for the future. There are the Federal Congress, under the apportionment of already among us those who, if the Union be pre- 1860, was four representatives for a white popula. served, will five to see it contain 250,000,000. The tion of 395,186. Connecticut representation was struggle of to-day is not altogether for to-day. It is four representatives for a population of 760,670. for a vast future, also.

Upon the basis of democratic equality-such an " With a firm reliance on Providence, all the more equality as underlies the whole structure of free in. Arm and earnest for our present troubles, let us | stitutions--South Carolina was entitled to but one.

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