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folly had ordered the advance or the retreat. 1. The Department of New

Reorganization of One thing was not left in doubt-its results. Mexico, to consist of the Ter

Military Depart. The withdrawal to the line of the Pacitic ritory of New Mexico, to be railway left a shadow over Southern Missouri commanded by Colonel E. R. S. Canby, United

States Army. which grew lurid with fire and blood. The Unionists of all that section were, from that State of Kansas, the Indian Territory west of Ark

2. The Department of Kansas, to include the hour, exiles, or, if they remained, it was to

and the Territories of Nebraska, Colorado endure a savage persecution. Pillage, vio- and Dacotah, to be commanded by Major General lence, murder, stalked unchecked up to the Hunter. Headquarters at Fort Leavenworth. very heart of the State; mercy was forgotten “ 3. The Department of the Missouri, to include to men, and pity scorned to women and the States of Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, children ; wherever the cut-throats of Texas, Illinois, Arkansas, and that portion of Kentucky Arkansas and the border moved, their track west of the Cumberland river, to be commanded by was marked with desolation.

Major General H. W. Halleck, United States Army. Victor Hugo says: “The brutalities of

" 4. The Department of the Ohio, to consist of

the States of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, and that porprogress are called revolutions; when they are past this is apparent, namely, that the the State of Tennessee, to be commanded by Briga

tion of Kentucky east of the Cumberland river, and human race has been harshly treated, but dier General D. C. Buell. Headquarters at Louishas, nevertheless, advanced.” It will be

ville. hard for those who suffered the brutalities of

“ 5. The Department of Western Virginia, to conthe revolution in Missouri to discover its sist of that portion of Virginia included in the old beneficence. If, out of the fire and blood Department of the Ohio, to be commanded by Brig. came no just apprehension of the monster adier General W. S. Rosecrans, United States iniquity which was the very soul of that revo- Army." lution, the Missouri people suffered in vain. General Hunter, during the brief term of The great novelist will find his assumption his temporary command in Missouri, did litof good from evil only sustained by its

tle else than to concentrate troops, prepar

negative application to the secession revoluion. atory to turning them over to General HalNovember 7th, an leck. His orders promul

Concentration of Fed. rangement was announced, gated from St. Louis Nov.

by orders from headquar- | 12th, enjoined upon all ters at Washington, whereby the Missouri commanders of troops to "avoid extensive State militia were to be called into the field movements which offer battle or divide and to the aid of the United States forces in sup- prolong our lines, until further concert and pressing the rebellion. This was effected by concentration of action can be arranged, and Governor Gamble's personal application to instructions giving full and concise reports the War Office. The terms of the arrange

will be forwarded immediately to Brigadier ment gave the organization of the troops to General Curtis, St. Louis, giving the strengtli, the Governor, who was to appoint, as their position and condition of every command in Major General, the General commanding the the department.” Department of the West. This implied the

Hunter arrived in St. Louis November 15th. fact of the troops being under control of the General Lane's brigade, withdrawing from United States authorities. They were to be Springfield, eventually retired to Fort Scott armed, clothed, subsisted and paid as any in Kansas. The divisions of Pope, McKin. other forces of like arms of the service. All stry and Hunter marched to the line of the Home and State Guards were, by this agrec-Pacific railway, to await Halleck's orders. ment, enlisted in the war at once, and soon

The divisions of Siegel and Asboth soon fol. gave to the Department commander large re

lowed. Upon Halleck's arrival in St. Louis, enforcements to his ranks.

November 18th, he convened the Generals Nov. 9th, the War Department announced of divisions to a conference, and was then the reorganization of the departments of the prepared to assume the duties of his comWest, of the Ohio, and of the Cumberland, viz.:

mand.

ar

Missouri State Militia

in Service.

eral Forces.

THE

FREEMONT-PRICE

TREATY.

415

The Fremont Price

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One of Hunter's first “1. No arrests whatever on The Fremont-Price acts, after assuming com

account of political opinions, “ Treaty."

" Treaty." mand, was to repudiate the or for the merely private exproposed “treaty” between Fremont and pression of the same, shall hereafter be made within Price, regarding the conduct of the war in the limits of the State of Missouri, and all persong

who may have been arrested, and are now held to Missouri, which was then only awaiting the rebel General's signature to become effective. released. But it is expressly declared that nothing

answer upon such charges only, shall be forth with The document, though properly belonging in this proclamation shall be construed to bar or into the history of Fremont's “Hundred Days," terfere with any of the usual and regular proceedis here given to indicate the policy adopted ings of the established courts and statutes and or. by the new directors of affairs. This import- ders made and provided for such offenses. ant and rather novel arrangement between 2. All peaceably disposed citizens who may belligerents was as follows:

have been driven from their homes because of their Whereas, Major - General Sterling Price, com

political opinions, or who may have left them from

fear of force and violence, are hereby advised and manding the Missouri State Guard, by letter dated at his headquarters near Neosho, Missouri, October permitted to return, upon the faith of our positive 26th, 1861, has expressed a desire to enter into some

assurances, that while so recurning they shall re

ceive protection from both armies in the field, whenarrangement with Major-General John C. Fremont,

ever it can be given. commanding the forces of the United States, to faci

" 3. All bodies of armed men acting without the litate the future exchange of prisoners of war released to parole ; also, that all persons heretofore authority or recognition of the Major-Generals before arrested for the mere expression of political opin- named, and not legitimately connected with the arions, may be released from confinement or parole; mies in the field, are hereby ordered at once to dis

band. also, that in future the war be confined exclusively

“ 4. Any violation of either of the foregoing to the armies in the field, and has authorized and empowered Major Henry W. Williams and D. Robert articles shall subject the offender to the penalty

of military law, according to the nature of the Barclay, Esqs., to enter into such an arrangement

offense. in his behalf ; And whereas, Major-General John C. Fremont

“In testimony whereof, the aforesaid John Charies

Fremont, at Springfield, Missouri, on the first day concurs with Major-General Price ;

of November, A. D. 1861, and Major-General Sterl“Now, therefore, It is hereby stipulated and agreed

ing Price, at

day of Novem, by and betv en Major-General John C. Fremont

ber, A. D. 1861, have hereunto set their hands, and and Major - General Sterling Price, as follows, to

hereby mutually pledge their earnest efforts to the wit : First - A joint proclamation shall be issued, enforcement of the above articles of agreement, ac

cording to their full tenor and effect, to the best of signed by Major - General John C. Fremont and

their ability. Major-General Price, in proper person, in the fol.

" Second — Brigadier-General Samuel R. Curtis, lowing language, to wit:

or the officer in command at Benton Barracks, is " PROCLAMATION.

hereby authorized and empowered to represent

Major-General Fremont; and Colonel D. H. ArmTo all peaceably disposed citizens of the State of Mis strong, Honorable J. Richard Barrett and Colonel souri, greeting :

Robert M. Renick, or either of them, are hereby auWhereas, A solemn agreement has been entered thorized and empowered to represent Major-General into by Major - Generals Fremont and Price, re- Price ; and the partice so named are hereby author. spectively commanding antagonistic forces in the ized, whenever applied to for that purpose, to nego. State of Missouri, to the effect, that in future arrests tiate for the exchange of any and all persons who or forcible interference by armed or unarmed par. may hereafter be taken prisoners of war and releas. ties of citizens within the limits of said State for the ed on parole; such exchanges to be made upon the mere entertainment or expression of political opin- plan heretofore approved and acted upon, to wit: ions, shall hereafter cease ; that families now broken grade for grade, or two oficers of lower grade as an up for such cause may be reunited, and that the war equivalent in rank for one of a higher grade, as shall now progressing shall be exclusively confined to be thought jast and equitable. armies in the field ; therefore, be it known to all “ Thus done and agreed at Springfield, Missouri, whom it may concern

this first day of November, 1861.

", on this

Hunter's Reasons for

Hunter wrote to Price, November 7th, in- | act of Congress, and who, it

Hunter's Roasons fa forming him that, as General commanding, would be claimed, are there

Rejecting it. le (Hunter) would in no manner recognize fore ‘not legitimately conthe above agreement or any of its provisions, nected with the armies in the field.' implied or specified—that he would neither

“ There are many more objections quite as pow. publish nor allow the issue of the “joint erful and obvious, which might be urged againt rati

fying this agreement-its address to all peaceably proclamation,” purporting to have been signed, &c., &c. This nullification of cne of Fre- lowing the inference to be drawn that citizens of the

disposed citizens of the State of Missouri,' fairly almont's most important acts, Hunter justified United States (the loyal and true men of Missouri) in the following terms addressed to the War are not included in its benefits. Office:

“ In fact, the agreement would seem to me, if ratio “ It would be, in my judg. fied, a concession of all the principles for which the

ment, impolitic in the highest rebel leaders are contending, and a practical liberaRejecting it.

degree to have ratified General | tion, for use in other and more ir nediately importFremcnt's negotiations, for the following, among ant localities, of all their forces now kept employed many other, obvious reasons :

in this portion of the State." The second stipulation, if acceded to, would What with the President's suspension of render the enforcement of martial law in Missouri, Fremont's manumission proclamaticn—wit! or any part of it, impossible, and would give abso- Hunter's suspension of Fremont's campaign, lute liberty to the propagandists of treason through- and his repudiation of the “ treaty” with out the length and breadth of the State.

Price — with Halleck's order banishing all “The third stipulation, confining operations ex

runaway slaves from his lines – Fremont's clusively to armies in the field,' would practically annul the confiscation act passed during the last procedure in Missouri must be pronounced session of Congress, and would furnish perfect inn

a gigantic failure. Yet, the historian will munity to those disbanded soldiers of Price's com- have to write, that, in all important respects, mand, who have now returned to their homes, but the Administration had to conform to Frewith the intention and under a pledge of rejoining mont's ideas ere one year was past. Frethe rebel forces whenever called upon; and lastly, mont's errors would, thence, appear to have

“Because the fourth stipulation would blot out of been in anticipating the Administrationexistence the loyal men of the Missouri Home errors of construction rather than errors of Guard, who have not, it is alleged, been recognized by | fact.

CHAPTER IV

OPERATIONS IN KENTUCKY UP TO TIE BATTLE OF MILL SPRING.

FORCES IN THE FIELD. THE EAST TENNESSEE MOVEMENT. BRIDGES BURSED. PERSECUTION OF UNIONISTS. THE KENTUCKY “PROVISIONAL" CONVENTION. ITS ABSURD PROCEED. INGS. KENTUCKY'S QUOTA OF TROOPS. THE DEPARTMENT OF CAIRO. BATTLE OF MUNFORDSVILLE. ROUT OF HUMPH MARSHALL'S BRIGADE. ZOLLICOFFER'S BECOND ADVANCE. BATTLE ов MILL SPRINGS.

The Location of

Forces.

The Location of

Forces.

THE disposition of forces position, which extends in Kentucky made by Gen- from Bowling Green on his

eral W. T. Sherman, during left through the centre in his brief command in the Department of the Barren county to his right recently at BurksCumberland, were such as the exigency seem- ville. The Union armies are advancing slowly ed to require. The rebels had the vantage but surely. General Crittenden has had his ground. Not until after November 15th, dia headquarters at Morgantown, in Butler county, Buckner retire to the south side of Green with such gallant spirits as Colonels Jackson, river and draw in his lines toward Bowling McHenry and Burbridge. General McCook Green. The battle of Wild Cat (Oct. 20th) will soon be at Munfordsville, on the Green gave General Schæpff such a position as soon river, at which point he can cross whenever compelled the evacuation of Barboursville, it is desirable, and General Schepff is clearing Zollicoffer retiring in much discomfiture to- away the rebels who have recently ravaged wards Cumberland Gap, at which point he the valley of the Cumberland." This well inknew the Federals were aiming. The Louis- dicates the line of advance. The entire arville Journal of Nov. 6th, said: “The dispo- rangement was made with reference to forcsition of the three divisions of our Union ing every rebel battalion from Kentucky soil, troops may be briefly stated : General Crit- leaving to Grant the work of dealing with tenden commands the Western division, Gen General Polk and the Columbus defenses. eral McCook the centre, and General Thomas This extension of the lines, however, required the Eastern, while General Sherman super- a force equivalent to the strength of three vises the whole. In the West Colonel Bur- armies, since the Confederates, by a rapid bridge has advanced as far as Woodbury, at concentration, might fall upon any one of the confluence of the Big Barren with Green the divisions to its destruction, should it river, about fifteen miles on the left flank of prove weak. Sherman bent all his energies Buckner's position at Bowling Green. In the to the single point of securing his positions centre our troops have gone beyond Nolin, -a labor that cost him his command, excitand taken position at Bacon Creek, which is ing, as it did, so many personal and public not more than six or seven miles from Mun- antagonisms, as to render the presence of fordsville, on the Green river. The Western another director necessary. The story of division has received orders to march from Sherman's Kentucky campaign illustrates Mount Vernon, the intended route being one of the features of the Union campaigns through Pulaski towards Cumberland, from which accounts for many a sin of omission whence Staunton has just fallen back. Thus and commission—the bickerings and rivalour troops are converging upon the enemy's ries among officers amounting to absolute

in East Tennessea.

The Advance on
East Tennessee.

ruin of many a weil ordered step. That | long had been secretly or

The Union Uprising Sherman fully comprehended the work in ganized and when informhand, it took but a few months to demon- ed of the approach of the strate; and the abandonment of his well con- Federal army, they prepared to strike for ceived advance into East Tennessee will stand their deliverance. Late in October Captains as one of the most melancholy and inexcusa- Fry and Carter, refugees from Tennessee, but. ble shortcomings of the entire struggle. then in the Union advance column, passed in

That the rebels were disguise over the mountains and conferred keenly alive to the danger with leading citizens at a secret gathering

of an advance into East held near Knoxville. Over one hundred perTennessee, appeared as well in the tone of sons were present, most of them being well their press as in their great efforts to stay the known and influential men. The messenprogress of Schapff and Nelson. The Rich-gers represented that Zollicoffer would be asmond journals were loud in their demands sailed and driven from Cumberland Gapfor assistance against the enemy in that quar- that, in order to prevent his rapid reenforceter, and early in November had the pleasure ment, it would be necessary to burn bridges of announcing that General Sidney A. John on the railways leading south and east of ston would direct, in person, the campaign Knoxville—that their destruction being comagainst Thomas. Nelson's sudden dash at plete, the Federal forces would soon so occuPrestonburg (Nov. 5–7) and the rapid retreat py the State, or that portion of it representup the Big Sandy river of the rebel General, ed at the Greenville Convention (see pages John S. Williams—the repulse of the latter 296-98) as to free it from Confederate rule. near Piketon and his retreat to Pound Gap Acting upon these representations the Union. -gave the Confederates every reason for ists decided upon arrangements for the work alarm, since all that portion of Western Vir- in hand. Parties were organized, numbering ginia south of the Great Kenawha river was from fifteen to twenty-five resolute men each. then open for the Union advance in that di- Properly provided with combustibles, they rection. A Richmond paper of November proceeded, with great caution, to the several 14th, said:

bridges chosen for destruction. On the night “No government can afford to let such a popula- of November 10th, between the hours of ten tion as this be overrun, or to lose a district from and eleven, the air was lit by the glare of the which so many of its best soldiers are supplied. In conflagration of four heavy railway structrinsically important as Southwestern Virginia is to

tures. The work was admirably managedthe Government, from the qualities of its people, it the firing being simultaneous, and the deis even more important from its geographical posi. tion. If that country be given up, and East Ten struction perfect. The bridges rendered use. nessee be in consequence lost, the empire of the less were: that over lliwasse river at CharlesSouth is cut in twain, and we become a fragmentary ton, on the East Tennessee and Georgia railorganization, fighting in scattered and segregated road; that over Lick creek and the work localities for a cause which can no longer boast the spanning the Holston river at Unioc-both important attribute of geographical unity." on the East Tennessee and Virginia road;

So Sherman appeared to think. He evi- two trustles crossing the Chickamingo creek dently proposed to make a strong demonstra- eight miles from Chattanooga, on the Westtion in that direction. Nelson's advaneeern and Atlantic road. The telegraph lines completely banished the invaders from East- also were destroyed between Knoxville and ern Kentucky, leaving his column at liberty Chattanooga, and Knoxville and Bristol. to move against Pound Gap, or to co-operate Captain Fry superintended the burning of in the movement for the relief and release of Lick creek bridge. That work was guarded East Tennessee.

by six soldiers, who were overpowered but The people of the section of the Confede-were released after taking the oath of alle racy lying around Knoxville were aroused to giance to the Únited States, swearing by the a state of mingled hope and enthusiasm at Bible—a copy of which was carried along for the promise of early relief. The Unionists that very service. Of course the rebels broke

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