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Rebel Persecutions.

in East Tennessee.

their vath upon release. They hastened to was, on the question of sogive the alarm, and, by their evidence, six of cession or no secession, tbe Unionists were apprehended, thrown into thirty-two thousand nine hundred and twen. dungeons and two of them hung. Captain ty-two for the Union-being a majority of Fry escaped to Kentucky, but not to lead the over eighteen thousand votes against secession. Federal advance over the mountains. The That was the “ voice of the people," expressFederal forces had deflected toward the east ed even in the face of Confederate muskets. instead of pressing in to Tennessee.

It is well the record exists, to live as a blastThis daring act greatly ing witness against those ministers of misrule The Union Uprising

excited the Conferlerate au- who desecrated the name of American by

thorities. For a few days their crimes in Tennessee. the most lively apprehensions existed in re- The act was premature. It resulted disasgard to conspiracies, uprisings and rebellion; trously, in calling down upon loyalists but, when it was seen that nothing further the full rigor of Confederate law and filling than bridge burning occurred, and rebel that section with rebel troops to such a numtroops were thrown rapidly into that section, ber as rendered the Ferleral advance one of assurance took the place of fear. The rivets peril. It aroused Governor Harris to renewin the manacles placed on Union wrists were ed vigilance in the cause of persecution. tightened, and, as their helplessness became Under the guise of a call for arms to fit troops more apparent, so the cruelty of their tor- for the field, he issued a proclamation (Nov. mentors increased, until few men were strong 12th) by which East Tennesseeans were very hearted enough to avow a love for the old generally disarmed and rendered all the more Union. The Memphis Appeal of November helpless. November 14th he issued another 10th, wrote:

proclamation calling out the militia to the ** This insurrection, however, while comparative number of thirty thousand “to repel the inly harmless from its being premature, gives evi- vader," ordering the conscripts to be ready dence of a deep laid plot among a few of the most for marching orders by the 25th of Novemreckless traitors of that region to resist the sove.

ber. Under this order about twelve thoureigu voice of the people of the State by force of

sand men were placed in the Confederate arms, so soon as they have hope of assistance from the Lincoln despotism. It is fortunate that it has ranks-temporarily as they supposed, but occurred at the present time, when we are fully able permanently as the Confederate leaders deto put a lasting quietus upon it, from which no ap. signed. It was not the only instance during pliances of future Federal aid will ever be able to the war where the militia of the Southern resuscitate. We now have an open foe to conquer, States were impressed after having once been who is rendered impotent by the very disclosure of put in the field. his hostility-and not less so by his isolation."

The spirit of Confederate mercy was made Truly said. The “foe” was rendered im- public in proclamations as well as in acts of potent by his isolation, and his very helpless-violence, which spared no citizen of loyal ness was but a prelude to punishments at sentiments. One Daniel Leadbetter, “ Colowhich human nature revolts.* But what | nel Communding" at Greenville and vicinity, baseness directed the paragraph ! "To resist issued a maniiesto, December 4th, from which the sovereign voice of the people”! The

we quote : journalist who uttered the libel falsified be

The Government commands the peace and sends cause he dare not do otherwise. The entire troops to enforce the orders. I proclaim that every Confederate cause was built upon just such

man who comes in promptly and delivers up his departures from honor and truth. The “sov

arms will be pardoned on taking the oath of allegi. ereign voice of the people,” as declared in ance.* All men taken in arms against the Govern. the last election then held in East Tennessee,

* Exercising his authority, this officer haug a num. * See Parson Brownlow's book for details of the ber of persons. To be suspected of Union sentiments sufferings experienced by the few who would not was enough to unglove the iron hand of this minis. recant their loyalty. His statements are confirmed ter of vengeance. Almost his first act was to arrest by much oflicial and personai testimony.

and hang withoui trial two men named Fry and


The Russolille Scces. sion Convention.


The Russelville Seces.

sion Convention.


ment will be transported to the military prison at claiming revolution ; proTuscaloosa, and be confined there during the war. viding for a “Sovereignty Bridge burners and destroyers of railroad tracks Convention,” to be held at are excepted from among those pardonable. They Russelville Nov. 18th; recommending the orwill be tried by drum-head court-martial and be ganization of County Guards, to be placed in hung on the spot."

the service of and to be paid by the Confederate This, though done by authority of General

Government; pledging resistance to all FedeCarroll, commanding at Knoxville, was sim

ral and State taxes for the prosecution of the ply in accordance with the wishes of the Confederate War Department. Secretary Robert McKee, John C. Breckenridge, Hum

war; appointing a committee, composed of Judas P. Benjamin, being asked what dispo- phrey Marshall, George W. Ewing, H. W. sition should be made of the bridge burners, Bruce, George P. Hodge, William Preston, answered: “All such as can be identified as

George W. Johnson, Blanton Duncan and having been engaged in bridge burning, are P. B. Thompson, to carry out the wishes of to be tried sumn mmarily by drum-head court

the Conference. martial, and, if found guilty, executed on the tion" met at the designated time and pro

Sovereign Conyenspot. It would be well to leare their bodies ceeded to the inauguration of a Provisional hanging in the vicinity of the burnt bridges." Government, passing an ordinance of secesThis was the spirit of Confederate humanity sion, and adopting a plan of government. towards citizens of the South whose loyalty This plan contemplated the clection, by the to the Union led them to take up arms in its contentim, of a Governor and ten Councildefense, The “ Conference" at

lors. These persons were clothed with abso

lute Russelville, Kentucky, Oc

power--making all laws, appointing all

State officers, making treaties, controlling tober 28th, claims notice at this point. It was composed of a number army and navy, &c., &c. They also elected of leading secessionists and disloyal persons

the Senators and Representatives to be sent professing to “represent” forty counties. Its to the Confederate Congress. They were to sessions continued through two days, with provide“ by law” for the election of the Repclosed doors, and resulted in the passage of resentatives, but as the “ Council” was law,

it “elected" then and “appointed” the Senresolutions reciting the unconstitutional and

ators. Bowling Green was to become the oppressive acts of the State Legislature; pro

temporary capital. Hensie for bridge burning. Fry was brother to This rather laughable legislation fully Captain Fry, already referred to. The bodies were illustrates the supreme authority assumed by hung from the limb of a tree close to the railway the self-constituted directors of affairs in the track, that persons in passing might strike them South. The Conventions, as we have already with canes and switches. They hung there for four

shown, sat in permanent sessions, overriding days before burial, as suggested by the Confederate Secretary of War. This reign of terror continued State Legislatures and enacting laws at their for many months. When Jefferson Davis called will. In not one single instance-save in General McNeil, of Missouri, to account for hanging that of South Carolina--were the Convenseven “guerrillas” — who, besides numerous out- tions elected by the people for any other purrages, had murdered an inoffensive old citizen in a pose than to consider what was best to be cold-blooded manner--no one would have inferred done. If“co-operation” was resolved upon, that the indignant President had commissioned the the Conventions were to draft ordinances of prosecutors of the Unionists to their bloody work. secession, to be submitted to the people for No one reading his celebrated “ black flag” procla- ratification. But, with the sublime effron. mation of December 23d, 1862, would have supposed tery which characterized all the preliminary that the Confederate Law Giver had, from the very stages of the revolution, the Conventions, beginning, sanctioned the most heartless and bloody

once in power, defied all other power, and usage of every loyal Union man found in his domi

became supreme: they controlled the destinions. He and his emissaries showed no mercy to any Southern man guilty of repudiating the Confed- nies of the States. Creating a whirlwind, erate fag.

they rode on the storm, sedulously augment





ed, into power and Confederate greatness. of Kentucky to call into the field for twelve Kentucky was slow to perceive the use of a months duty, “to repel invasion.” These “ Convention” at all-hence, one never was men were not all ready, however, until the called; but, the Confederacy wanted the Spring of 1862. The total number of men State, on its slate at least—just as it had Mis- enlisted in the UnitedStates

Kentucky's Quota.
souri, for a good showing; the Convention service from Kentucky was
was forthcoming whether the people willed stated by the Military Board to have been
or not. The State was voted out of the 18,812 at the date of November 7th. This
Union, a “provisional” Governor and Coun- number did not include those called into ser-
cil were chosen, Representatives and Sena- vice prior to the organization of the Board-
tors were sent to the Confederate Congress, Rosseau's first brigade and Jackson's cavalry
all by the “patriotism” of about forty men. being composed of these early enlistments.
We say the proceedings were laughable: they It will be perceived by these figures how
certainly were wicked enough, but, after all, loyal the great mass of Kentuckians were,
were too absurd for serious consideration. while they serve also the good purpose of
Their only significance is to indicate the pro- correcting the assumptions of Breckenridge,
clivity of the revolution towards usurpation. Buckner, Marshall, Burnett and ex-Governor
The Kentucky people, however, were proof Morehead, that “neutrality" was the choice
against schemes of designing men. Could as of the people, and that, therefore, in its loyal
much have been said of other States, a action the Legislature had betrayed the State.
Southern Confederacy would have been but By March 1st, 1862, there were about thirty
the dream of a few Pro-slavery fanatics. thousand Kentuckians in the field. Ken-
[We give the Ordinance of Secession and the tucky's vote at the Presidential election 1860
“Plan of Provisional Government" in the was 146,216. Her contribution of troops
Appendix more as matters of curiosity than was, using these figures as the basis of her
for their importance to history. We do not population capable of bearing arms (omit-
refer to the installation of “Governor” John- ting the usual per centage of one-fifth for per-
ston, nor quote from his “message"—deem- sons exempt by age, disease, &c.), equal to
ing them matters of as slight importance as more than one out of every four of her able-
one of General Pillow's proclamations.]

bodied men.
General Buell reached The concentration of Con-
Louisville November 15th, federate forces at Bowling

and soon assumed com- Green and Columbus was
mand. He withdrew Nelson from Eastern heavy during November and December.
Kentucky, strengthened Thomas at Danville General Johnston, Commander-in-Chief in
while his advance was diverted toward Som- the Mississippi valley, resolvod to hold both
erset. The divisions and brigades of Mc- positions at all hazards, as well as to keep
Cook, Rosseau, Johnson, Wood, Negley and the Unionists from Tennessee on the west.
Mitchell, secured the lines established by To this end he labored with untiring assidu-
Sherman. The general movement of Fed-ity and with success. The States of Texas,
eral forces looked to the capture of Bowl Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas and Tennes-
ing Green by flank and front approaches. see all responded liberally to his call ; every
The number of troops as indicated by the confidence was felt in his ability to hold the
Department pay rolls (Dec. 10th) was sixty- Federals in check. The building of gunboats
two regiments; during December. this num- at several points on the Ohio and Mississippi
ber was reenforced heavily. Ten Indiana, rivers inspired the Confederates with no par-
twelve Ohio and six Illinois—full twenty-five ticular alarm. Memphis, Columbus and Isl-
thousand strong-were among the number and No. 10 were deemed impregnable to the
of troops placed at Buell's disposal. To this passage of any fleet down the 'Father of
should be added in December the State quo- Waters.' Powerful forts were erected on the
ta of ten regiments which the General Gov- Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, near the
ernment authorized the State Military Board | State line, equal, it was supposed, to the task

The Rebel Lines and

Buell's Force in tho


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The Rebel Lines and


of securing those fine General Buell telegraph-
streams from Federal use. ed to headquarters under

The Fight at Mun. Strategy.

A rebel correspondent,writ- date of December 18th as ing from Bowling Green, under date of Nov. follows: 29th, said: "Importance undoubtedly is at- “McCook's division is at Munfordsville, General tached to the menacing attitude being as- Mitchell at Bacon's Creek. Zollicoffer is either resumed, and the extensive preparations being treating across the Cumberland river or is preparmade for a speedy attack, by land and water, ing to do so at the approach of any superior force. upon Columbus; but that this division is “ General McCook reported that the rebels at. as seriously threatened as is that of General tacked my pickets in front of the rnilroad bridge at

two o'clock to-day. The picket consisted of four Polk is patent to all acquainted with the force intended to operate against both fronts. companies of the Thirty-second Indiana, Colonel

Willich, under Lieutenant-Colonel Van Frebra, General Johnston rightly estimates the neces

Their forces consisted of one regiment of rexan sity of holding this place at all hazards, and

rangers, two regiments of infantry, and one battery its strength is not to be weakened by the of six guns. Our loss was, Lieutenant Sachs and permanent removal of

any considerable

por-eight enlisted men killed and ten wounded. The tion of the troops now liere. Neither will rebel loss was thirty-three killed, including the Colothis army go into winter quariers without nel of the Texan rangers, and about fifty wounded. having struck a fearful blow, which may be | The rebels retreated ingloriously." decisive of the fate of Kentucky.”

The skirmish here referred to amounted to Buell was kept fully informed of every rebel | a well ordered battle on a small scale. It movement and of the force at particular occurred at Rowlett's Station, south of Munpoints, by loyal Kentuckians who came in fordsville. A rebel force under Brigadierconstantly from every county. His delays to General T. C. Hindman, of General Hardee's push the advance already inaugurated by his division, consisting of two regiments of Ark. predecessor, were occasioned by the rapid ansas volunteers, one of Texan cavalry and a concentration of the enemy on his front. four gun battery, advanced to force the FedTheir strength in the field and in fortifica- eral pickets back over Green river and to detions was so great that it became necessary stroy a newly erected bridge over the stream. to augment his own strength fully fifty per Colonel Willich's regiment—the Thirty-seccent, beyond what was first contemplated as ond Indiana, composed exclusively of, and necessary to carry the war into Tennessee. commanded by, Germans-held the Federal Hence, the powerful reenforcements detailed advance, and had thrown four companies as to his department during December. Hence, pickets forward to the station. Shortly after also, the creation, Dec. 23d, of the new de- one o'clock Dec. 18th, the scouts reported partment of Cairo, which embraced Southern rebels in the woods around, when two com

Illinois, that portion of panies (Second and Third) were ordered for. The Department of

Kentucky lying west of the ward by Lieutenant-Colonel Trebra to skir.

Cumberland river and the mish-the remaining companies of the regi. tier of counties in Missouri bordering on the ment at the same time being called to the Mississippi river south of Cape Girardeau. field. The skirmishers pressed the enemy so Of this department General Grant assumed | hard and so efiectually as to drive his reconcommand. He at once prepared for the bril-noitering advance back half a mile to his liant campaign up the Tennessee and Cum- main line. A section of the Texas cavalry berland that quickly followed, by which the then suddenly dashed forward showing the enemy's lines were cut, lis strong positions gallant Germans that they must fight their at Columbus and Bowling Green so entirely way back. The retreat was in solid square turned as to compel their hasty evacuation, over an open field, into which the cavalry, and his entire occupation of Kentucky confident in numbers and strength, dashed soil rendered worse than a defeat, since with reckless spirit. The ruse succeeded: his retreat opened the way to Nashville, at the two remaining companies, posted in the

woods on each side of the field, opened on





Zollicoffer's Second


the cavalry with fatal effect. The horsemen | tire division from Bacon creek to Munfords. were brought to a stand, when their infantry ville on the day of the fight. His men were supports came forward. At the same time with difficulty restrained from pushing over the six companies of the Indianians left on to engage the enemy; but, two regimentsthe north side of the river took flank posi- the Forty-ninth Ohio and Thirty-ninth Inditions, right and left, and the fight for one ana — were permitted to cross in order to hour was most obstinately contested. Sev- save Willich's men from defeat. eral times the enemy feigned retreat to draw

Much interest centered the Federals under their artillery fire but in the movements of Zollidid not succeed. Hopeless in this their bat- coffer. His advance to tery finally opened from its masked position, the Cumberland river during the second week with all its power, covering a second charge of December, was followed by reenforceby the Texans. Hard pressed the Germans ments, until his troops numbered about six fell back slowly but in perfect order, thousand strong. With this force he preparuntil relieved by the advance of two ed, by entrenching on both sides of the river, regiments from McCook's division, under his at the junction with White Oak creek, about own command. The enemy, in turn, retired six miles from Somerset, to retain such a pofrom this demonstration, badly cut up by the sition in Kentucky as would hold Thomas' guns of Captains Stone's and Cutter's batte- forces in check. Schæpff, after his Wild Cat ries. Colonel Terry of the Texan cavalry success, was ordered to Somerset. The movewas killed in gallantly striving to cover the ment against Cumberland Gap was thus arretrograde movement. [Hindman in his re

rested. Buell's design was to use the divi

sion of Thomas as a flank and rear advance port stated that Terry was killed in leading the first assault.)

upon Bowling Green. To this end the EastIn this affair Willich's ern Tennessee campaign was at least tempoThe Fight at Mun. men behaved with com

rarily abandoned. The Confederates, quick mendable courage and dis.

to detect the strategy, were as quick to profit cipline. They maintained the field only by

by it.

General Johnston at once ordered Zolliexcellent handling. Colonel Willich arrived on the ground when the enemy was pressing

coffer to assume the offensive by taking such his companies back at the last assault. His

a position as would retain Thomas from his presence kept all cool and determined. Lieu flank advance. The choice was made of the tenant-Colonel Trebra acted throughout with very strong position on the Cumberland, at skill and good judgment.

and opposite Mill Springs, where natural bar

riers were quickly transformed into almost The Federal loss was eleven killed, and impregnable fastnesses. At this point the twenty-one wounded. Lieutenant Max Sachs, Confederate sympathisers from Eastern Kenof company C, was pierced by six balls. The tucky gathered in considerable numbers, and enemy's loss is not known. Hindman report the rebel camp soon became a terror to the ed it as four killed, and ten wounded. Con- Southern tier of counties. Atrocities of every sidering that there was much close quarter conceivable nature were perpetrated, seemfighting — that the Germans fought chiefly ingly upon friend and foe aliko.“ Zollicofunder cover of the woods—that the regiment fer's Den” soon assumed its place in history was armed with the Belgian musket, which the men handled with great efficiency—the ments of Kentucky and Tennessee life.

as a general rendezvous of all the worst elemere statement of Hindman to the contrary,

The withdrawal, by Budoes not forbid the supposition of serious ell, of Nelson from his ca

Humphrey Marshall's loss on the enemy's part.

reer of successes in the That Hindman's force was not captured west fork of the Big Sandy, left that region entire, or cut to pieces, was owing to orders open to Confederate occupancy. Humphrey not to cross Green river, so as to bring on an Marshall, a leading citizen of Kentucky, havengagement. McCook marched with his en- | ing gone over to the Southern cause, opened



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