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Condition of the Forts.

Condition of the Forts.

The Number of Shots


unteers, Colonel Jones; the verses, between the guns, The Rebel Troops

Ninth South Carolina vol- did as much as anything to Engaged.

unteers, Colonel Haywood; drive the rebels from their works, in a hura battalion of German artillery, under Colonel ried manner. The works were ploughed up Wagener; about thirteen hundred men in all by the shot and shell so badly as to make -enough to serve all the guns in the most immediate repairs necessary. All the houses efficient manner. They had also a field bat- and many of the tents about the work were tery with five hundred troops stationed at a perforated and torn by flying shell, and hardpoint a short distance above Hilton Head, ly a light of glass could be found intact, in where they anticipated our transports would any building where a shell exploded. The undertake to land their forces for a flank trees in the vicinity of the object of our fire, movement, preparatory to carrring the forti- showed marks of heavy visitations. Everyfication by assault. The forts, or batteries, thing, indeed, bore the marks of ruin. No opposite were manned by four hundred South wonder, then, that the rebels beat a hasty Carolina volunteers.

retreat. I can, and do, cheerfully bear testi. The flight of the garrison mony to the gallant and couragcous manner

evidently was a panic. A in which the rebels maintained their position correspondent said: “The road which the under a hot fire, and fought at their guns retreating rebels took was strewn for miles where many would have fled.” The severest with muskets, knapsacks, blankets, cartridge fighting was done by Colonel Wagener's Gerboxes and other valuables that they had man artillery. Without them the fort could thrown away in their flighs. They retreated not have sustained the conflict one hour across the island to Seabrook, a distance of The Wabash fired, during half a dozen miles, where they took boat for the action, nine hundred Savannah. Even the wharf at Seabrook was shots, being all eight, nine, strewn with valuables, carried thus far and ten and eleven-inch shells, with the excepabandoned at the last moment.” Another tion of a few rifled-cannon projectiles of a new person, present with the first landing party, pattern, used simply as a matter of experithus daguerreotyped the scene presented ment. The Susquehanna fired five hundred within the work: “The effects of our fire shots, the Bienville one hundred and eightywere to be seen on every hand. On the line tive. The average of the gunboats and the along the front, three guns were dismounted other smaller ships was set down at one hunby the enfilading fire. One carriage struck dred and fifty each. There were, in all, sixby a large shell, was shivered to pieces, dis-teen vessels engaged. From all of them were mounting the lieavy gun mounted upon it, fired not far from thirty-five hundred shot and sending the splinters flying in all direc- , and shell at the two forts (Walker and Beautions with terrific force. Between the gun regard), the four-gun battery, and at Tatnall's and the foot of the parapet was a large pool tieet,” which bcat such a lasty retreat on of blood, mingled with brains, fragments of Monday. skull and pieces of flesh, evidently from the Fort Beauregard, on Bay Point, and the face, as portions of whiskers still clung to it. outlying battery were abandoned during the This shot must have done horrible execution, night of Thursday. Friday morning the as other portions of human beings were found Stars and Stripes tloated from the flag staff's ail about it. Another carriage to the right of both fortifications. was broken to pieces, and the guns on the The Federal loss was water fronts were rendered useless by the en- eight killed in action, six tilacing tire from the gunboats on the left severely wounded and seventeen slightly, flank. Their scorching fire of shell which The enemy's loss could not be determined. swept with resistless fury and deadly effect General Sherman said, in his report: “ After across this long water front, where the enemy the works were reduced I took possession of liard placed their heaviest metal, en burbette, them with the land forces. The beautifully without taking the precaution to place tra- i constructed work on Hilton's Head was

The Losses.

Cameron's Order to





Sherman's Proclama.

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severely crippled, and many of the guns dis- | service. You will assure all mounted.

Much slaughter had evidently loyal masters that Congress will been made there, many bodies having been provide just compensation to buried in the fort, and some twenty or thirty them for the loss of the services of the persons so were found some half a mile distant. The employed. It is believed that the course thus indi.

cated will best secure the substantial rights of loyal islaud for many miles was found strewed with army accoutrements and baggage of the reb- masters, and the benefits to the United States of the

services of all disposed to support the Government, els, which they threw away in their hasty re

while it avoids all interference with the social sys. treat. We have also come into possession of tems of local institutions of every State, beyond about forty pieces of ordnance, most of which that which insurrection makes unavoidable, and is of the heaviest calibre and of the most which a restoration of peaceful relations to the approved models, and a large quantity of Union, under the Constitution, will immediately reammunition and camp équipage."

Sherman's forces all were

“SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War. Landing of the Land landerd safely on Friday,

Brigadier-General T. W. SHERMAN, commanding

expedition to the Southern coast." and immediately took pos

Sherman's first step was session of the fortifications as well as of the

to issue to the citizens of immediately adjacent lands. Reconnoissances

tion to the People.

South Carolina a Proclaand scouting expeditions resulted in finding

mation setting forth the objects of his comno enemy near-only negroes everywhere,

ing, and his progress in regard to those in and fields white with the rich bolls of sea

arms against the country. We append the island cotton, for which that region was the chosen garden. The negroes were not at all document, claiming attention to its humane

sentiments and merciful tone: alarmed at the state of war prevailing—they

“ To TUE PEOPLE OF SOUTI CAROLINA : rather seemed to enjoy it. Even to their be

In obedience to the orders of the President of nighted souls, the lightening and thunder of these United States of America, I have landed on Federal artillery were prophecies of hope. your shores with a small force of national troops. But, the day of their deliverance had not yet The dictates of a duty which under the Constitucome. The orders by which Sherman was to tion, I owe to a great sovereign State, and to a proud be governed, in dealing with the slaves, were and hospitable people, among whom I have passed as follows:

some of the pleasantest days of my life, prompt me “WAR DEPARTMENT, Oct. 14th, 1861. to proclaim that we have come among you with no Sir: In conducting military operations within feelings of personal animosity; no desire to harm

States declared by the procla- your citizens, destroy your property, or interfere

mation of the President to be with any of your lawful laws, rights, or your social Sherman.

in a state of insurrection, you and local institutions, beyond what the causes herewill govern yourself, so far as persons held to ser- in briefly alluded to may render unavoidable. vice under the laws of such States are concerned, “ Citizens of South Carolina : The civilized world by the principles of the letters addressed by me to stands appalled at the course you are pursuing-ap. Major-General Butler on the 30th of May and the palled at the crime you are committing against your 5th of August, copies of which are herewith furnish

own mother, the best, the most enlightened and ed to you. As special directions, adapted to special heretofore the most prosperous of nations. You are circumstances, cannot be given, much must be re- in a state of active rebellion against the laws of ferred to your own discretion, as Commanding Gen- your country. You have lawlessly seized upon the eral of the expedition. You will, however, avail forts, arsenals and other property belonging to our yourself of any persons, whether fugives from labor

common country, and within your borders, with or not, who may offer themselves to the National this property, you are in arms and waging a rutu. Government; you will employ such persons in such less war against your Constitutional Government, services as they may be fitted for, either as ordinary and thus threatening the existence of a Government employees, or, special circumstances seem to re- which you are bound by the terms of the solemn quire it, in any other capacity, with such organiza- compact to live under and faithfully support. In tion, in squads, companies or otherwise, as you may doing this, you are not only undermining and predeem most beneficial to the service. This, however, paring the way for totally iguoring your own politi. not to mean a general arming of them for military I cal and social position, but you are threatening the

Cameron's Orders to



Reconnoissance to


Extension of Fortif


civilized world with the odious | The town of Beaufort was Sherman's Proclama

sentiment that self-government found deserted-only one Lion to the People.

is impossible with civilized man. white man was there and “Fellow Citizens : I implore you to pause and re- he was too drunk to escape. The fine resifiect upon the tenor and consequences of your acts, dences were thrown open to the winds, and of the awful sacrifices made by the devastation of our property ; the shedding of fraternal blood in negroes were holding wild riot in parlers battle, the mourning and wailing of widows and or

and chambers. Everywhere were evidences phans throughout our land are insufficient to deter of a hasty exit-scarcely anything having you from further pursuing this unholy war, then been removed by the terror-stricken people. ponder, I beseech you, upon the ultimate, but not It was a foolish flight; had the inhabitants less certain result which its farther prosecution must remained, none would have suffered in pronecessarily and naturally entail upon your once perty or person. Yet, had any remained it happy and prosperous State. Indeed, can you pur- would have been regarded an evidence of sue this fratricidal war, and continue to imbue your disloyalty to the South, so rigidly was tire hands in the loyal blood of your countrymen, your line drawn by those who made laws and creneighbors, your friends, your kinsmen, for no ated public sentiment in the South. No ocother object than to unlawfully disrupt the Confederacy of a great people—a Confederacy established cupation of the place was made, however, at by your own hands—in order to get, were it possi- anchored off the main street.

that time, though two gunboats remained

November ble, an independent Government, under which you can never live in peace, prosperity or quietness.

12th it was visited by the two CommandersCarolinians : We have come among you as loyal | in-Chief and again left to the negroes. men, fully impressed with our constitutional obliga- Meanwhile the work of tions to the citizens of your State ; those obligarions unloading the fleet of shall be performed as far as in our power, but be transports was progressing, not deceived. The obligation of suppressing armed and the construction of wharves, depots, barcombinations against the constitutional authorities racks, &c., entered upon. The defenses were is paramount to all others. If, in the performance at once put in a good state of efficiency, while of this duty, other minor but important obligations great exertions were put forth to add to should be in any way neglected, it must be attribut

their extent and strength. A careful topoed to the necessities of the case; because rights dependent on the laws of the State must be neces

graphical survey of Hilton Head island was sarily subordinate to military exigencies created by made, and, at all points indicated by the eninsurrection and rebellion. T. W. SHERMAN, gineers, defensive works were thrown up. “ Brigadier-General Commanding.

In one month's time the position was deemed “ HEADQUARTERS, Port Royal, S. C., Nov. 8, 1861.” | perfectly secure against any attack which the

This was but a mere form, however, since enemy might make. no means existed whereby it could be placed No attack, however, was

Alarm of tlic People. before the Carolina people. No Southern meditated. The alarm and paper, if possessed of a copy, would dare or terrorism which followed upon the Federal care to reprint it. Any negro found with a descent and occupation, for a brief period copy of it in his possession was sure to receive left the entire area of country from Charlesbloody stripes as his reward. Any man wil. | ton and Savannah quite at the mercy of any ling to accept the proffered mercy would have invading force. The latter city was a scene been deemed a traitor and punished according of extreme excitement for the week following ly by the rebel authorities, for they knew the the fall of Fort Walker; women and children meaning of treason and did not hesitate to fled into the interior, while all males capable apply the full rigor of the law to delinquents. of bearing arms, were called to the fieldFor all of which reasons the proclamation expecting every hour to hear the sound of fell as impotently as if it were written in an Federal guns booming up from below against unknown tongue.

Pulaski. Every step was taken, during the Saturday, Nov ber 9th, a reconnoissance weeks succeeding the advent of the Yankees,' was made up Broad and Beaufort rivers, by to save Savannah from what was deemed the gunboats Seneca, Pembina and Curler. her impending calamity-its occupation by

for Defense.

Sherman's forces. A dis- | persons so drafted and warned wno shall neglect or Alarm of the People.

patch from Charleston to refuse to assemble and march with their respectivo Richmond, Nov. 17th, said: “The unexpect-commands will be reported to these headquarters, ed failure of our shore batteries at Bay Point to be dealt with according to law.”

The want of light boats, and Hilton Head to demolish at least one of

Sherman's Activity. the attacking vessels, has sadly shaken the capable of navigating shal

low waters forming an intricate but admirapopular confidence in the efficiency of our

ble inland communication between Charleston guns against the monster frigates and ironclad gunboats which they may have to en

and Savannalı, prevented the Federal forces counter, and now, so alarmed are many of from operating against the enemy at the the sordid souls that intest all the Southern points indicated. Sherman afterwards wrote,*

in defense of his apparent inactivity at that cities, that the effect may already be seen

time: “Immediately after effecting a landing the lengthening of freight trains which leave almost hourly for the interior. In Savannah at Port Royal—a place that had not been the panic is even more general and deciiled, agreed upon to land until after the departure

of the expedition -I studied the general whole neighborhoods having been suddenly left deserted by the exodus of the wives and state of affairs as far as I was able, and conchildren of those who are in arms at Fort

cluded that in consideration of the unlooked

for extent of the success of the combined exPulaski and the batteries on the Savannah

pedition thus far, (which involved the capture river.” This was no fancy picture.

of the whole coast from Edisto to Ossabaw Charleston likewise was Rebel Preparations

Sound,) with a reenforcement of ten thousand the scene of alarm ; but with commendable energy

men, five light draught steamers, a certain

number of row boats, and a certain additional -if energy in a bad cause can be commend

amount of land transportation, a system of able—the State authorities prepared to con

internal operations that would not conflict test any advance beyond the limits of the islands aljacent to Hilton Head. In the week would be a great support to it, might be

with the general plan of the campaign, but of Nov. 10th-17th, numerous bodies of militia and volunteers occupied various points

wisely conducted from Port Royal as soon along the Savannah and Charleston railway; lead to the capture of Savannah and Fort

as our positions were secured, and that would Port Royal ferry was strongly fortified; at

Pulaski, and, as an immediate consequence, Pocataligo, ten miles North of Port Royal the whole coast south, and afterwards Charlesislands, fortifications were thrown up and

ton. This plan, as a generality, was proposed guns mounted ; a large force under command

to the War Department, and the reenforceof General Drayton gathered at Bluffton;

ments and means as above, asked for. while the Ninth and Twelfth South Carolina

“The plan for reducing Pulaski was fully volunteers, and the Edisto and Beaufort artillery took up a strong position on Port for the siege asked for was ordered. The

and speedily approved, and the armament Royal island. Orders promulgated by Gene- armament. I believed, had mostly to be manral DeSaussure for the defense of Charleston ufactured, and did not reach me in sufficient were very stringent, indlicating a purpose to defend that city to the last extremity. One the last of March. The general plan was

quantity to authorize an effectual assault till section of the order may be quoted as indicative of the manner in which military conscrip- much as the siege armament, the steamboats

supposed to have been also approved, inastion was enforced :

and rowboats were ordered to be sent to me. The commanding officers of the Eighteenth and But the steamers that were sent from New Nineteenth regiments will promptly issue orders for York in the latter part of December never the draft pointed out in section CXLVI., A. A., lot, A. A., 1841, and will order the persons so * ('ommunication to Nutiounl Intelligencer, July 26, drafted to be warned for duty, and the persons so 1562. See the same for a full exposition of his con. warned will prompily assemble at the respective duct of affairs in that departinent, up to March 30th, muster grounds, armed and equipped for duty. All 1862.





The Stone Fleet.

reached me-not one; the vessels ladened with stone Sherman's Activity.

Sherman's Activity. reason, I suppose, will some and designed to be sunk in day come to light. The hundred rowboats, the channel, was permitted to leave for other though I had been officially advised, in the waters. The British steamship Fingal—which middle of January, that they had been hur- had escaped the blockade and had borne a ried on, never reached me until the 24th of heavy load of artillery, arms and munitions March-five days before I was relieved from to the rebeis—was, at that time, in Savannah duty there, and even then but half the num- harbor. She never was able to escape with ber that had been asked for. The reason for her heavy return load of cotton, but was this extraordinary delay, it is hoped, will finally burned to prevent her seizure by the also some day come to light. In the course Federalists. We have already referred to of the winter I received also a reenforcement this craft, [see foot Note, page 143,] as an of four regiments of infantry, one of cavalry, evidence of the gross violation or the Queen's and one harnessed light battery. So, unless proclamation of neutrality (see Appendix, the arıny could have been possessed with the page 474]. It is gratifying to know that, attributes of a Moses, my plans, or indeed any like many similar breaches of international system of internal operations, could not have comity, it resulted in heavy loss to the abetbeen carried out or pursued during the time tors of insurrection. I commanded the expedition.”

The old vessels above adWith the insufficient means at his disposal verted to were purchased for extended operations much was done. An in the North, from among the disabled and expedition consisting of three gunboats pro- idle whalers, were loaded heavily with stone, ceeded (Nov. 24th) to Tybee island, off Savan- and dispatched to the South, with orders to nah river-meeting with no opposition from rendezvous at Hilton Head and Savannah. the rebel fortifications at that point. A re- The design was to sink them in harbor chanconnoissance by General Sherman in person, nels and thus to render a blockade effective. was made Nov. 26th, to within half a league Savannah being secure by the occupation of of Fort Pulaski, which saluted the party with Tybee island, the vessels which had there several shells. Other reconnoissances follow- rendezvoused were diverted to Charleston, ed, resulting in giving the Federal command- where they were successfully submerged, Deers a perfect knowledge of the enemy's dis- cember 19th and 20th, in the main ship chanposition and strength. Beaufort was finally nel, between Morris' and Sullivan's islands. occupied on the night of Dec. 6th, when They were so disposed as to prevent the exit Stevens' brigade pitched their camps in and or entrance of any craft, though not to bank around the village. It was indeed a melan- up the waters and thus create sand bars. choly sight to witness those homes of ease The Federal Government's wish was tempoand aristocratic association given over to rarily to obstruct the passage, in order to asdesolation or to the wild revels of negroes, sist in the blockade at a season when it would who, for the first time in their existence, be difficult and dangerous for the squadron knew no restraint. The village became hos- to maintain its place off the station.* The pital headquarters and afforded comfortable passage called Maffit's channel was obstructed, provision for the soldiers debilitated by the a few days later. We may add, neither pasclimate. Tybee island was formally occu

* The English Government protested against the pied, a few days later, by the Forty-sixth

sealing up of harbors by artificial process. As if, New York regiment. December 20th, seven

in the first place, it was any of the English Governcompanies of the Seventh Connecticut, under

ment's business; and, in the next place, as if the Colonel Terry, landed, with materials for a

English Government had not practised the saine permanent possession. Fort Pulaski opened belligerent right in French harbors. Mr. Seward on the transports bearing the troops, but replied to the protest in effect that the United Siates without effect-the distance being too great Government held itself bound to resturn the ob

Thereafter Savannah harbor structed harbors to efliciency after peace was rewas so effectively sealed that the fleet of old | stored.

for its guns.

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