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The Situation.

Goneral Johnston's Rebel Proclamation.

sore calamity to the South, | at the several Union camps forming at Louis

and, in the end, to the ville, Frankfort, Camp Dick Robinson, SherNorth, also; for it would only result in pro- man's brigade quarters, New Haven and longing the war for the pretended but unat- Henderson. tainable object of reconstructing a shattered

The rebels were very acUnion. Is it asked why the possession of this tive pending the progress line from Cumberland Gap to Chattanoga is of the Federal occupation. of so much importance? We answer, be- General Albert S. Johnston, the Confederate cause it divides the connection of the parts commander of the Western Department, isof the South from each other, separates the sued his proclamation, Sept. 22d, from MemCarolinas from Tennessee, Virginia from Ten- pliis, addressed to the people of Kentucky, nessee and the Southwestern States, and ren- setting forth the motives which impelled the ders the Confederate States into bundles of Confederate armies to occupy the State. He fragments, not one of which could support stated that, as the Federal Government had or sustain the other, and of which each, in its shown its intention to invade the Confederaturn, may be overwhelmed by a vastly supe-cy over Kentucky soil, in self-defense he was sior force to any it can, by its own resources, compelled to “enter the State and meet the command. With that line in possession, the invasion upon the best line for military opeFederal hope is that East Tennessce will re- rations.” He further declared that they (the volt against the State Government and the Confederate authorities) “have thus marched Confederate States; and in that event the their troops into Kentucky with no hostile game of John Carlisle & Co. played in West- intention towards its people; nor do they deern Virginia, of setting up a bogus State sire to seek to control their choice in regard to Government, would be played out on a second their union with either of the Confederacies, theatre, inevitably causing civil war in Ten- or to subjugate their State or hold its soil nessee, and giving to Scott's basis line and against their wishes. On the contrary, they depot of munitions of war all the support de- deem it to be the right of the people of Kenrivable from a people as thoroughly subju- tucky to determine their own position in regated as he could desire. If he can occupy gard to the belligerents.” It was then that line he can strike each Slave State cast stated that the Confederate occupation should of the Mississippi on both flanks at the same

be limited by the exigencies of self-defensetime. With East Tennessee in hand, he can

that if the State desired to remain neutral command a column upon Nashville or Mem- the Confederate army should aid it to drive plis by the navigation of the Cumberland or out the lawless intruders, &c., &c. Mississippi, and at the same time by rail to

In view of the fact that the last election Clarksville, and to Nashville itself from sev- held (July 1st), gave a clear Union majority eral directions."

of over fifty-five thousandin view of the unThe Kentucky State Guard constrained proceedings of the Legislature and Militia were called out and the endorsement of its action by the

by act of the Legislature. ( people—this whole document would read Brigadier-General Tho's L. Crittenden* issued strangely, were duplicity and disingenuoushis proclamation, Sept. 22d, convening them ness not stamped upon almost every docu

ment issued to influence the sentiments and * The Crittenden family afforded an illustration of action of the Southern people. General Johnthe painful results of the war. John J. Crittenden, ston had a well-won reputation for courage the venerable Congressman, was loyal and true; and probity; yet, both were powerless before his son, Thomas L., assumed command of the State militia called out under act of the Legislature ; while

the demoralization upon which the revolutica

was founded. He is the severest censor who a second son, becaine a Brigadier in the rebel ser. vice, leading the forces operating against his native is most conversant with sin : in the general State. He eventually was created a Major-General. tone of public papers issued by the rebellion's Several times during the progress of the war, the directors, we have the unwitting confession two brothers led opposing columns.

of their own madness.


Militia and State Guards Called Out.


The Situation.

Confederate Devasta.


We should give, in justi- | by its people, whenever they undertake to euforce Buckner's Last

fication of the defection of it against the two belligerents alike.

S. B. BUCKNER, Brigadier-General C. S. A. Humphrey Marshall, ex-Governor Morehead,

“ BOWLING GREEN, Sept. 18th, 1861.". James B. Clay and other Southern sympa

This, it will be observed,

makes the same general thisers, the proclamation of the first named person to his late constituents. It was de- plea for the Confederate occupation which signed both as a justification and a plea for Governor Harris and General Johnston urged. the Southern cause :

They forgot to recur to the fact of Pillow's TO THE PEOPLE OF KENTUCKY :

large army at New Madrid, with Jeff Thomp“ The Legislature of Kentucky have been faithless son's five thousand men above it-both mento the will of the people. They have endeavored to acing Cairo and St. Louis. Johnston claimmake your gallant State a fortress, in which, under ed that self-protection compelled his advance the guise of neutrality, the armed forces of the into Kentucky: what compelled Grant's ocUnited States might secretly prepare to subjugate cupation of Paducah, and Sherman's advance alike the people of Kentucky and the Southern States. down the Louisville and Nashville railroad ? It was not until after three months of covert and

The Confederates did not care to answer. open violation of your neutrality, with large encamp. But, Zollicoffer was, at the very date of these ments of Federal troops on your territory, and a recent official declaration of the President of the

sounding addresses, pressing his way into United States not to regard your neutral position Kentucky, seizing her Union citizens, eating

of their substance and carcoupled with a well prepared scheme to seize an additional point in your territory, which was of such rying terror all along the vital importance to the safety and defense of Tennes. southeastern border; while see that the troops of the Southern Confederacy, on Kentucky had, for vecks, been given up to a the invitation of the people of Kentucky, occupied species of persecution which rendered a Union a defensive post in your State. In doing so the man's life and property worth but little. commander announced his purpose to evacuate your Great and pressing was the call for help from territory simultaneously with a similar movement that quarter many days before relief came on the part of the Federal forces, whenever the Polk and Pillow held sway too long in that Legislature of Kentucky shall undertake to enforce against both belligerents the strict neutrality which region for its good. Kentucky's own citizens they have so often declared. I return among you,

are the best witnesses on this point. They citizens of Kentucky, at the head of a force, the ad

were made to feel how shamelessly false were vance of which is composed entirely of Kentuckians. the Confederate professions of protection and We do not come to molest any citizen, whatever immunity from persecution. The Federal may be his political opinion. Unlike the agents of army truly came as a deliverer which even the Northern despotism, who seek to reduce us to those of quondam secession proclivities were the condition of dependent vassals, we believe that glad to welcome. Time will but vindicate the recognition of the civil rights of citizens is the the wisdom, even in a selfish view, of the foundation of constitutional liberty ; and that the

course pursued by that Legislature which a claim of the President of the United States to de.

recreant son had the cifrontery to characterize clare martial law, to suspend the privilege of tire

as " faithless to the will of the people."'* writ of habeas corpus, and to con

every barrack and prison in the land into a Bastile, is nothing but * To vindicate ihe truth we may cite a single case the claim which other tyrants have assumed to sub- of hundreds which occurred at the period under nojugate a free people. The Confederate States occu- tice. Judge R. K. Williams fled from Mayfield to py Bowling Green as a defensive position. I renew escape the outrages visited upon Union men. One the pledges of commanders of other columns of of the rebel commanders thus advertised the fugi. Confederate troops to retire from the territory of

tive: Kentucky on the same conditions which will govern

“ MAYFIMLD, Oct. 7th, 1861. their movements. I further give you my own as

Whereas, R. K. Williams has fled from his county anil

has gone over to the enemy, and has endeavored, as far as surance that the force under my own command

in bim lay, to introduce among the gooi people of Jackson's will be used as an aid to the government of Ken- Purchase a ban'l of cut throats, robours and murderers; and tucky in carrying out the strict neutrality desired | whercas, the said R. K. Williams keeps himself within l'a.

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Confederate Devas


Circle Treason.


General Anderson's


Under Anderson's brief | federate purpose to arouse all the animosity rule but little transpired, of the popular heart against their cause—not

of military movement. Ev- that they came as deliverers, and conservators ery effort, for the time being, was concentrat- of liberty and order. ed in organization and preparation. The A letter writer from Pa

Knights of the Golden hour was one of great peril, for Confederate ducah, Sept. 22d, announctroops were gathering rapidly at the most ing the seizure of a Casefficient points. Secession emissaries were tle” of the Knights of the Golden Circle, said: everywhere, poisoning the loyal mind, dis- “When the Union troops entered Paducah tracting public and private councils, and, un- one of the first fruits of their advent was to der the pernicious plea of State Rights, in- secure the “Castle" and its contents; and stilling ideas of National relations which sent from the books and papers there found it is thousands of Kentuckians to take up arms hoped that Government will be enabled to against she Union. It will be hard, after the ferret out most of the arch traitors in this bitter experiences of most of those men, to State. These documents have been sent to make them charitable toward the “Southern Washington. Among them are letters careidea" or the Southern leaders.

fully filed from Governor Beriah Magoffin, General Anderson remain- Senator John C. Brenkenridge, General Gided but a brief time in com- eon J. Pillow, General Buckner, Mr. Repre

mand of the Department, sentative Burnett and others; all of whom owing to feeble health. He was relieved, are thus proved to have been members of this October 7th, by special request, and Briga- treasonable league, and many of them file dier-General W. T. Sherman assumed com- leaders in the movement. A copy of the promand of the “Department of the Cumber- ceedings of the last three meetings of the land,” understood to embrace all of Kentucky “National Castle” was also found, which lets east of the Cumberland river, Announcing in several rays of light upon the strange conhis withdrawal, Anderson said : “ Regretting duct of Governors Harris, Jackson and Madeeply the necessity which renders this step goffin, and the breaking up of the Charleston proper, I do it with less reluctance because Convention; a letter-or, rather, a private my successor, Brigadier-General Sherman, is circular—from two members of Mr. Buchathe man I had selected for that purpose. God nan's Cabinet, while yet in office, stating the grant that he may be the means of delivering number and quality of arms which would be this Department from the marauding bands in the Southern States at the expiration of who, under the guise of relieving and be their terms of office, and other information friending Kentucky, are doing all the injury which will be of use when the rebellion is they can to those who will not join them in crushed. This discovery has been kept a their accursed warfare.” This latter expres- profound secret until now, in order that the sion indicated with precision the character persons implicated, or such of them, at least, ter of the “ relief” and “protection” vouch- as could be caged, might be taken care of by safed to the people of Kentucky by the Con- | the Government, and we have the satisfaction federate commanders. A disinterested ob- of knowing that three of them have found a server would have supposed it was the Con- residence in Fort McHenry.”

The greatest sinner of them all, John C. ducalı, I hereby warn all well disposed persons from having anything to do with him, and I hereby ask ali good and loyal Breckenridge, escaped from Frankfort, Sept. men to arrest the said Williams and to deliver him to me, 2011-passing secretly and in disguise into and I proinise to hang the traitor on the first trec.

the Confederate dominions. A few days later “H C. KING, “Commanding Ky. Volunteers, C. 8. A.

he was at Bowling Green and Columbus, adAs Judge Williams was one of the most estimable vising with the rebel commanders in regard citizens of the State, the promise to “hang the trait- to a campaign against his own State. The or on the first tree,” fully indicates the nature of (lisregard of consequences practiced in the Confederate justice. It affords correct data for Charleston Convention, to prevent the nomicomment on General Johnston's proclamation. nation of Mr. Douglas, culminated in his

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Last Address.

flight by night from the the rupture might be healed, it The Case of

Breckenridge's commonwealth which had might be assumed that the John C. Breckenridge.

bestowed all the honers he Union was not yet dissolved, ever knew. Once beyond the reach of Fed- and such was the position of Kentucky in declaring

her neutrality and offering her mediation between eral or State process he prepared and pub

the contending parties. But time has now elapsed, lished (October 25th) an Address to his late fellow-citizens and constituents, announcing from the minds of reasonable men all expectation

and mighty events have occurred, which banish his resignation of the office of U. S. Senator, of restoring the Union. Coercion has been tried and setting forth his views of the crisis at and has failed. The South has mustered in the field length. It was an able document-a special nearly as many combatants as the North, and has plea, as specious as his disloyal sympathies been far more victorious. The fields of Manassas would permit. Its composition was designed and Bethel, of Springfield and Lexington, have worknot more to justify his own course than to ed with a terrible and sanguinary line the division. cover his night-flight with glory.

between the old order of things and the new." We have, in the course of this work, given He then proceeded to demonstrate even tho much space to the views of leading minds, in unconstitutionality of upholding the Constituorder that the dispassionate inquirer might tion—a view of the case which his professed have the whole argument before him. To friends of the North did not care to adopt, the opinions of Mr. Breckenridge ample jus since it might create doubts as to their ever tice has deen done (see page 42, et sequitur], having entertained any faith in the Federal and we do not feel it incumbent on us to re- compact. If it was to be broken simply by produce at length his last outburst of mingled 'the power of non-representation, the Union entreaty, argument, invective and threat. It was but a shadow at best, and the democratic was his valediction to friends and malediction rally cry, “The Union! It shall be preserved!" to foes ; but, it was, also, the funeral oration was proven, therefore, a designed imposture. of one who had passed away—the victim of Mr. Breckenridge's argument was : a thwarted ambition, In announcing the

“ The constitutional compact which created and dissolution of the Union he seemed uncon

upheld the old Union is at an end. A large number

of the original and additional parties have withårawn sciously to throw his own memory into the

from it. So large a number that its stipulations can past tense. We quote enough of the Address

no longer be executed, and under such circumstanc. to indicate its spirit and

es no court has ever decided a contract to be bind. Breckeuridge's

something of its argument. ing between the remaining parties, or attempted to

His position as a partizan enforce its execution. The Constitution requires leader gave to his words the weight of au- positively that each State shall have at least one thority to a large class in the Northern States representative in Congress, but now twelve States up to the hour of his final defection, and his have none; that each State shall have two Senators, last appeal, we have reason to know, received but now twelve States have none; that all daties, from many of that class a willing though si- imposts and excises shall be uniformn throughout the lent endorsement. That endorsement he well United States, but now in more than one third of

them none are or can be collected. Commerce can. knew awaited his words; and the subtle

not be regulated between the respective States. Chief of State-Rights' Democracy in his vale- Uniform rules of naturalization and bankruptcy dictory, but breathed into being the heresies cannot be adopted. Post offices and post roads, in of party which sprang into a vigorous life in nearly half the States have been given up, and a a year's time. Mr. Breckenridge wrote: preference is given to the ports of one State over

" I resign because there is no place left those of another. Even the election of a President where a Southern Senator may sit in council with bas become impossible. The Constitution is man. the Senators of the North. In truth, there is no datory on all the States to appoint electors, and re. longer a Senate of the Uniteil States within the quires a majority of the latter to elect; but more meaning and spirit of the Constitution.

than one-third of the States refuse to appoint, and “ The United States no longer exist. The Union hence no election can be made by the people. If is dissolved. For a time after the withdrawal of the the election goes to the House of Representatives, Southern States, and while there was a hope that the Constitution requires that at least two-thirds of

Last Address.





Last Address.

Last Address.

the States shall be represented duties, taken beyond the limits Breckenridge's in that body. The Constitution of their respective States and

Breckenridge's can no longer be amended, for imprisoned in the forts of the it requires three-fourths of the States to concur, and Federal Government. A subservient Congress ratimore than one-third of the States have withdrawn ties the usurpations of the President, and proceeds from the Confederacy. All the safeguards provided to complete the destruction of the Constitution. for by the States in the instrument, still further to History will declard that the annals of legislation secure public and personal liberty, have been de- do not contain laws so infamous as those enacted at stroyed. The three departments of the Federal the last session. They sweep away every vestige Government, which were carefully separated and of public and personal liberty, while they confiscate their boundaries defined, have been merged into the property of a nation containing ten millions of one, and the President, sustained by a great army, people. In the House of Representatives it was dewields unlimited power."

clared that the South should be reduced to “i abject If this position was true all others were un submission," or their institutions overthrown. In necessary: yet, the ex-Vice President, evidently the Senate it was said that, if necessary, the South distrusting the force of his own deductions, should be depopulated and repeopled from the goes on at length to show how the Constitu- North, and an eminent Senator expressed a desire tion had been violated-as if such a Constitu

that the President should be made a dictator. This

was superfluous, since they had already clothed him tion, after all, did exist and bave force, not

with dictatorial powers. In the midst of these prowithstanding he himself had just declared it ceedings, no plea for the Constitution is listened to abrogated and dead by the very act of seces- in the North ; here and there a few heroic voices sion. The acute logician was under the are feebly heard protesting against the progress of leading strings of his thoroughly disloyal despotism, but for the most part, beyond the militafeelings rather than guided by good judg- ry lines, mubs and anarchy rule the hour.”' ment. He said:

This ‘Daniel come for judgment forgot “ The exemption of persons from arrest without to state, in this immediate connection, that judicial warrant, the right of a citizen to have his he himself, had he not fled by night, would body brought before a judge to determine the legal. have been seized and thrust into prison, ity of his imprisonment, the security provided because, like most all others so arrested and agairst searches and seizure without warrant or incarcerated, he was guilty of treason—was a law, the sanctity of the home, the trial by jury, the dangerous enemy of the country, whom the freedom of speech and of the press—these and eve- Federal Executive, in the discharge of its ry other precious right which our fathers supposed

sworn duty to protect the Constitution, had they had locked up in their Constitution, have been

no power to allow of liberty. torn from it and buried beneath the heel of military

But, it is unnecessary to devote more space power. The States made the Constitution, placed

to the Senator's statements on these points. rigid boundaries around that Government, and ex. pressly reserved to themselves all powers not dele. Like the argument of every ultra State Rights gated. They did not delegate to the Federal Gov. man, it pronounced all attempts to “ enforce ernment the power to destroy them--yet the crea- the Laws” and to uphold the Constitution to ture has set itself above the creator. The atrocious be an infamous abuse of power, &c. No doctrine is announced by the President and acted counter argument ever did or ever will satisfy upon, that the States derive their power from the that class of thinkers, as will be discovered Federal Government, and may be suppressed on any should a Convention of States be called to pretence of military necessity. The gallant little revise the Federal fundamental law. The State of Maryland has been utterly abolished. Mis north and south poles are not wider apart souri is engaged in a heroic struggle to preserve her than men of the schools of Abraham Lincoln existence and to throw off the horrors of martial

and John C. Calhoun. law proclaimed by a subordinate military command.

Mr. Breckenridge, after this general discus. er. Everywhere the civil has given way to the military power. The fortresses of the country are filled sion of the question, then addressed himself with victims seized without warrant of law, and ig- to Kentuckians, charging that tyranny, dunorant of the cause of their imprisonment.

plicity and treachery had marked the entire The legislators of States and other public officers

of Federal proceedings in the are seized while in the discharge of their official | State. Ile charged that Federal money had

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